SUBJECT ENTRIES

A.      SOCIAL SCIENCES

A1.    State and Law. Jurisprudence

À2.    Sociology. Demography

A3.    Economy

À4.    Education

À5.    Informatics/Computer Science

À6.    Other Social Sciences

B.      NATURAL AND EXACT SCIENCES

B1.    Mathematics. Mechanics. Physics. Cybernetics

B2.    Chemistry. Biology

B3.    Geology. Geodesy

B4.    Geography. Cartography. Astronomy

B5.    Other Natural and Exact Sciences

C.      TECHNICAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES. SECTORS OF ECONOMY

C1.    Power Industry

C2.    Electrical Engineering. Electronics. Radio Engineering. Communications

C3.    Automation & Telemetry. Computer Engineering

C4.    Mining. Metallurgy. Chemical Industry

C5.    Mechanical Engineering. Instrument-making

C6.    Light Industry

C7.    Food Industry

C8.    Construction. Architecture

C9.    Agriculture and Forestry. Fishery

C10.  Water Industry. Melioration

C11.  Foreign and Domestic Trade. Tourism

C12.  Transport

C13.  Medicine. Healthcare

D.      INTERSECTORAL PROBLEMS

D1.    Organization and Management

D2.    Environmental Protection. Ecology

D3.    Statistics

D4.    Other Intersectoral Problems

A. SOCIAL SCIENCES

 

A1. State and Law. Jurisprudence

 

6.A1.1. Comparative analysis of political and legal aspects of national safety of Georgia. /O. Kochoradze, N. Kacharava/. Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 123-128. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

National safety has an absolute priority compared to other problems of politics. Scientifically substantiated safety system serves for preservation and strengthening of the basic values of the country: State sovereignty, safety, territorial integrity, culture uniqueness and applies to the special governance by higher state organs. One of the main reasons of the specificity of Georgian state safety problems is its geopolitical and geoeconomical location. One of the main directions and priority of Georgian national safety problem is integration of Georgia in European and Euro Atlantic political, economic and safety systems.

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6.A1.2. International sources of banking law. /N.Sesadze, T.Tamazashvili, S. Gurtsishvili/.Mermisi. – 2009. – III. – pp. 69-74. – geo.; res.: eng.

The present paper discusses the issue of bank legislative system and existing problems in this sphere. The main attention is paid to the international legal resources of bank regulation. The origin of international banking law is connected with the economic and bank internationalized process, which is one of the characteristic signs of the present.

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6.A1.3. The obligation to return the property transferred on the ground of unjust enrichment. /T. Chitoshvili/. Caucasus International University Herald. – 2009. - #1. – pp. 122-132. – geo., res.: geo., eng., rus.

Unjust enrichment is one of the statutory obligations. Other statutory obligations are torts (delictual obligations), management of the affair of another without mandate, obligation deriving from rights in common and obligations deriving from other grounds. Unjust enrichment is the civil relation, which arises when a person saves or increases his property without any contractual or legal ground. This may be done by transferring property to another person, by using another’s property, by performing an action of another (as own obligation), etc. The rule and the scope of the obligation to return the property received from unjust enrichment is regulated by special provisions that envisage the obligation to return the property and the profits and the fruits received from it, the obligations to compensate for the damage, the grounds, when the revendication claim shall be excluded, etc.

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6.A1.4. Point at issue in contractual relations upon air transportation of passengers (luggage)  and freight under Georgian legislation. /Sh. Gabichvadze/. Caucasus International University Herald. – 2009. - #1. – pp. 113-121. – geo., res.: geo., eng., rus.

The work deals with peculiarities of judicial contests regulated by Georgian legislation flowing from the contractual relations concerning air transportation; grounds for such claims as a precondition of lawsuit; persons authorized for claiming; intervals allowed for claims, and rules of their consideration; a commercial act as a document evidencing amenability of the parties; grounds for lodging a claim and general commentaries of its consideration. Analyzed is the necessity of amending the Civil Code and the Air Code of Georgia, also of the drafting of a bylaw determining the procedure for drawing up a commercial act.

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6.A1.5. Procedural preconditions for analyzing the structure, dynamics and status of larceny. /M. Jamalov/. Caucasus International University Herald. – 2009. - #1. – pp. 133-142. – rus., res.: geo., eng., rus.

The criminological character of larceny is given in this research paper implicating the following procedural preconditions: status, structure and dynamics of larceny. The comparative measure as crime rate (1987-2002) applied in the research helped to define and correlate the certain number of urban population or population of certain regions to the number of appropriation of moveable estate.  On this basis it was possible to see the modification of not only the status of larceny, i.e. the total number of larceny, but of its structure. It is obvious that the appropriation of moveable estate should be analyzed in a context of both the external factors and the peculiarity of the criminal identity, but also considering the character of a victim. Thus, the qualitative-quantitative characteristics of larceny are defined by the following factors: a) number of committed crime and number of convicted for larceny; b) number of registered crimes; c) structural characteristics of crime; d) crime ratio; e)  latency of larceny; f) extent of damage. It is obvious that the crime rate in different regions is different, depending on the different social conditions of the population.

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À2. Sociology. Demography

 

6.A2.1. Reasons of migration and urgent problems in Georgia. /T. Gamsakhurdia, N. Kakauridze, M. Kakauridze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #2. – pp. 56-60. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The work shows that the demographic situation and the state of manpower employment in Georgia influence perspectives of economic and social development of the country. Reasons of the international migration and its influence on the age and general structure of the population of donor and recipient countries are analyzed. It is concluded that international migration of manpower has a weak impact on redistribution of income in the world economy; manpower still remains to be an immobile factor of manufacture in comparison with capital, and the cumulative effect of international migration for exporting countries is much lower than in trade and in capital movement Reasons of the origin of unemployment in Georgia leading to the direct loss of income and a search for alternative sources of material support that compel most part of the able-bodied population to emigrate to find jobs are analyzed. The ways of solving the problems of unemployment in Georgia that are main causes of migration are offered.

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6.A2.2. Acute demographic situation in Georgia and a system of measures to normalize it. /L. Chikava, J. Janjghava/. Ekonomisti. - 2010. - #1 – pp. 9-15. - geo.; res.: eng.

The demographic situation in Georgia is so acute that the demographic crisis is evidently felt. All regions of our country compactly populated by the Georgian ethnos are subjected to depopulation, except Adjara where there is somewhat different situation because of a religious factor. Among the measures to normalize the demographic situation should be noted: first, the formation of demand to have the optimum number of children in a family and adequate reproductive sets and behaviour; second, practical realization of the formed demand to have a child – desirable number of children, third – the realization of effective measures against social anomalies destructing the gene pool of the population.

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A3. Economy

 

6.A3.1. National innovation systems of foreign countries. /M. Kopaleishvili, I. Bedinashvili/. – 2009. – 55 pp. – geo.

The work deals with the innovation process structure, main factors influencing development of the innovation process, general structure of national innovation systems; provides an analysis of national innovation systems of foreign countries. World countries are ranked according to known models on innovation development as follows: (1) “traditional” – mainly the countries of the Euro-Atlantic region (USA, UK, Germany, France, Italy, other West European countries); (2) hi-tech production export-oriented – mainly the Eastern Asian countries (Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Chinas, etc.). (3) with the alternative development model – Thailand, Turkey, Portugal, etc. Most detailed are studied the innovation systems of Finland, Israel, and the Baltic states. According to criteria of the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF), a questionnaire for assessing the state of innovation development in a country has been compiled.     

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6.A3.2. Leasing – an effective form of assistance to small enterprises. /M. Maghradze, K. Kutateladze, A. Burduladze/. Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 25-28. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The paper deals with the use of leasing in Georgia and regards it as a form of assistance to small enterprises. Financial leasing is considered to be a specific form of capital investment. Unlike traditional bank credit, it enables companies to have necessary basic means without synchronous expenditures. Financial leasing is beneficial enough, as it takes into consideration the peculiarities of leaseholder’s activity, increases the financing amount of the operations and ensures fiscal advantages. Leasing will significantly simplify the problem of main credit risk of financial support to companies. Due to synchronous use of leasing and insurance operations, investment conditions will become attractive for investors, insurance companies and, especially, for small enterprises.

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6.A3.3. Economic transformation in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. /A. Abralava, K. Kutateladze/. Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 104-107. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

It is for two decades as the world has entered a phase of new economic order. It can be said that its success significantly depends on the process of economic transformation going in countries of the former Soviet Union and in the countries of the so-called socialist camp being within its sphere of influence.

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6.A3.4. The innovation economy development prospects. /G. Jolia, N. Jolia, K. Jolia/. Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 113-117. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

Innovation economy is considered as an up-to-date model of socio-economic development of highly-developed and successful countries. The main factors influencing the innovation economy development are demonstrated; the necessity of creation, propagation and targeted use of new knowledge is assessed together with the role and significance of new human thinking and the maximum and proper use of its potentialities for socio-economic development of a country.

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6.A3.5. The characteristics of a state’s innovation development and its evaluation criteria. /G. Jolia, N. Jolia, K. Jolia/. Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 118-122. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The cardinal changes taking place in the world economy that have created the prospects for innovation economy development are highlighted. The said changes influence all fields of social activities and are to significantly alter the mechanisms of socio-economic functioning. The preference is given to the creation of new knowledge, its propagation and reasonable use. The indicators of innovation level evaluation of a country’s economy and the main directions of its competitive capacity raising on the international arena are shown. It is noted that in future special attention will be paid to the development of hi-tech fields, the activation of scientific and engineering personnel, increase of investments in research spheres, etc.

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6.A3.6. Importance of small enterprise under conditions of a market economy. /L. Chubinidze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #4. – pp. 20-23. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The article deals with the importance of small enterprise under conditions of a market economy. A special importance of small enterprise under conditions of rapid individualization and differentiation of consumer demands, acceleration of scientific and technological progress, increase of the nomenclature of manufactured goods and services is shown. For successful development of small enterprise in Georgia it is recommended to raise the status of administration and formation of small enterprise up to the level of the president of Georgia as evidence of the priority of the state policy in the development of small enterprise.

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6.A3.7. Stabilization programs of inflation. /T. Lazarashvili/. Mermisi. – 2009. – III. – pp. 43-49. – geo.; res.: eng.

The work deals with three main ways to regulate inflation processes: the elaboration of antiinflation strategy, antiinflation tactics and the adjustment to inflation. The strategic measures of antiinflation regulation and measures necessary for their realization are analyzed. There is elucidated Keynesian and monetary policy of antiinflation regulation.

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6.A3.8. Bank innovations as a means of market competitiveness growth. /G. Gurgenidze, G. Bolokadze, N. Saralidze/. Mermisi. – 2009. – III. – pp. 50-53. – geo.; res.: eng.

The paper deals with newly introduced bank innovations, special attention being paid to plastic cards as an effective and secure means of payment and market competitiveness growth.   

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6.A3.9. The role of the National Bank of Georgia in the development of economy. /A. Maruashvili, N. Mghebrishvili, T. Jangulashvili/.  Mermisi. – 2009. – III. – pp. 61-65. – geo.; res.: eng.

The paper deals with the role of the central bank in the national economy development and analyzes the functions and problems of the central bank of Georgia. The National Bank of Georgia (NBG) is noted as a guarantor of price stability and low inflation level in the country and its role in the successful development of national economy and normal functioning of the banking system is very great.

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6.A3.10. The concept of environment in a bank management system. /M. Zubiashvili, T. Kortoshidze/. Mermisi. – 2009. – III. – pp. 66-68. – geo.; res.: eng.

The present paper deals with the bank management system’s “environment” incorporating an aggregate of different factors (events, processes, parties, societies, priorities), upon which the state of bank management and the implementation of the set objectives is dependent. It is noted that in accordance with the principle of hierarchy, two spheres can be identified in the bank management “environment” -  the internal (endogenic, intra-system) sphere that encompasses the credit system by levels, including bank supervision and regulation bodies, the consumer of bank products, and partially the stock market; and the external (exogenic, off-system) sphere, including state institutions: political and social organizations, the business environment, social environment, and partially the stock market.

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6.A3.11. Stability of commercial banks and the activities for its restoring. /K.Tughushi, T. Chikadze/. Mermisi. – 2009. – III. – pp. 75-81. – geo.; res.: eng.

The present paper deals with the question of stability of commercial banks, analyzes the necessary measures for the purpose of it strengthening. The authors note insurance of deposits as a basis providing for stability of commercial banks. The latter secures protection of depositors from the risk of losing the deposited funds and/or minimizes such a risk in case the bank goes bankrupt.

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6.A3.12. Rating evaluation of commercial banks. /A. Maruashvili, M. Kenchoshvili/. Mermisi. – 2009. – III. – pp. 82-87. – geo.; res.: eng.

The paper states that the more objective rating evaluation of commercial banks is possible by organizations exercising bank supervision (central bank, ministry of finance, tax agencies, etc.). The central bank of Georgia evaluates the rating of commercial banks in order to identify the lowest ranked, i.e. the most unreliable and unstable banks and to take timely measures to restore their liquidity and solvency. According to law, one of the main objectives and functions of the National Bank of Georgia (NBG) is to ensure the liquidity, solvency and market-based stable functioning of the financial and credit systems of Georgia.

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6.A3.13. Proposals for perfection of pricing in the agrarian sector. /G.Dznelashvili/. Agrarian-Economic Science and Technologies. – 2010. - #1. -  pp. 66-69. – geo.; res.: eng.

Agricultural producers are guided by market demands through continuous survey of production marketing conditions, on which all their activities are based. The mechanism of pricing according to the existing market price levels is also of importance. One of the main elements for perfection of pricing is the compensatory relief. The proper pricing strategy and determination of the real price precondition the effective functioning of the agrarian sector, which will, in turn, ensure the improvement of producers’ socio-economic conditions.

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6.A3.14. Recommendations on regulation of prices for the agrarian sector. /L.Pitiurishvili/.  Agrarian-Economic Science and Technologies. – 2010. - #1. -  pp. 70-75. – geo.; res.: eng.

The government regulation of prices is of great importance. It can be carried out by means of subsidies and/or compensation given to prime products, as well as through starting price, allowing farmers to have a guaranteed price on farm products. The government frequently resorts to subsidizing farmers for paying interest on loan taken for purchasing farm inputs. The government should regulate 20-40% of prices. This particularly concerns staple commodities: farm products, energy carriers, construction materials, metal, and transport tariffs. This will enable the State to control to a certain extent prices on other kinds of commodities. To control prices and pricing in the country, it is necessary that a special structural unit be set up at the Ministry of Finance to periodically control the existing market prices. In addition, its main function will be the drafting of price regulation recommendations and normative acts. 

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6.A3.15. Root causes of world financial crisis. /R.Ilashvili/. Agrarian-economic Science and Technologies. – 2010. #1. – pp. 88-91. - rus.; res.: geo., eng.

The article identifies the following root causes of the world financial crisis:  (i) monetary policy; (ii) rise in real estate prices; (iii) rise in raw material prices; (iv) real estate/housing bubble; (v) financial bubble; (vi) toxic assets; (vii) derivates. Trying to cope with the world economic problems, the leading countries of the world started to carry out soft monetary policy to stimulate activity in economy. For example, they reduced the bank interest to record level (2003 - 1%), causing thus the converse effect and deepening of the crisis. The real estate/housing bubble was caused by an increase in demand for real estate and its prices. The subsequent decrease in real estate prices led to reduced payback of credits on mortgages. The rise in raw material prices was caused by devaluation of money. As a consequence, the price of crude oil totaled in the 2008 summer $150 a barrel. A slump of raw material prices affected many oil exporting countries, including Russia. The financial/economic bubble was caused by deregulation and substantial risk increase, the creation of the so-called ‘pyramids’. The derivatives imply the transfer of credit risks to other investors. The toxic assets are generally associated with financial instruments like ‘collateralized debt obligations’, ‘credit default swaps’. In the past year, the level of outstanding debts increased from 2.66 to 4.6 percent.

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6.A3.16. Synthesized economic parameters of justified risk and aspect ratios. /O. Keshelashvili, M. Mechurchlishvili, E. Dzagania, N. Damenia, N. Keshelashvili/. Agrarian-economic Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #4. -  pp. 6-19. – geo.; res.: eng.

Based on an analysis of the conducted survey it has been found that the lower the risk justification economic limit and higher the level of return, the more justified will be the risk run taking into account different factor positions. Also determined has been the proportional dependence between the economic limits of risk expediency and synthesized indicators of risk return level that has revealed regularity of the dependence and a tendency of interrelation of these two indicators. In general, the study has made it possible to establish for the first time under conditions of Georgia the synthesized and optimized parameters of the economic risk justification and of economic return for farms of different lines of activity in accordance with the essential factor positions. This can be considered as strategic scientific recommendations of practical (applicable) character subject to stage-by-stage adjustments and improvements according to changes in the production and economic-organizational conditions.

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6.A3.17. Insurance of deposits for developing the Georgian banking system. /S. Khundadze/. Agrarian-economic Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #3. -  pp. 31-40. – eng.; res.: geo.

Analysis of the official statistics of the NBG clearly shows how negatively is affected the banking sector by instability. To better show the attitude of the Georgians toward banking institutions, 200 respondents from various districts of Tbilisi have been surveyed. The survey results evidence that Georgian population refrains from keeping money in banks owing to their pessimistic attitude. The attitude of majority of the respondents (95%) toward insurance of deposits enables to state that in case the deposit insurance system is put into practice, a substantial part of the population’s savings will most probably flow into the bank channels. The Georgian holders of insured deposits will feel themselves much more protected which will presumably lead to the growth of their deposits as well as of the bank activity and the economy as a whole.

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6.A3.18. Review of changes in the bank system of Georgia. /A. Lapachi, Z. Beridze/. Agrarian-economic Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #3. -  pp. 110-119. – geo.; res.: eng.

Already before the known 2008 August events the Georgian bank system had been faced with essential problems. True, it managed somehow to resist the processes developed during the combat actions, but they above events have further complicated the existing problems. The August events have had a great impact on the bank system in general and the economy in particular. In August-September, the bank system assets decreased by GEL 1,026 million (13%). The conflict has actually revealed all intraeconomic, as well as bank contradictions and disproportions that existed earlier. And in September-November, the ongoing world economic crisis further deepened these disproportions that have greatly affected the medium-term development of the bank sector.

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6.A3.19. The bank sector and globalization. /L. Khurtsia/. Caucasus International University Herald. – 2009. - #1. – pp. 97-101. – geo., res.: geo., eng., rus.

Analysis of the reasons of global changes in the bank sector is given. The raising speeds of information transfer have greatly influenced the functionality of global and local financial markets and effectiveness of bank financial operations. The application of information technologies in financial organizations and industry is a good opportunity to overcome time and space restrictions. The globalization process conditions, in turn, consolidation of banks. Under conditions of competition and expansion of markets will be absorbed in the process of bank consolidation and globalization and replaced by universal banks and narrow sectoral financial institutions that will best satisfy individual requirements of the clientele.

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6.A3.20. Post-communist capitalism and the modern world of dead economy. /V. Papava/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 198-202. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

After the collapse of the Communist regimes and their command economies, the countries of the former Soviet Union found themselves with only a very small amount of goods to supply to the global market. There was no way that they could have existed in an economy of this type that is nothing more than a corpse or a so-called “necroeconomy.” As international experience shows, dead firms do exist and “successfully” function in the most developed of economies as well, with Japan being the most obvious example. These insolvent and, in fact, bankrupt firms which continue to operate despite their “mortality” are commonly referred to as “zombie-firms.”  

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6.A3.21. Genesis of innovation systems and the role of the state. /L. Mindeli/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 204-210. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

The paper touches upon theoretical issues of co-evolution of national innovation systems and the state institutions. The central problem of the discussion is the state’s role in ensuring basic preconditions and the functioning of the innovation complex. Besides, major aspects of the state contribution to the innovation cooperation advancement are analyzed.  

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6.A3.22. Features of the modern economic crisis in Georgia.  /V. Papava/. Ekonomisti. - 2009. - #4. – pp. 5-9. - geo.; res.: eng.

After the five-day Russian-Georgian war in August 2008, and in consideration of the global financial crisis, Georgia has come to face some new economic challenges. As far as Georgia’s economic crisis is concerned, it must be noted that the crisis also has its own domestic roots. These latter consist in the economic policy mistakes that the post-revolution government has made in the aftermath of the Rose Revolution. The negative effects of the Georgian economic crisis might have been far more distressing had the international community not extended a helping hand in response to the Russian military aggression. In other words, although war by essence is a negative phenomenon, it had a positive implication for Georgia, to a certain degree, to the extent that the country received an enormous amount of international financial assistance. This creates, therefore, a so-called “Paradox of War” or a situation wherein aggressive entails not only negative consequences but some positive ones, too.

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6.A3.23. Banking system of Georgia under financial crisis. /R. Asatiani/. Ekonomisti. - 2009. - #4. – pp. 10-14. - geo.; res.: eng.

The banking system of Georgia in spite of some recent achievements has not established itself as a stable institution, which would be able to cope with the chronic shortage of capital, due to the various internal or external factors. Hence, it turned unable to cope with economic problems of the country. The crack in the banking system was evident before the beginning of the global crisis in 2008 and it has just widened by the global impact. Notably, the 2008 year’s bottom line ended up with GEL 215 mln in aggregate loss. The long-term loans to the construction industry have mainly promoted imports rather than the development of the local industry. 20% of long-term loans were secured by mortgages. The liquidity risk of the banks was very high, which was safeguarded by the foreign financial institutions’ credit lines. In 2007 they increased by 127%, compared to an increase in volume of local deposits just by 55%. By the end of 2008 the investment activity of banks sharply decreased. The situation was aggravated by the absence of a system of deposit insurance. In this extraordinary situation, commercial banks began changing strategic planning and risk management for the purpose of elaborating a new strategy.

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6.A3.24. Theory of individual preferences: heterodoxy versus orthodoxy. /T. Arnania-Kepuladze/. Ekonomisti. - 2009. - #4. – pp. 26-32. - rus.; res.: eng.

The article describes two different approaches to analyzing individual preferences: the traditional neoclassical economic theory and the heterodox economics. Coming from small amount of basic assumptions, such as selfish, self-interest, rationality, utility maximization, etc. and being aware of the high level of conventions of own human behaviour model, the orthodox preference theory is based on the assumptions of transitivity of preference-indifference relations, strict convexity, completeness, reflexivity, non-satiation, continuity and criticizes all other methods of investigations as less scientific and strict..

 

6.A3.25. Bank loans: tendency and regulation. /G. Lemonjava/. Ekonomisti. - 2009. - #4. – pp. 33-41. - geo.; res.: eng.

This article describes trends prevailing in development of the Georgian banking sector. Specifically, dynamics in bank’s credit portfolio. Growth in risky loans effected loan quality adversely. This paper discusses trends in quality of loans and changes in the structure of credit portfolios. The analysis showed that these changes increased significantly riskiness of bank’s credit portfolio. Also discussed are control issues of credit risk. Regarding this, described are the present rules of regulation and possible ways to improve them, which is based on Basel II concept and align risk-based capital with the economic risk. The issue is to find weights of loan’s risk for each type of loan. These weights are to be then used to establish minimal capital requirements.

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6.A3.26. The state innovation policy in Georgia. /N. Kistauri, M. Melashvili/. Ekonomisti. - 2009. - #4. – pp. 47-51. - geo.; res.: eng.

The world experience shows that states that select the innovation model of economic development efficiently use the government innovation policy. This policy should be directed to: stirring up of innovation processes in all the spheres of economy; improvement of investment climate; creation of favourable conditions to efficiently use market mechanisms of stimulation of scientific–technical skills and innovative activity; development of an innovative infrastructure; study and efficient use of relevant skills of scientific–technical staff, etc. The government has to create a favourable environment for development of the innovation sphere: legislative, taxation, credit, patent, exchange, license, export, import, etc. It should pursue such a policy that would not only preserve the existing industrial–technical potential but ensure its maximum stirring up and transformation in accordance with the development conditions.

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6.A3.27. Agricultural sector of Georgia under crisis. /M. Kapanadze/. Ekonomisti. - 2009. - #4. – pp. 56-59. - geo.; res.: eng.

The existing undesirable feedback between the real and financial sectors of economy brings heavy losses for national economy of most of the countries. The financial crisis almost everywhere has dramatically reduced the value of assets, affected well-being of the population and the consumer demand. Against the background of growing uncertainty, experts believe that for the first time this year the volume of production in the countries of developed economy will be reduced by 2%. It is generally agreed that all main tendencies of the world economy are in any event connected with the agrarian sphere. Most experts believe agriculture to become in the foreseeable future the leading sector of economy and a generator that could cope with the global crisis.

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6.A3.28. The competitiveness of human capital in Georgia. /G. Berulava, T. Vakhania/. Ekonomisti. - 2009. - #4. – pp. 60-64. - eng.; res.: eng.

The paper deals with the issues of use and management of human capital, how Georgia can increase its productivity and present advantages of specialization of its human capital and companies. The current situation and reforms in relevant areas such as economic development and education systems are described; also the existing problems and opportunities in these spheres, the role of each stakeholder and their potential to contribute to the enhancement of Georgia's human capital competitiveness are identified. On the basis of above analysis, some policy recommendations for both the government and private sector are elaborated.

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6.A3.29. Unemployment and its causes in Georgia. /R. Abeasadze/. Ekonomisti. - 2009. - #5 – pp. 10-20. - geo.; res.: eng.

In most countries, the post-communist transformation began with an economic decrease. In Georgia, it was expresses most evidently. These processes were followed by very high level of unemployment. Many post-communist countries have managed to overcome difficulties and build more or less perfect market economy, decreasing the unemployment almost to its natural rate. Some of them, including Georgia, have failed to solve this problem because of mistakes made in the reforming process and other objective or subjective causes. As a result, such countries have become faced with a high unemployment rate. The article analyzes the situation and causes of unemployment in Georgia and maps out measures to decrease the unemployment level.

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6.A3.30. Problems of Georgia’s economy restructuring and employment rate increase. /V. Burduli/. Ekonomisti. - 2009. - #5 – pp. 29-38. - rus.; res.: eng.

It is shown that to ensure increase of the rate of employment in Georgia, it is necessary that a gradual restructuring of the economy be conducted. The contemporary structure of economy has been affected by dependence on the post-soviet economy collapse. The economy restructuring is also necessitated by signals of the world financial and economic crisis. The article investigates such statistics of economic structures as employment, added value by economic activities, and a detailed economic sector dynamics. The current economy structure of the country is shown as not complying with the modern technological structure which, in turn, conditions a high unemployment rate. The experience of some developed countries in the program implementation of measures to improve the economy structure is systematized. The necessity of elaboration of a conceptual program of Georgia’s economic development is grounded and a number of basic requirements to be taken into account in the course of its elaboration are formed.

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6.A3.31. Nobel Prize winner in economics Milton Friedmen and his views on the problem of unemployment and ways of its overcoming. /N. Davlasheridze/. Ekonomisti. - 2009. - #5 – pp. 39-41. - rus.; res.: eng.

The problem of unemployment is deemed to be one of the most urgent issues of the economic theory and the population employment and unemployment rates are used as key indicators of macroeconomics (used for assessing the efficiency and identifying main tendencies of functioning and development of market relations with regard for general situation of the national economy). This mentioned problem is the subject of many economists’ researches – beginning with Keynes and including modern scientists. According to this, the ideas of Melton Friedmåen’s (1976 Nobel Prize winner in Economics) on the unemployment problem and the ways of its overcoming are of a great interest.

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6.A3.32. Topical issues of agricultural order policy.  /.Z. Revishvili/. Ekonomisti. - 2009. - #5 – pp. 46-52. - geo.; res.: eng.

Experiences of some developing and developed countries in the formation of a land market are considered together with the principles of government land regulation, regulation of farm and land plot size allocation in land-poor countries; land allocation governing laws, and opinions concerning the efficient agricultural land allocation in Georgia that are to facilitate implementation of successful experiences and improvement of government regulation of agricultural land in the country.

Auth.

 

6.A3.33. Formation of a strong middle class in Georgia. /R. Sarchimelia, N. Arevadze/. Ekonomisti. - 2009. - #5 – pp. 53-57. - geo.; res.: eng.

The article analyses the changes in the number and percentage of the middle class in total population and possibilities of its growth especially in connection with small business development. Difficulties connected with determination of the middle number because of law reliability of official statistics and lack of precise criteria is considered. The role of the middle class in the formation of conditions for sustainable economic development in Georgia and the necessity of its further strengthening are emphasized; mistakes made in the process of transition from the command to a market economy, connected with the division go population into sections, bringing to the forefront of the formation of the rich section of population, privatization shortcomings, large-scale migration of population, wrong distribution of funds.

Auth.

 

6.A3.34. Foreign investments in Georgia under globalization. /L. Datunashvili/. Ekonomisti. - 2009. - #5 – pp. 58-62. - geo.; res.: eng.

The article analyzes the possibilities of rapid growth and development of national economy with the help of local and foreign investments. In this regard, the role of investments under globalization directed at revival of the national economy is considered; reasons which stipulated the necessity of attraction of investments for the country under transition, such as Georgia, are emphasized; also, the  investment climate and its role on macro and micro levels is characterized.

Auth.

 

6.A3.35. Optimization of tax and non-tax budget proceeds in Georgia. /T. Kurdadze/. Ekonomisti. - 2009. - #5 – pp. 63-68. - geo.; res.: eng.

The formation of a budget needs that a balance between tax and non-tax proceeds be maintained. It is ideal for a society when budget is mainly formed from non-tax proceeds which are an indicator of high purchasing capacity of population. Improvement of the investment environment should be prioritized because this should promote the realization and expansion of local production and international investment interests and it is the very source of national income and wealth. The author’s views on the above issues are presented.

Auth.

 

6.A3.36. Influence of developed countries on the world market. /R. Lortkipanidze/. Ekonomisti. - 2009. - #5 – pp. 69-73. - geo.; res.: eng.

The computerized production that developed in the 20s in the USA is considered to be the most important factor for outlining comprehensive world market, promoting economic development today, and ensuring the rapprochement of diametrically opposite life levels of the population. Proceeding from strategic goals, the spheres of daily concern in the management of the developing national economy should be: 1) harmonization of Georgia’s laws with those of USA,, EU, and other civilized countries, and control over their implementation; 2) gradual (up to 2015) rapprochement of the production level to the average global one, systematic and accurate monitoring of various indicators of labor productivity; 3) real support of small business; correspondingly, handling of employment problems and essential improvement of the environment necessary for attraction of investments. 

 

Auth.

 

6.A3.37. Stock exchange – a guarantor of economic stability. /G. Maisuradze/. Ekonomisti. - 2009. - #5 – pp. 74-77. - geo.; res.: eng.

Stock exchange occupies the main place among market economic infrastructures. It is one of the main guarantor of a stable market in a country and existence of stable economy. Unfortunately, the Georgian stock exchange is in initial stage of its development for a number of reasons. The article investigates the world experience and the problems of formation of a stock exchange in Georgia, studies the negative aspects of the process, and outlines adequate means for further development of the stock exchange in Georgia.

Auth

 

6.A3.38. On correlation of processes of globalization and regionalization in the Central Caucasus.  /E. Ismailov/. Ekonomisti. - 2010. - #1 – pp. 16-23. - rus.; res.: eng.

The correlation of processes of globalization and regionalization in the Central Caucasus are analyzed. Special attention is given to characteristics of a “new regionalism” and its distinctions from the “old regionalism”. The author considers ways of integration of the Central Caucasus into the world economy. Cooperation between Azerbaijan and Georgia in solving energy problems, realization of infrastructural projects, development of transport and communication, trade and tourism spheres also are under consideration. The deepening and increase of efficiency of the regional cooperation is proposed.

Auth.

6.A3.39. An impact of the global financial crisis of 2008-2009 on the US economy (some basic trends, statistical facts and observations). /D. Aptsiauri/. Ekonomisti. - 2010. - #1 – pp. 24-28. - eng.; res.: eng.

The publication covers some basic aspects of the harmful impact of the world financial crisis of 2007-2008 on the development of the US economy, including various reasons of the crisis and extraordinary measures adopted by the US Government, both the long- and short-term ones in order to overcome this world depression.

Auth.

 

6.A3.40. Gender aspects of employment in Georgia. /N. Abesadze/. Ekonomisti. - 2010. - #1 – pp. 29-32. - geo.; res.: eng.

From the second half of the 20th century the issues of gender statistics have become more and more significant in the system of sustainable development conception. The article deals with quantitative and qualitative aspects of gender equality, characterizes socio-psychological differences in gender aspect, the influence of social and biological factors on the formation of gender psychology, and also exposed is their influence on the employment balance. On the basis of formal statistical data a done gender analysis of employment is carried out.

Auth.

 

6.A3.41. Labor resource management. /D. Sabashvili/. Ekonomisti. - 2010. - #1 – pp. 33-35. - geo.; res.: eng.

The article deals with various aspects of management art and practice, such as how select personnel, how to motivate workers to improve their skills and to earn more and get pleasure from work. The role of a skillful manager in achieving the above goals is emphasized.

Auth.

 

6.A3.42. Issues of audit methods improvement. /N. Tsomaia/. Ekonomisti. - 2010. - #1 – pp. 47-49. - geo.; res.: eng.

At present, audit in Georgia does not comply with production requirements and needs to be further improved. As a result, numerous fines being imposed on companies because improper payment of taxes. To improve audit, it is necessary that the audit volume be properly determined and the audit conduct improved.

Auth.

 

6.A3.43. Ilia Chavchavadze and Ivane Javakhishvili on some peculiarities of national economy formation. /M. Kvaratskhelia/. Ekonomisti. - 2010. - #1 – pp. 50-58. - geo.; res.: eng.

The article deals with general sociological aspects of socio-economic formations, historical peculiarities of their origin and development, the necessity of modernizing old “law and order” to form a national state. The author justifies the necessity of formation of a Georgian model of market relations and considers that the existence of approved forms of economy in Georgia in the period of Renaissance is its prerequisite, the reanimation of which in a certain form will create the stable foundation for the formation of Georgian national economy.

Auth.

 

6.A3.44. Legal ways and mechanisms of handling problems of a socially oriented market economy under conditions of a pluralistic society. /A. Kuratashvili/. Ekonomisti. - 2010. - #1 – pp. 59-62. - rus.; res.: eng.

A special attention in the work is given to the necessity of using the legal ways and mechanisms proposed by the author that are aimed at promoting effective functioning of a socially oriented market economy.

Auth.

 

6.A3.45. The socio-economic policy of the state and its significance under conditions of formation of civilized market relations. /N. Kuratashvili/. Ekonomisti. - 2010. - #1 – pp. 63-66. - geo.; res.: eng.

According to the author, the socio-economic policy of the state in a truly human society represents a complex social and economic approach. As an aggregate considered are: social – as the purpose, and economic – as a means to implement the social purpose.

Auth

 

6.A3.46. Business information reliability and statistical methods of measuring its quality. /D. Kbiladze, N. Abesadze/. Ekonomisti. - 2010. - #1 – pp. 67-79. - geo.; res.: eng.

In business, as well as in other spheres of economy, no correct managerial decisions can be made without reliable information. When developing businessmen behavior tactics and strategy, attention should be given not only to personal intuition but also to available quantitative methods, meaning, in itself, the application of such methods as: influence diagrams, decision alternatives, statistical data and probable calculations, discounts, etc. All the above are applicable under availability of the correct and reliable information for businessmen and managers. The information reliability analysis and improvement of its quality are directly related to the effectiveness of managerial decisions to be made.

Auth.

 

À4. Education

 

6.À4.1. Inter­re­la­ti­on of mat­he­ma­tics and physics in studying of the ave­ra­ge spe­ed. /M. Buc­huk­his­hvi­li, T. Ghvi­ni­a­nid­ze/. Khandzta. #2(7). – pp. 134-136. – geo.; res.: eng., rus.

For the suc­ces­sful so­lu­ti­on of an in­ter­-subject relation bet­we­en mat­he­ma­tics, physics, che­mistry, bi­o­logy and ot­her disciplines, a con­si­de­rab­le in­cre­a­se in the sci­en­ti­fic le­vel of the in­struc­ti­on of mat­he­ma­tics at schools is the prerequisite. When stu­dents at the les­son of mat­he­ma­tics be­co­me ac­qu­a­in­ted with the arithme­tic me­an, geometric me­an and me­di­an, also with the ave­ra­ge spe­ed during the li­ne­ar uni­form mo­ti­on, they may be offered to solve such a physi­cal prob­lem, where the said mathematical concepts should be applied. The article offers several ver­si­ons of the specific prob­lem solution for cal­cu­la­ti­on of the ave­ra­ge spe­ed, by stan­dard physi­cal for­mu­las and the­ir spe­ci­fic mat­he­ma­ti­cal in­ter­pre­ta­ti­on.

Auth.

 

6.À4.2. Incre­a­se of in­te­rest in the te­ac­hing of the math co­ur­se in the pro­fes­si­o­nal di­rec­tion. /K. Shvan­gi­rad­ze/. Khandzta. #2(7). – pp. 144-146. – geo.; res.: eng., rus.

The ar­tic­le gives a num­ber of con­cre­te exam­ples of applications being exa­mi­ned in the co­ur­se of mathematics. It is shown that in the course pro­fes­si­o­na­lism attention is to be given to applications that are profes­sionally di­rec­ted. The formulation of each application must be bri­ef with the use of mat­he­ma­ti­cal con­clu­si­ons and based on the con­cepts known to stu­dents. It is in­di­ca­ted that the number of ap­pli­cations on each to­pic has to be strictly re­gu­la­ted so that the co­ur­se wo­uld not be­co­me a collection of ap­pli­ed prob­lems. Te co­ur­se of mat­he­ma­tics for engineering stu­dents is noted to have a dis­tinct pro­fes­si­o­nal di­rec­ti­vity that gi­ves a vi­su­al idea abo­ut the ro­le of mat­he­ma­ti­cal met­hods in the­ir en­gi­ne­e­ring tra­i­ning.  The pro­fes­si­o­nal di­rec­ti­vity of te­ac­hing is shown to be the most im­por­tant me­an of an in­cre­a­se in the in­te­rest of stu­dents in the study of mat­he­ma­tics and as a me­ans of an im­pro­ve­ment in the­ir mat­he­ma­ti­cal pre­pa­ra­ti­on.

Auth.

 

6.A4.3. On the problem of teaching mathematics: once again on logical and set-theoretical approach. /T. Tetunashvili/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.19-28. – geo., res.: eng., rus.

This article is concerned with the concept of teaching contemporary mathematics and demonstrates the necessity of inclusion into the teaching process with a higher dose and intensity of the material from set theory, mathematical logic and discrete mathematics. It establishes basic principles and approaches, the implementation of which will contribute to both better mastering of the teaching material and effective use of the received knowledge by students. The article considers some typical examples illustrating significance of the aforementioned principles and approaches for the mathematics study process.

Auth.

 

6.A4.4. Teaching of linear differential equations with constant rates in mathematics. /K. Shvangiradze/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 153-157. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

The exercises solution methods under the the­me “Li­ne­ar Dif­fe­ren­ti­al Equations with Constant Rates” are described. Based on the pro­ved ru­les, it is shown that the problem of partial differentiation is reduced to the finding of a fun­da­men­tal system. In ca­se the degree of equations is low and the type of a partial solution is comparatively sim­ple, the undetermined co­ef­fi­ci­ent met­hod with direct embedding into initial equation is used. If the partial solution is complicated and the degree of equations is high, the met­hod of reducing to a simplified equation is used. It is men­ti­o­ned that the method of variation of any constants will make it possible to easily find a partial solution of an undetermined equation, although it is not always reasonable. True, in all the cases when it is pos­sib­le to easily find a partial solution of undetermined equation, the general solution of the undetermined equation can be easily obtained. For this purpose, the cases when the practical finding of a partial solution of undetermined equation is possible have been studied. The given method of the lecture and practical training co­ur­se makes it possible to restore the polynomial root order properties as well as complex number operations when considering properties of the polynomial and its derivations.

Auth.

 

6.A4.5. Modern information technologies in education. /M. Tsertsvadze/. Caucasus International University Herald. – 2009. - #1. – pp. 53-57. – geo., res.: geo., eng., rus.

The concept of electronic learning (e-learning) was created in the 90s of the 20th century, together with the development of information and communications technologies. It was a great demand for remote learning that conditioned the intensive development of electronic learning. The first stage of electronic learning was identified with technically “improved” form of remote learning, and electronic learning was considered as a technological support to remote learning (multimedia learning). The next stage of electronic learning was conditioned by an increased demand for corporate learning that was connected with great financial expenses, for it implied the on-spot training of the staff of companies and corporations. At that stage, not only numerous learning materials and electronic educational courses but also various electronic learning management models were developed. The third stage of electronic learning is connected with the elaboration of software systems and complex solution of electronic learning problems. These systems include: teaching and methodological materials management systems, testing systems, learning management systems, etc.

Auth.

 

5. Informatics/Computer Science

 

6.A5.1. Highly stable cryptographic system. /Z. Kipshidze, A. Chaduneli, M. Chorkhauli/.Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 63-67. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

A new method for cryptographic systems design has been elaborated. The nonlinear element being used therein is almost devoid of any linearity sign. In applying the system, its linearity degree reduces down to 0, 0003%, which is absolutely neglected within further rounds of processing. This, in turn, highly increases the system’s stability against all known cryptographic attacks. The system has adopted all major advantages of the American standards DES and RIJNDAEL. The system’s ciphering and deciphering process is identical and includes no symmetry to additions, which significantly reduces the work spent on deciphering.

Auth.

 

6.A5.2. Representation of orthogonal functions as uninterrupted signals. /T. Giorkhelidze/. Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 68-71. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

Issues of generation of the orthogonal functions (polynomial functions) in the form of uninterrupted signals are often raised when solving various scientific research tasks, particularly those of mathematical physics. Orthogonal polynomial functions are topical and widely applied in the case of approximation of signals represented in various analogous and discrete forms. Laguerre, Legendre, Hermite, Chebyshev and other orthogonal polynomials are widely applied in practice. Our objective is to elaborate simple and relatively precise methods of simultaneous generation of orthogonal polynomials as uninterrupted signals. This is discussed in detail on the example of the Hermite polynomials. The obtained result allows constructing a simpler and more precise scheme on integrating operational amplifier, different from the existing ones. This scheme requires application of only a single operational amplifier to generate the next orthogonal polynomial.

Auth.

 

À6. Other Social Sciences

 

6.À6.1. The cul­tu­ral-po­li­ti­cal tran­sfor­ma­ti­on un­der the con­di­ti­ons of tran­si­ti­o­nal dyna­mi­city. /T. Gog­be­ras­hvi­li/. Khandzta. #2(7). – pp. 67-71. – geo.; res.: eng., rus.

The re­a­li­za­ti­on of con­tem­po­rary de­moc­ra­tic tran­sit de­pends on the tran­sfor­ma­ti­on of po­li­ti­cal cul­tu­re. The ele­ments of po­li­ti­cal cul­tu­re are for­med over a long his­to­ri­cal pe­ri­od. They rep­re­sent a tra­di­ti­o­nally for­med way of li­fe and in­clu­de ste­re­oty­pes. The­ir chan­ging re­qu­i­res cer­ta­in ti­me. The cul­tu­ral-va­lue tran­sit is a chan­ge of epoc­hal im­por­tan­ce, which im­pli­es sub­stan­ti­al chan­ges in men­ta­lity, thin­king and be­ha­vi­or. The go­al of the cul­tu­ral-po­li­ti­cal tran­sfor­ma­ti­on is to re­a­li­ze po­li­ti­cal chan­ges, the task of which con­sists in the stren­gthe­ning of the de­moc­ra­tic po­li­ti­cal cul­tu­re.

Auth.

 

6.À6.2. The role of language in intercultural communication. /M. Bak­rad­ze/. Khandzta. #2(7). – pp. 81-84. – geo.; res.: eng., rus.

The pur­po­se of this ar­tic­le is to de­fi­ne the ro­le and fun­cti­on of a lan­gu­a­ge in in­ter­cul­tu­ral com­mu­ni­ca­ti­on, whe­re the interaction of lan­gu­a­ge and cul­tu­re is clearly outlined.  As al­re­ady known, common cul­tu­ral values fa­ci­li­ta­te com­mu­ni­ca­ti­on, while the uncommon ones com­pli­ca­te it. This is es­pe­ci­ally evident during com­mu­ni­ca­ti­on bet­we­en people of different cultural background, being known as in­ter­cul­tu­ral communicati­on. The ro­le of lan­gu­a­ge in in­ter­cul­tu­ral com­mu­ni­ca­ti­on is understood as a tool realizing forms of lin­gu­al ac­ti­vity through which information is being communicated to the native or foreign language. Re­cent researches tend to frequently use the notion of ‘men­ta­lity’ in­ste­ad that of ‘national character’, which definition in the German language differs from the Georgian equivalent. Thought, sensation and wish are the tree components that define the meaning of this word. The present article briefly describes such terms as ‘la­cu­na’, ‘eg­so­tism’, ‘eth­nog­ra­phism’, which symbolize a foreign cul­tu­re, whereas  the ‘le­xi­cal bac­kgro­und’ is treated as a peculiar ambit between language and culture.

Auth.

 

B. NATURAL AND EXACT SCIENCES

 

B1. Mathematics. Mechanics. Physics. Cybernetics

 

6.B1.1. On one algorithm of transformation of qualitative parameter values into quantitative values in the pattern recognition problems. /N. Tkemaladze, G. Mamulashvili/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.4-7. – geo., res.: eng., rus.

The algorithm of transformation of qualitative parameter values into quantitative values is proposed. Four characteristics of qualitative parameter (feature) values are determined. The measures of self-descriptiveness of these features and consequently parameter quantitative values are determined on the basis of these characteristics. Importance of this trans­­formation in the pattern recognition problems is indicated. 

Auth.

 

6.B1.2. Study of natural phenomenon of Zurab Bedia as a basis of study of future high technologies. /T. Tsivtsivadze, V. Chavchanidze, N. Chigogidze, R. Kldiashvili, R. Skhiladze, G. Sulakvelidze, L. Kadagishvili/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.8-12. – geo., res.: eng., rus.

The article is dedicated to the theoretical and applied aspects of research of the natural phenomenon of people like Zurab Bedia. Earlier attempts to study bioelectrical fields of live systems are considered. Studied are the mechanisms of generation of these fields and their characteristics and parameters that are of great scientific and practical importance. The obtained results can be used to design a portable device - the analyzer of external fields of live organisms, so-called biometer. The making of such a device will be of invaluable assistance in medical forecasting of pathologies of a particular organism.

Auth.

 

6.B1.3. Study of distribution of an electric field in a rotary ionizer. /G. Tskhomelidze/. Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 29-32. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The distribution of an electric field of high intensity in a rotary ionizer is considered. The effect of the applied voltage values and of polarity on the critical electric field voltage is studied. It is shown that distribution of a field in the given ionizer is distinctly not uniform and required further research, the expediency of which is outlined and corroborated in the articles.

Auth.

 

6.B1.4. Determination of the maximum hook speed of hoisting gear. /M. Tsereteli, N. Makharashvili/. Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 47-51. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The work deals with the determination of the maximum hook speed of hoisting gear. Based on technological processes, a method enabling to determine the length of hoisting cycle, the most suitable weight of the cargo to be hoisted, the speed multiplier value and the optimal maximum speed of the cargo movement has been given according to the preliminary known yearly performance and the hoisting height.

Auth.

 

6.B1.5. On the concept of relativistic mass. /V. Meladze, V. Kvintradze/. Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 72-74. – rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

Based on fundamental formulas of classical physics, proposed is the solution of the well-known formula of relativistic mass – mass of a moving body, as a function of velocity, earlier introduced into the theory of relativity by theoretical reasons. It is shown that any mass, independently of its origin, should change according to this formula. This formula has been found to become the basis of the theory, according to which the mass of a body depends on its velocity. In contrast to Faynman formula, the authors’ derivation of the formula is based on deep physical content.

Auth.

 

6.B1.6. Methods of calculation of axisymmetric vibrations of plates. /Z. Bichiashvili, J. Bichiashvili, G. Sichinava/. Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 79-84. – rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

This work is dedicated to the development of methods of calculation of round and circular plates for axisymmetric vibrations. Discussed is the problem of calculation of own axisymmetric harmonious vibrations of plates located on both free and Winkler elastic bases, taking into account the movement along the symmetry axis of a plate, gyrating mass inertia, tensile, (compressive deformation), shear and bend strains, also the longitudinal strain effect. The methods are based on the Kirchhoff's hypothesis with the difference that the straight-line elements of a plate may, after the plate’s deformation, no longer be normally deformed in respect of the intermediate surface. The plate’s material is elastic and obeys the Hooke’s law. The plate deformation being insignificant, the approximate expressions for the curvature can be used. The methods are designated for computer-aided application.

Auth.

 

6.B1.7. The conflict of basic laws of thermodynamics in isolated systems and kinetic energy of relative motion. /A. Aptsiauri/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #3. – pp. 7-13. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

By an analysis of processes taking place in isolated systems with real physical properties it is shown that the known principle of steady growth of entropy and disorder owing to internal dissipation processes leads infringement of the law of energy conservation and, conversely, the meeting of the requirements of the First Law runs contrary to the Second Law that reveals itself in a reduction of entropy in certain processes. It is shown that explanation of such strange phenomena requires that the kinetic energy of relative motion, which plays the role of energy accumulator, be taken into account in the first and second laws.

Auth.

 

6.B1.8. Efficiency paradox of thermodynamic cycles interfaced by intermediate heat storage. /A. Aptsiauri/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #1. – pp. 8-15. - eng.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

Based on an analysis of direct and reversible cycles of thermal installations, it is shown that if the body cooling process in a thermal pump cycle is associated with temperature and the taken off heat accumulates in the intermediate body at a temperature exceeding the average temperature according to gas entropy in the course of cooling, then, together with the thermal engine cycle, the possibility of taking of thermal or mechanical energy from the environment is created. Practical implementation of the said processes in accordance with the given man-made assumption requires that the thermal and mechanical resistance of physical bodies be overcome, which is quite realizable.

Auth.

 

6.B1.9. Iononspheric glow caused by electronic beams. /T. Adeishvili, J. Lominadze, G. Managadze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #1. – pp. 15-19. - eng.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The work discusses photometric results of the ionosphere glow at a line λ=5577 Å occurred at the moment of the electron beam injection from the rocket into the earth ionosphere. The gradual increase of the glow intensity during impulses was conditioned due to accumulation of the energy of excited states of N2(A3Σ+u), O2(C'Σu) and O('S) during their lifetime. The large disturbed zone in the near-rocket environment (size≥500m) is connected via the interaction of ions accelerated in the rocket potential field with ionospheric components. The glow intensity modulation is observed at a height of ~ 98,9km during the beam-plasma discharge (BPD). The height profile of the glow intensity revealed two maxima of heights of ~103 km and ~115 km.

Auth.

 

6.B1.10. Calibration of building materials’ humidity and density meter and two-frequency method error estimation. /A. Khurtsilava, K. Tukhareli, M. Maisashvili/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #1. – pp. 33-37. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The work deals with an experimental design method for calibrating a humidity and density meter and the attempt of error estimation of two-frequency method while determining humidity and density of building materials. The method is shown to provide for reducing the calibration labor-intensiveness and obtaining a generalized dependence for a specific material, independently from the humidity meter and its transducer. It is established that in order to increase accuracy, measurement is to be limited to two channels with frequency division of the channels into optimum frequencies and compensation for the material’s through conductivity.

Auth.

 

6.B1.11. Equivalent circuit of physical model of high-frequency transmission lines. /O. Zivzivadze, L. Zivzivadze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #1. – pp. 54-57. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

Questions related to problems of physical simulation of high-frequency power transmission lines are discussed. A circle of tasks, the solution of which is possible on such class models, is considered. An equivalent circuit of the model, in which by certain parameter (GRC – radiation conductivity) the radiating ability of the model provided for and the circuit is considered fit for calculating the processes taking place in the model, has been developed. The radiation conductivity expressions are deduced for the most complex (difficult) in terms of radiation idle mode. To obtain analogous parameters under load conditions, it is necessary that the expressions of radiant power for load conditions rather than those of the idle mode be taken into consideration. The proposed equivalent circuit s universal and allows calculating steady-state conditions of high-frequency lines adjusted for radiation

Auth.

 

6.B1.12. Maxwell’s Demon and groundlessness of its criticism. /A. Aptsiauri/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #2. – pp. 7-14. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The article deals with the basic works in which authors try to prove groundlessness of Maxwell’s well- known idea on sorting fast and slow molecules of gas without physical energy consumption and about the possible thermodynamic imbalance in of violation the Second Law of Thermodynamics. It is shown that the opposing views of the above are incorrect. Moreover, the elementary model of a thermal heat converter is referred to as an example that contradicts the Second Law in support of Maxwell’s Demon.

Auth.

 

6.B1.13. On dynamic solutions of boundary-value problems of the generalized theory of couple-stress thermodiffusion solved in quadratures. /M. Chumburidze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #2. – pp. 46-49. - eng.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The work considers the basic dynamic homogeneous system of partial differential equations of generalized Green-Lindsay couple-stress thermo-diffusion on the plane for homogeneous, isotropic elastic media with the centre of symmetry. Effective solutions of boundary problems for a half plane when on border are given: the component of normal displacement vector, the touching component of vector of tension, rotations, flow of heat and flow of diffusion

Auth.

 

 

6.B1.14. Boundedness criterion for the Cauchy singular integral operator and maximal functions in weighted grand Lebesgue spaces. /V. Kokilashvili/. Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – v. 3. - # 3. -  pp. 5-7. – eng., res.: geo.

The necessary and sufficient condition for the Cauchy singular integral and Hardy-Littlewood maximal function defined on the Carleson curves to be bounded in weighted Grand Lebesgue Spaces are presented.

Auth.

 

6.B1.15. On a probability problem of Lewis Carroll. /N. Vakhania/. Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – v. 3. - # 3. -  pp. 8-11. – eng., res.: geo.

The solution of the general version of Lewis Carroll’s probability problem No. 72 for any number of black or white counters initially in the bag, and any number of non-random black or white counters that could be put into the bag in addition are given. The result for the general version is given as formula (4).

Auth.

 

6.B1.16. On the almost everywhere convergence and partial sum’s majorant of series with respect to block-orthonormal systems. /G. Nadibaidze/. Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – v. 3. - # 3. -  pp. 12-15. – eng., res.: geo.

In the present paper the behaviour of partial sum’s majorant of series with respect to blockorthonormal systems is considered and the estimates for partial sum’s majorant are established.

Auth.

 

6.B1.17. Convergence properties of φ -summing operators. /V. Tarieladze, Ricardo Vidal/. Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – v. 3. - # 3. -  pp. 16-24. – eng., res.: geo.

By means of a sequence φ=(φn )nªN of square-integrable functions, not necessarily orthonormal, on a positive measure space (Ω ,v ) a notion of a φ -summing operator can be defined. We show that the class Πφ. ( X, Y) of all φ -summing operators acting between Banach spaces X, Y is non-trivial iff φ is a 2- dominated sequence. It is shown also that if φ is a 2-dominated sequence, then every 2-summing operator is φ. *-summing.

Auth.

 

6.B1.18. On the investigation of one-dimensional models for thermoelastic beams. /G. Avalishvili, M. Avalishvili/. Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – v. 3. - # 3. -  pp. 25-32. – eng., res.: geo.

In the present paper an initial-boundary value problem for thermoelastic beam is considered. Three-dimensional dynamical problem for beam with clamped upper butt end and surface forces given along the remaining part of the boundary is reduced to a hierarchy of one-dimensional problems. The obtained problems are investigated in suitable function spaces, the convergence of the sequence of vector-functions of three space variables, restored from the solutions of one-dimensional problems, to the solution of the original three-dimensional problem is proved and the rate of approximation is estimated.

Auth.

 

6.B1.19. On one mathematical model of the linear oscillator. /G. Gabrichidze, D. Giorgadze, G. Kapanadze/. Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – v. 3. - # 3. -  pp. 33-36. – eng., res.: geo.

One mathematical model of the oscillator analysis is given in the paper, which is based on the assumption that under the pulse force (impulse) action on the oscillator, excitation of the reaction force in the spring (linkage) occurs with an insignificant delay in time. The oscillator motion is represented by differential equations with delayed argument. It is established that the oscillator motion is complex mechanical vibration with damping feature.

Auth.

 

6.B1.20. Pattern of changes in equivalent rigidity of nonlinear mechanical systems. /L. Gavasheli/. Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – v. 3. - # 3. -  pp. 37-40. – eng., res.: geo.

The theoretically predicted and experimentally determined regularity of change of the equivalent rigidity of nonlinear elements, when connected in series in static and dynamic systems is studied.

Auth.

 

6.B1.21. Magnetic field dependence of A B phase transition temperature in superfluid 3He. /G. Baramidze, G. Kharadze/. Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – v. 3. - # 3. -  pp. 61-64. – eng., res.: geo.

The magnetic field dependence of the AB transition temperature TAB in superfluid 3He is considered in order to take into account the linear-in-field contribution. In the high field region, where the quadratic-in-field contribution prevails, the well-known answer is restored. On the other hand, it is pointed out that the Fermi liquid effects shift the observability of the linear-in-field region to rather low magnetic fields.

Auth.

 

6.B1.22. Determination of the laws and mechanisms of degradation of thermoelectric properties of silicon-germanium alloys during irradiation in reactor. /G. Bokuchava, A. Guldamashvili, V. Gverdtsiteli, G. Darsavelidze, T. Nebieridze, A. Sichinava/. Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – v. 3. - # 3. -  pp. 65-69. – eng., res.: geo.

Experimental results of relative growth of specific electric resistance and of thermo-emf coefficient in highly phosphorus- and boron-doped silicon-germanium alloys during their irradiation in a reactor were analyzed and generalized. The mechanism and generalized description of the laws of thermoelectric parameters degradation in reactor-irradiated n- and p-Si0.7Ge0.3 alloys are offered. The study is conducted within the bounds of the model of various damaging irradiation doses and changes in the target composition, and thus within the framework of various damage abilities and degradation of the alloy parameters.

Auth.

 

6.B1.23. Temperature dependence of hydrogen mobility in ordering rare-earth dihydrides. /I. Ratishvilii, N. Namoradze/. Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – v. 3. - # 3. -  pp. 70-75. – eng., res.: geo.

The rare-earth ordering dihydrides are considered. The influence of ordering processes on the mobility of interstitial H-atoms is investigated. It is shown that those H-H interactions which induce formation of ordered superstructures in the hydrogen sublattice, provide as well the increment of the dwell time of the moving particles. The latter effect can be interpreted as a “weighting” of mobile H-atoms. The influence of the “particle-weighting effect” on the temperature dependence of the dipole-dipole interaction induced nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time is examined. It is shown that although the corresponding changes in the T1d(T) curve are remarkable, their influence on the total T1(T) dependence, determined as well by interactions of nuclear spins with conduction electrons, is negligibly small.

Auth.

 

6.B1.24. Thermophysical calculation of cryosorption pumps. /G. Dgebuadze, L. Tsakadze/. Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – v. 3. - # 3. -  pp. 70-75. – eng., res.: geo.

A physico-mathematical model of the process of evacuation by means of a cryosorption pump CSP-0.25D is developed. It includes modelling of exchange processes in heat removing elements and adsorption space, mass-exchange processes in the grains of the adsorbent and molecular flows in the canals of the pump.

Auth.

 

6.B1.25. Configuration spaces of planar polygonal linkages. /E. Elerdashvili/. Caucasus International University Herald. – 2009. - #1. – pp. 16-19. – geo., res.: geo., eng., rus.

We present several observations about the critical points of the signed area function on configuration spaces (module spaces) of planar quadrilateral linkages. An effective method of counting critical points in question is described which yields comprehensive results for generic quadrilaterals and reveals a number of curious phenomena. In particular, it turns out that critical points of area are typically provided by the so-called circular (cyclic) configurations of quadrilaterals. Our approach permits to effectively calculate the number of circular configurations of a given quadrilateral linkage as well.

Auth.

 

6.B1.26. Nonequlibrium treatment of ZnO layers implanted by N. /T. Butkhuzi, M. Sharvashidze, T. Khulordava, E. Kekelidze, N. Gapishvili, L. Aptsiauri, N. Bukhsianidze, L. Trapaidze, R. Melkadze, Sh. Mirianashvili, T. Qamishadze, L. Gapishvili, M. Tigishvili/.  Nano Studies. – 2010. - #1. – pp.59. – eng., abs. eng.

In order to obtain the p‑type impurity conduction, ZnO layers were implanted by N+ ions with concentration 1019 cm−3 at energy 110 keV, implantation dose 1015 cm−2, and current density 15 mA / cm2. Healing of the radiation defects created in implanted ZnO crystals was carried out by radical beam quasi-epitaxy (RBQE) in the atmosphere of active oxygen radicals (oC, h, cm−3). As a result we obtained ZnO:N epitaxial layers. According to the measurements with van der Pauw method the holes mobility, their concentration, and layers’ resistivity were found as 23 cm2 / V × s, 5 × 1016 cm−3 and 5.4 W × cm, respectively. In photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnO:N, the maxima were observed at 371.5, 381.2, and 387.4 nm. Analysis shows that 371.5 nm links to acceptor-bound exciton (AoX) related to the nitrogen acceptor, 381.2 and 387.4 nm link to NO and donor–acceptor pear (DAP) emissions, respectively.

Auth.

 

6.B1.27. Regulation of defect creation in ZnO p‑type films by RBQE method. /T. Butkhuzi, M. Sharvashidze, T. Khulordava, E. Kekelidze, N. Gapishvili, L. Aptsiauri, N. Bukhsianidze, L. Trapaidze, R. Melkadze, L. Gapishvili, M. Tigishvili, Sh. Mirianashvili, T. Qamushadze/. Nano Studies. – 2010. - #1. – pp.11-18. – eng., abs. eng.

We have investigated ZnO layers obtained by the radical beam quasi-epitaxy (RBQE) method. By the RBQE technological method p‑type ZnO epitaxial layers were obtained at ºC. Hall measurements performed at T=77 and 300 K. Resistivity was measured as 5 × 102 and 3.1 × 103 Ω × cm at 77 and 300 K, respectively. At 77 K, the holes concentration and mobility was 5 × 1018 cm3 and 22 cm2 / V × s becoming 8 × 1018 cm3 and 250 cm2 / V × s at 300 K. In the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of p‑type ZnO layers at λ=369.1, 374.5, 383.5, 392.5 and 401 nm, bands are observed and identified (at 70 K). Here we show that the RBQE technology gives to control electrical and optical properties of ZnO samples.

Auth.

 

6.B1.28. Originality of technological processes of RBQE method. /T. Butkhuzi, T. Khulordava, M. Sharvashidze, E. Kekelidze, N. Gapishvili, L. Trapaidze, L. Aptsiauri/. Nano Studies. – 2010. - #1. – pp.19-25. – eng., abs. eng.

Original method, which enable us to create new quasiepitaxial layers on the surface of binary compound like that on the basic crystal have been elaborated. This method was called radical beam quasi-epitaxy (RBQE). In our case RBQE method enables us to obtain single crystalline layers of ZnO on the basic crystal of ZnSe. But generally it might be use for other binary compounds. For the confirmation of mechanism of defects creation under RBQE we carried out following experiment. We have obtained new layers of ZnO on the ZnSe basic crystal preliminary implanted by oxygen under RBQE (300-800oC). Then, we studied electrical and optical properties of new quasiepitaxial ZnO layers and of ZnSe basic crystals. New quasiepitaxial layers of ZnO are characterized by n‑type, stoichiometric, or p‑type conductivity, which depends on the treatment’s temperature. According to thermo-EMF measurements of ZnSe basic crystal, pre-surface layers always have p-type conductivity after RBQE treatment. In the PL spectra of implanted and nonimplanted ZnSe basic crystals it was observed identical bands, with one difference: in the PL spectrum of implanted ZnSe additionally λ=580 nm bands were observed, which must be connected to the existence of oxygen in the ZnSe.

Auth.

 

6.B1.29. Characters of native defects in p‑type ZnO. /T. Butkhuzi, M. Sharvashidze, T. Khulordava, N. Gapishvili, E. Kekelidze, Kh. Gelovani, L. Aptsiauri, N. Bukhsianidze, Sh. Mirianashvili, T. Qamushadze L. Trapaidze, R. Melkadze, L. Gapishvili, M. Tigishvili/.  Nano Studies. – 2010. - #1. – pp.27-33. – eng., abs. eng.

This paper reports on a new original method of radical beam quasi-epitaxy (RBQE), which enables us to obtain purest monocrystalline ZnO with p‑type conductivity. We investigated electrical and optical properties of the p‑type ZnO crystals obtained with the RBQE method. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of p‑type basic sample of ZnO contains exciton area (367 – A‑exciton, 369 – bound exciton, 374 nm – phonon replicas of A‑exciton); 385 and 395 nm lines; and a non-structural line with maximum on 510 nm. In the PL spectra of new grown layers of ZnO was observed the peaks at 395 and 460 nm, while intensity of 510 nm lines was significantly reduced. Van der Pauw method was used for investigation of electrical properties of p‑type ZnO layers. The basic p‑type ZnO had holes concentration of 1012 cm−3, mobility 3.4 cm2 / V × s and resistivity 1.8 × 106 W × cm. The new p‑type ZnO layers had parameters 1015 cm−3, 14 cm2 / V × s and 4.5 × 102 W × cm, respectively.

Auth.

 

6.B1.30. Investigation of ZnS and ZnO compounds implanted by S ions. /T. Butkhuzi, M. Sharvashidze, T. Khulordava, N. Gapishvili, E. Kekelidze, Kh. Gelovani, L. Aptsiauri, N. Bukhsianidze, Sh. Mirianashvili, T. Qamushadze, L. Trapaidze, R. Melkadze, L. Gapishvili, M. Tigishvili/.  Nano Studies. – 2010. - #1. – pp.35-41. – eng., abs. eng.

The obtaining of p‑type conductivity in ZnS and ZnO semiconductors depends on the critical temperature Tct. By treatment above this temperature it is impossible to obtain p‑type conductivity. The doping of ZnS and ZnO samples was carried out with S+ ions. Unfortunately, the temperature of annealing the radiation defects exceeds Tct, due to which the effect can not be obtained (in ZnO). In our experiment we took into account factor of Tct. Both Ar+ inert gas and S+ ions were implanted in ZnS and ZnO n‑type samples (ρ=102-103 W × cm) at energy 150 keV and dose of implantation from 1014 to 1016 cm−2. The range of current density was from 0.3 to 5 mA / cm2. The subsequent heat treatment of doped samples was carried out over the temperature range from 300 to 500 ºC in vacuum and saturated S2 vapor. The p‑type ZnS samples were obtained by implantation of Ar+ and S+ ions (current density (0.3 − 5) mA / cm2) under subsequent heat treatment at (420 − 460) °C in S2 saturated vapor. When ZnO was implanted with Ar+ and S+ ions (with heat treatment in O2 atmosphere at temperature from 300 to 350 °C) n‑type samples were obtained with resistivity (109 − 1010) and (1010 − 1011W × cm, respectively.

Auth.

 

6.B1.31. Preparation of Ho5Sb3 thin films and their electro-physical properties. /Z.Jabua, I.Kupreishvili, A.Gigineishvili, T.Bzhalava/. Nano Studies. – 2010. - #1. – pp.43-46 – eng., abs. eng.

The technology for preparation of Ho5Sb3 thin films was developed. The samples were prepared by vacuum thermal evaporation from two independent sources of Ho and Sb. Films had a hexagonal lattice with parameters a=8.85 and 6.24 Å. Temperature dependence of the specific resistivity, Hall constant and thermo-EMF coefficient of these samples were measured in the temperature interval from 100 to 700 K. Based on these measurements the basic electro-physical parameters carriers mobility and concentration were determined in the one-band approximation. Obtained results reveal that Nd5Sb3 is a semi-metallic compound.

Auth.

 

6.B1.32. Physical nature of size-dependence of nano-particles properties. /A. Gerasimov/. Nano Studies. – 2010. - #1. – pp.47-96. – geo., abs. eng.

Here we suggest novel conceptions argued both theoretically and experimentally those are possible to give us an explanation of any experimental fact obtained in solids. In present work based on above mentioned conceptions there are explained mechanism of changes in size-dependent lattice constant, Debye and melting temperatures, mechanical properties, diffusion coefficient, heat capacity and heat conductivity of nano-particles.

Auth.

 

6.B1.33. Scattering of electrons in nSi crystals irradiated with protons by nanoscale inclusions. /T.Paghava, N.Maisuradze/. Nano Studies. – 2010. - #1. – pp.97-102. – eng., abs. eng.

The aim of this study was to gain insight into the effect of irradiation with 25 MeV protons on the Hall mobility of electrons in n‑Si crystals. Irradiated crystals with an initial electron concentration 6 × 1013 cm−3 were studied using the Hall method in the range of temperatures (77 − 300) K. The studies showed that, in crystals irradiated with the proton dose Φ=8.1·1012 cm−2, the effective mobility of conduction electrons μeff increases drastically. This effect is direct evidence that nanoscale inclusions with relatively high conductivity and with nonrectifying junction at interfaces with semiconductor matrix are predominantly formed in n‑Si crystals under these conditions. Agglomerations of interstitial atoms or their associations can represent such nanoscale inclusions.

Auth.

 

6.B1.34. Atoms constituting nanosystems: Quasi-classical parameterization for binding energy and electronic structure calculations. /L. Chkhartishvili, T. Berberashvili/. Nano Studies. – 2010. - #1. – pp.103-144. – eng., abs. eng.

Within the semiclassical approach, intra-atomic electric-charge-densities and electric-field-potentials are parameterized and tabulated in form of radial step-like functions. In binding energy and electronic structure calculations performed for nanosystems, their superpositions serve as good initial approximations of the inner charge-density and potential distributions.

Auth.

 

6.B1.35. Large enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit in a ridged quantum well. /A. Tavkhelidze/. Nano Studies. – 2010. - #1. – pp.145-154. – eng., abs. eng

Recently, new quantum features have been observed and studied in the area of ridged quantum wells (RQWs). Periodic ridges on the surface of the quantum well layer impose additional boundary conditions on electron wave function and reduce the quantum state density. As a result, the chemical potential of RQW increases and becomes ridge height dependent. Here, we propose a system composed of RQW and an additional layer on the top of the ridges forming periodic series of p+−n+ junctions (or metal−n+ junctions). In such systems, charge depletion region develops inside the ridges and effective ridge height reduces, becoming a rather strong function of temperature T. Consequently, T‑dependence of chemical potential magnifies and Seebek coefficient S increases. We investigate S in the system of semiconductor RQW having abrupt p+−n+ junctions or metal−n+ junctions on the top of the ridges. Analysis made on the basis of Boltzmann transport equations shows dramatic increase in S for both the cases. At the same time, other transport coefficients remain unaffected by the junctions. Calculations show one order of magnitude increase in thermoelectric figure of merit ZT relative to the bulk material.

Auth.

 

6.B1.36. Observation of new quantum interference effect in solids. /A. Tavkhelidze, A. Bibilashvili, L. Jangidze, A. Shimkunas, Ph. Mauger, G.F. Rempfer, L. Almaraz, T. Dixon, M.E. Kordesch, N. Katan, H. Walitzki/. Nano Studies. – 2010. - #1. – pp.155-160. – eng., abs. eng

In order to achieve quantum interference of free electrons inside a solid, we have modified the geometry of the solid so that de Broglie waves interfere destructively inside the solid. Quantum interference of de Broglie waves leads to a reduction in the density of possible quantum states of electrons inside the solid and increases the Fermi energy level. This effect was studied theoretically within the limit of the quantum theory of free electrons inside the metal. It has been shown that if a metal surface is modified with patterned indents, the Fermi energy level will increase and consequently the electron work function will decrease. This effect was studied experimentally in both Au and SiO2 thin films of special geometry and structure. Work function reductions of 0.5 in Au films and 0.2 eV in SiO2 films were observed. Comparative measurements of work function were made using the Kelvin Probe method based on compensation of internal contact potential difference. Electron emission from the same thin films was studied by two independent research groups using Photoelectron Emission Microscopy (PEEM).

Auth.

 

6.B1.37. On the non-thermal mechanism of melting of thin layers of semiconductors. /N.Dolidze, Z.Jibuti, B.Tsekvava/. Nano Studies. – 2010. - #1. – pp.161-165. – eng., abs. eng

This paper presents a theoretical model of low temperature melting of a crystal at pulse laser annealing as the electronic mechanism of attenuation and isotropization of chemical bonds between its atoms. The formula is derived for critical concentration of anti-bonding quasi-particles – electrons in the conduction band and holes in the valence band, under the increase of which a low temperature melting of the semiconductor on the electronic mechanism must be occurred.

Auth.

 

6.B1.38. Om the nature of deformation pressure in germanium thin layers implanted by B+ ions. /N.Dolidze, Z.Jibuti, G. Narsia, G. Eristavi/. Nano Studies. – 2010. - #1. – pp.167-171. – eng., abs. eng.

In this paper the effect of ion implantation on the exciton absorption in n‑Ge thin layers was studied. It is shown that the observed decrease in the absorption coefficient, broadening of the exciton peak, and its shift toward higher energies are caused by the electric and compression fields generated by the radiation-induced defects.

Auth.

 

6.B1.39. Analysis and synthesis of vibrational processes in machines with many degrees of freedom with allowance for nonlinearity of elastic properties of nonlinear friction links and forces. /R. Adamia, B. Bandzeladze, Z. Nadiradze/. Novation.    2009. –  #5 – pp. 11-20. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

Prob­lems of anal­ysis and op­ti­mi­za­ti­on synthe­sis of vibration tran­si­ents in twisters with many deg­rees of fre­e­dom with al­lo­wan­ce for non­li­ne­arity of elas­tic linkages of machines and nonlinear friction forces are given and handled. For anal­ysis and so­lu­ti­on of non-li­ne­ar dif­fe­ren­ti­al equ­a­ti­ons de­pic­ting the mo­vement of mec­ha­ni­cal systems, as­ympto­tic met­hods of the the­ory of nonli­ne­ar vibrations are employed. As a re­sult of the so­lu­ti­on of the first approximation of systems of nonli­ne­ar dif­fe­ren­ti­al equ­a­ti­ons, criteria determining sta­bi­lity regions of self-os­cil­la­ting modes are obtained. The ob­ta­i­ned re­sults allow several sta­ti­o­nary solutions: 1) a tri­vi­al so­lu­ti­on when the vibrational amplitude is of minimum value and there are no self-excited oscillations; 2) one-f­re­qu­ency self-os­cil­la­ting modes and conditions of their onset; 3) double-fre­qu­ency os­cil­la­tory modes and expressions to determine their onset.

Auth.

 

6.B1.40. Mat­he­ma­ti­cal mo­del of fi­eld tests con­duc­ting. /M. Buc­huk­his­hvi­li, T. Ghvi­ni­a­nid­ze, V. Kvan­tid­ze/. Novation.    2009. –  #5 – pp. 68-73. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

In the tec­hno­lo­gi­cal pro­ces­ses and ge­ne­rally in any sci­en­ti­fic sphe­re the­re are known se­ve­ral types of fi­eld tests and be­si­des so­me of them can be con­duc­ted un­der the ar­ti­fi­ci­al con­di­ti­ons whe­re­in we can con­trol the fac­tors be­ing in­ves­ti­ga­ted. The­re is pre­sen­ted in a gi­ven ar­tic­le on a con­cre­te exam­ple the mat­he­ma­ti­cal vi­si­on of tes­ting con­duc­ted un­der the fi­eld con­di­ti­ons. In par­ti­cu­lar, the task has be­en set as fol­lows: “it is ne­ces­sary to de­ter­mi­ne the dis­tri­bu­ti­on of plants over the spe­ci­fic area in com­pli­an­ce with the­ir he­ights”. The met­hod of so­lu­ti­on of in­di­ca­ted prob­lem was de­ve­lo­ped anal­yti­cally rel­ying on con­cre­te da­ta. In par­ti­cu­lar, num­ber of tes­ted plants was clas­si­fi­ed in com­pli­an­ce with the­ir he­ights, de­ter­mi­nes the­ir me­di­um he­ight and num­ber of them in each class, me­an de­vi­a­ti­on and the met­hod of so­lu­ti­on of the prob­lem in­di­ca­ted was de­ve­lo­ped anal­yti­cally, rel­ying on con­cre­te gi­ven. In par­ti­cu­lar, a qu­an­tity of tes­ted plants was dis­tri­bu­ted to the clas­ses on the­ir in­cre­a­se, was de­ter­mi­ned the­ir me­di­um he­ight and qu­an­tity ac­cor­ding to the class, stan­dard and qu­ad­ra­tic de­vi­a­ti­on. Using the well-known for­mu­las we ha­ve per­for­med mat­he­ma­ti­cal da­ta pro­ces­sing. Accor­dingly, the­re was de­ter­mi­ned the con­stant of va­ri­a­ti­on V% and tes­ting ac­cu­racy m%. By me­ans of such cal­cu­la­ti­ons we ha­ve de­ter­mi­ned the op­ti­mum pos­si­bi­lity of dis­tri­bu­ting the plants over the spe­ci­fic area and con­clu­ded that it can be car­ri­ed to the area of any si­ze.

Auth.

 

6.B1.41. On general solutions of first-order nonlinear matrix and scalar ordinary differential equations. /G. Kharatishvili/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 5-10. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

This article contains the formulae of general solutions for particular classes of first-order nonlinear matrix and scalar ordinary differential equations.

Auth.

 

6.B1.42. On some goodness-of-fit tests based on kernel type wolverton-wagner estimates. /E. Nadaraia, P. Babilua, G. Sokhadze/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 11-18. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

A goodness-of-fit test is constructed by using a Wolverton-Wagner distribution density estimate.

The question as to its consistency is studied. The power asymptotics of the constructed goodness-of-fit test is also studied for certain types of close alternatives.

Auth.

 

6.B1.43. Cyclic configurations of spherical quadrilaterals. /G. Giorgadze, G. Khimshiashvili/.Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 19-22. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

We investigate cyclic configurations and moduli spaces of spherical quadrilaterals. For nondegenerate quadrilateral linkage, we establish that cyclic configurations are critical points of the signed area function on moduli space and their number is determined by the topology of moduli space. We also find the maximal value of the signed area on moduli space.

Auth.

 

6.B1.44. Constructive method for the recognition of patterns. /Z. Kipshidze, A. Chaduneli, G. Ananiashvili, G. Ghlonti/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 33-36. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

On the basis of Coding theory universal methods for recognition of patterns and clustering are elaborated, providing an adoption of realization of patterns to the set of target class, i.e. recognition of patterns and division of the set of realization into clusters.

Auth.

 

6.B1.45. Analysis of priority queuing system for replacements and renewals. /R. Khurodze, R. Kakubava, D. Gulua/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 37-40. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

The article considers a closed queuing system for service of replacement and renewal operations. Replacement has absolute priority regarding renewal. Replacement time and renewal time are exponential random variables. Graphic system is constructed for two-dimensional random processes, hence the linear system of algebraic equation expressing the final state of the system is written directly. With the help of the proposed graphic scheme the calculation formulas of final probabilities of system states are received in explicit form.  

Auth.

 

6.B1.46. On one iteration algorithm of investigation of the nonlinear problem of oscillation of a system of constrained particles under strong dynamic load. /G. Gabrichidze/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 41-44. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

The solution of the problem mentioned in the title demands that the formation of a defining system of algebraic equations and its solution be repeated at each discrete time interval. The paper proposes a special iteration algorithm by which the formulated equation can be solved by a simple operation of multiplication of matrices and vectors. The conditions for the iteration process convergence are formulated. The proposed iteration algorithm can be considered as the description of the process of motion of a system of particles in a medium in which the position and motion of particles obey non-stationary geometrical conditions, in particular with time delay.

Auth.

 

6.B1.47. A new express monitoring method and diagnostic device for determining the efficiency of an automotive brake system. /R. Chabukiani, T. Dvalishvili/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 45-47. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

The paper deals with a new express monitoring method and a respective diagnostic device

designed for efficient performance of an automotive brake system which ensures in a short period of time, 20-25 seconds, determination of the serviceability of the brake system. The method and the device make it possible to establish and exercise regular monitoring of the brake system and exclude the putting in operation of an automobile with a faulty brake.

Auth.

 

6.B1.48. Study of the absorption signal in the flame of the burner with ring-shaped slot for atomic-absorption spectrometry. /A. Rcheulishvili, Z. Rostomashvili, K. Tsakadze/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 48-53. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

In this article, the original structure of a burner with ring-shaped slot for atomic-absorption spectrometer (AAS) is considered. This burner forms the lateral cylindrical flame with the length limited by the screen and the air stream. The beam from the light source to the monochromator passes through the ringshaped slot and coincides with the symmetry axis of the cylinder, formed by the flame. We offer the method of calculation of the absorption signal (the number of studied atoms in the absorption zone) at raying of the flame parallel to the velocity of air flame, when the process is stationary and the transverse shift of the absorbing atoms in the flame takes place only due to diffusion. The absorption signal dependence on such parameters as ring-shaped slot radius, flame length, the flame air velocity and the distance between the light beam and the center of the ring-shaped slot was studied. It is shown that absorption signal increases with increase of the flame length, decrease of the ring-shaped slot radius and the flame air velocity. From the obtained results, we may conclude that the design offered by us allows effective concentration of absorbing atoms in the absorption zone. The absorption signal (sensitivity) sharply increases compared with common slot burners in the same conditions. The device has reserves for further increase of the absorption signal. The burner also allows increase of the absorption signal, when it is used as a “pulsed vaporizer-flame” type atomizer. At this, it is possible to detect hardly atomized elements as there is no need of application of nickel or quartz tube, which is successfully replaced by cylindrical flame.

Auth.

 

6.B1.49. Electrical prospecting in Dmanisi settlement area of the oldest Eurasian hominids. /T. Chelidze, M. Jakhutashvili, G. Kutelia, G. Tabaghua/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 71-74. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

The purpose of the study was to establish the efficiency of electrical prospecting methods on the territory of Dmanisi ancient settlement, where the oldest man of Eurasian continent – hominid’s remains were discovered. As a result of the study, an exact delineation of basalts under Quaternary cover was made. The morphology of the surface of basalts and of Pliocene palaeorelief was determined; Reconstruction and mapping of Mashavera and Phinezauri rivers paleovalleys was made. So, it is possible to conclude that the strong differentiation in electrical resistivity between rocks developed in the territory under study, specifically between Quaternary sediments, basaltic lavas and upper Cretaceous volcanic formations determines the effectiveness of the electrical prospecting for the solution of structural geology problems.  

Auth.

 

6.B1.50. Non-Linear sums of mathematic programming. /G. Kirmelashvili, L. Beridze/. Building. – 2010. - #1. -  pp. 36-44. – geo.; res.: geo., rus., eng.

Mathematic models of appropriate linear and non-linear programming are applied in performing construction activity, repair work, production manufacturing, metallurgic and chemical industry, solving transport problems and in other cases, which may be performed graphically by using the derive of function and Lagrangian method of multipliers.      

Auth.

 

B2. Chemistry. Biology

 

6.B2.1. Quantum-chemical research of electron structure, complex-formation ability of paradimethylaminobenzaldehyde’s paranitrobenzoylhydrazine. /M.Tsintsadze, M. Mamiseishvili, D. Lochosvili, N. Gegeshidze, N. Kilasonia, T. Giorgadze/. Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. -  V.9. -  #4. – pp. 301-302. – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

By means of quantum-chemical semi-empirical method AM1 the bond lengths, valence angles, electron density of atomic orbitals of paradimethylaminobenzaldehyde’s paranitrobenzoylhydrazine and effective charges on the atoms of this molecule have been calculated. Potential donor atoms – oxygen atom O(14) of carboxylic group and nitrogen atom N(12) of hydrazide group are ascertained.

 Auth.

 

6.B2.2. S isonicotinoilhydrazones (painh) molecule study of propionicaldehyd electronic structure and ability of complex-formation by quantum-chemical semiempirical AM1 method. /M. Tsintsadze, D. Lochoshvili, N. Kilasonia, T. Tsintsadze, I. Sharia, M. Chanturia, G. Manvelidze, J. Kereselidze/. Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 303-305 . – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

Effect of study of propionicaldehyd's isonicotinoilhydrazones molecule electronic structure and ability of complex-formation is offered in the article. Valency angles, interatomic distances, setting of electrons and effective charges on the atomic orbital are rendered an account. Potential donor atoms (atoms of heterocycle and hydrazin nitrogen N(1) and N(9), and carbonyle group oxygen atom O(13)) have been revealed.

 Auth.

 

6.B2.3. Research of complex-formation of zirconium (IV) in mixed-ligand systems with the purpose of application in analytical chemistry. /G. Tsintsadze, R. Aliyeva, A. Abdallah, F. Chiraghov, M. Tsintsadze, T. Tusiashvili/. Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 308-311. – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

Complex-formation of zirconium (IV) with 2,2',3,4-tetrahydroxy-3'-sulpho-5'-nitroazobenzene in the presence of diantipyrilmethane (DAM) and its homologues has been investigated and the conditions of for-mation of mixed-ligand complexes are found. By the method of curves crossing stochiometry and constants of stability of mixed-ligand complexes have been determined. It is established, that in the presence of the DAM and its homologues molar factor of light-absorbance raises and the selectivity of reaction is considerably increased. Developed technique of photometric definition zirconium (IV) as mixed-ligand complex of zirconium (IV)-R-DAM is applied for its determination in alloys on a copper basis.

 Auth.

 

6.B2.4. Sinthesis of some derivatives of indolobenzo[b]tiofen and study of their bioactivity. /M. Maisuradze, N. Gakhokidze, M. Matnadze, V. Ananiashvili, T. Khoshtaria/. Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 312-315. – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

The derivatives of indolobenzotiophen have been synthezed. Substitute position towards the sulphur atom, atomic composition and influence of disposition on products biological activity have been studied.

 Auth.

6.B2.5. Hydrosilylation N-allyllactams with methyldichlorsilane. /L. Janiashvili, G. Andronikashvili, N. Vepkhishvili/. Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 316-320. – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

The α- and β-addition products of hydrosilylation of N-allyllactams with methyldichlorsilanes have been obtained. The hydrolytic condensation of -addition products has been carried out.a

 Auth.

 

6.B2.6. Analysis of kinetic data of enzymatic reactions. /I. Berdzenishvili, M. Siradze/. Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 321-323. – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

It is shown that for the analysis of kinetic constants of classical Michaelis-Menten equation several methods can be used. In the paper, based on two graphic methods Lineweaver-Burk and Eadie-Hofstee and statistically independent method it possible to identife important kinetic terms of enzymatic reactions. These KM and Vmax constants received upon three ways match good.

Auth.

 

6.B2.7. Calculation of standard molar enthalpies of olivine group minerals formation. /E. Matsaberidze, A. Sarukhanishvili, M. Mshvildadze, M. Kapanadze/. Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 324-328. – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

In the article there is offered the method for calculation method of standard molar enthalpies of olivine crystallo-chemical group minerals by means of application of only their thermodynamical data and taking into account the structural properties of island silicates. The deviation of calculation results in comparison with known values does not exceed 1%.

Auth.

 

6.B2.8. Alternative or new direction of chain reactions theory. /T. Tsivtsivadze/.  Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 329-332. – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

In the article scientific works of Professor I.N.Tavartkiladze, devoted to mathematical modeling and identification of chain reactions and phase transition processes kinetics are considered. Professor Tavartkiladze on the basis of the physical and mathematical analysis chemical reaction and processes of phase transformations deduced the fundamental kinetics equation for evolutionary development (FKE ED) of structure which differs from the physical kinetics of the basic equation. On the basis of analytical solutions of FKE ED in essence new methods of mathematical modeling, identification and the analysis of chemical reactions and processes of phase transitions kinetics and dynamics are offered. These elaborated methods can be considered as a new direction in development of theoretical basic analysis of chemical reactions and the processes of phase transitions.

Auth.

 

6.B2.9. Correlation equations. /M. Gverdtsiteli, M. Karchkhadze/.  Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 333-334. – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

The main correlation equations (Brönsted’s, Hammet’s, Tapt’s, etc.) and the areas of their application are considered.

Auth.

 

6.B2.10. Hammet’s correlation equation and pseudo-ANB-matrices method. /M. Gverdstiteli, M. Êarchkhadze, N. Iashvili/. Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 335-335. – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

Within the scope of pseudo-ANB-matrices method the parameter of Hammet’s correlation equation (the relative velocity constant of hydrogen chloride elimination reaction) has been calculated.

 Auth.

 

6.B2.11. Examining of dry volcano muds from the viewpoint of applicability in medical-prophylactic purposes. /N. Bokuchava, L. Ebanoidze, D. Jincharadze/.  Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 336-338. – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

Comparative study of physical-chemical indices of dry and liquid volcano muds of Akhtala has been accomplished for the first time, which reveals their practical identity and possibility to apply dry volcano muds for medical-prophylactic purposes. As a result, their application will increase the mud resource, transporting, packaging, storing and delivery up to end user in case of home usage will be simplified.

 Auth.

 

6.B2.12. Stabilization of foams by special additives. /I. Berdzenishvili, M. Siradze, Kh. Dididze/. Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 339-340. – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

The questions of stabilization of foams by special additives are discussed. The classification of stabilizers on their hardening action is given. It is shown that the efficiency of the use of the stabilizer of a group depends on the direction of usage of the final product.

 Auth.

 

6.B2.13. Membrane technology and installation for wine final sterile filtration. /G.Bibileishvili, V.Bibileishvili, N.Mumladze/. Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 341-344. – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

Unique possibilities of tangential microfiltration, possibilities of their usage during purification and cold sterilization of wine are discussed in the article. The issues of practical application of microfiltration technology for final sterile filtration of wine are also discussed. On the basis of experimental studies micro-filtration technology is developed and the relevant two-stage membrane installation for final sterile filtration of wine has been created ensuring the receipt of ecologically clean, absolutely transparent stable product.

Auth.

 

6.B2.14. Technology of reception of hydrogen from water with help of solar energy. /V.Shvelidze, R. Gakhokidze, L. Tabatadze/. Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 345-346 . – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

The purpose of the work is in search of economically and ecological solar power engineering installation and systems of new generation, working out, research and designing of power installation for thermal reception of hydrogen by the method of water splitting.

Auth.

 

6.B2.15. Technology of preparation of high-efficiency light-absorbers. /V. Shvelidze, R. Gakhokidze, L.Tabatadze/.  Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 346-348. – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

Îriginal technology of preparation of high-efficiency light-absorber which plays considerable important role in creation of solar power engineering devices hàs been developed.

 Auth.

 

6.B2.16. Metallic plastic – the new type of hybrid composition material. /M. Kezherashvili, I. Chitrekashvili, Z. Molodinashvili/.  Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 349-352. – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

Cross-linking of polyethylene with peroxide, siliceous and radiation methods are discussed. Cross-linked polyethylene of siliceous technology and presumptive mechanism with this chemical reaction have been studied. The structure of polyethylene cross-linked with peroxide, siliceous and radiation technology is established. On the basis of cross-linked polyethylene, the hybrid composition materials of new type – metallic-plastic pipes have been obtained. By testing methods the basic physical-mechanical and technical characteristic of metallic-plastics pipes were determined.

 Auth.

 

6.B2.17. Solar thermal collector of a new generation and perspectives of its large-scale implantation. /V.Shvelidze, R.Gakhokidze, L.Tabatadze/.  Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 355-357. – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

This work is devoted to the perspectives of large scale development of solar power engineering. There are considered problems of designing and large production technologies of solar thermal collectors of new generation. Great attention is paid to the construction simplicity, cost of used materials and the manufacturing details and blocks by not power consuming, ecologic acceptable technologies and also to the cost of obtained thermal energy there are considered concrete ways of overcoming of above-mentioned problems. Parallelly there was investigated solar annual activity in the region, are also considered application perspectives of a solar collector in the analogous sunny regions.

 Auth.

 

6.B2.18. On the mineralogical composition of open-hearth slags of Rustavi slags storage. /M. Gugeshidze, A. Sarukhanishvili, T. Machaladze, D. Eristavi/.  Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 358-361. – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

Experimental verification of theoretically assumed possibility of Rustavi slag storage open-hearth slags interaction with the environmental ingredients is offered. It is shown, that as result of such interaction solid solutions of spinels and iron oxides are basically remain, besides quartz, in the open-hearth slag “in memory” of high-temperature technology. Silicate components of slag form carbonates and water-containing crystalline and X Ray-amorphous compounds of variable composition under environmental influence. The opinion, that consideration of these phenomena allow us to optimize technology of getting materials and products for building purposes, to plan new spheres of application of open-hearth slags as technogenic raw materials has been expressed.

 Auth.

 

6.B2.19. Use of secondary raw materials for purification of acid quarry waters of madneuli ore mining and processing enterprise. /Sh. Andguladze, V. Gaphrindashvili, À. Ñhankotadze, T. Kvinikadze, B. Manning/. Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 362-364. – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

The use of elaborated technology enables to use low-graded barite ore by processing of which there are obtained an independent product blanfix and sodium sulfide used as a reagent of non-solvent for deep purification of acid quarry waters from ions of heavy metals leading to formation of sulfide copper containing compounds fully useful for subsequent application.

 Auth.

 

6.B2.20. Project on regulation of ecological problems for Madneuli deposit. /A. Tsilosani, Z. Okrostsvaridze, T. Tsilosani/.  Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 365-369 . – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

The goal of the project is to remove heavy toxic metals flown down from Madneuli (Georgia) ore of non-ferrous metals, created during the process of development and enrichment of ore, which is an acute ecological problem. The situation has been complicated by group leaching of gold quartzite ore by means of cyanide solvent and receiving of Dore alloy and during at the same time by the heavy toxic metals is polluted not only Bolnisi region, but the territories in vicinity as well. The Project offers the possibility of purification of polluted soil and waters, the method of removing of toxic elements from water solvents have been selected.

 Auth.

 

6.B2.21. Simulation of man-caused contamination of natural environment by products of methane combustion and prognosis by means of thermodynamic computer analysis. /A. Gogishvili, D. Eristavi, N. Sharashidze, G. Aspanidze/. Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 370-373. – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

A great series of computer experiments have been carried out to determine the composition of combustion products in methane-oxygen systeme at various ratios of fuel and oxidizer. The process of combus-tion of natural gas is led to thermodynamic study of "C-H-N-O" system, which is based on the Gibbs energy minimization method within temperature interval 1000-3000K. On the basis of obtained results the tem-perature cut diagrams have been constructed, which are close to temperatures of the processes going on in industry. We also offer the data of main components of the exhaust gas as a result of natural gas burn-ing obtained by theoretical computation on the computer, when α=2, and experimentally. Due to the fact that theoretical and experimental results differ insignificantly and don't contradict each other, we conclude that the offered method enables us to study combustion processes for any type of natural fuel.

 Auth.

 

6.B2.22. Gamma-radiation background of the environìent and generàl beta-radioactivity of plants in Shida Kartli region. /K. Goginashvili, Z. Chankseliani/.  Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 374-376 . – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

According to the results of the researches carried out the size of the background of gamma-radiation in Shida Kartli (East Georgia) is about (9,0÷13,5)/(M±m=11.3±0.28) mcr/hour. The difference between extremal values is high. As for the general radioactivity of the plants, its amount is approximately (537÷1400)/(M±m=890±43.62) bk/kg and by these values the variability is rather significant.

 Auth.

 

6.B2.23. Dynamics of nitrogen quantity in superficial waters in Shida Kartli.  /N. Goginashvili, K. Goginashvili/.  Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 377-379. – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

Superficial waters in Shida Kartli (East Georgia) are not distinguished by high consistence of nitrogen and its quantity correlates with the seasons of year. Maximum concentration (11.4 ± 0.547 mg/l) occurs in spring, it sharply reduces in summer (5.6 ± 0.314 mg/l), increases in autumn again (9.6 ± 0.593 mg/l) up to spring level.

 Auth.

 

6.B2.24. Ringcycle of some element organogenes in the nature. /E. Kipiani, M. Kikalishvili, N. Ghvinianidze/. Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 380-384. – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

The paper discusses circulation of some element organogens: carbohydrate, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur in the nature; the substantial influence of practical activities of men on self-operating processes of organogens; adaptability of plant and animal organisms as a result of long-lasting evolution with certain amount of chemical organisms that are involved in the biological circulation. Continuous circulation of the organogenes takes place in the nature.

Auth.

 

6.B2.25. Biological role of S elements of the periodic system in the vitality process of the organisms. /E. Kipiani, M. Kikalishvili, N. Ghvinianidze/.  Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 385-392. – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

The paper presents the biological role of S elements of Ia and IIa groups. Discussed is the participation of these elements in forming buffer systems of the living organisms and providing osmotic pressure and membrane potential. Sodium and potassium participate in the transmission of nerve impulses, while magnesium and calcium take part in corresponding structural formations.

 Auth.

 

6.B2.26. Drugstore, the center of chemical discoveries. Letter 2. /R. Skhiladze, T. Tsivtsivadze/.  Georgia Chemical Journal. 2009. - V.9.- #6. – pp. 584-589. – geo.; res.: geo., eng.

The letter deals with the historical development od pharmacy and gives a detailed account of the famous pharmacist and chemists and of their contribution to the development of the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

Auth.

 

6.B2.27.  Live organisms as biological systems and thermodynamics. /M. Tsirekidze, N. Chekurishvili/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.29-31. – geo., res.: eng., rus.

The article deals with the phenomena taking place in the process of growth and development of the live organism. The system live organism-environment is considered, in the live part of which increment of free energy and decrement of the entropy take place. The high order characteristic of live organisms is achieved by the absorption of energy. The entire energetic machine of live organisms is essentially driven excited electrons.

Auth.

6.B2.28. Investigation of saprophytic bacteria microflora of some salty soils of the Lake Kumisi. /K. Mamulashvili/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.35-37. – geo., res.: eng., rus.

Microflora of saprophytic bacteria of salty soils of the lake Kumisi has been studied. It is established that the investigated soils are not distinguished by diversity of saprophytic bacteria and only two genera of these bacteria – Bacillus and Halococcus are met here. The number of saprophytic bacteria was high at the expense of representatives of the named genera.

Auth.

 

6.B2.29. Results of introduction and adaptation of North-American arborous plants in East Georgia. /T. Nadiradze, G. Beruashvili/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.38-41. – geo., res.: eng., rus.

The growth and development of 40 species of the arborous plants - the North-American flora representatives introduced in East Georgia is studied. It is established that better accustomed to the East Georgian conditions are the species characterized of polymorphism and those species, the natural area of which by ground and climatic conditions resembles that of East Georgian districts. For high  acclimatization level and comparatively better drought-resistance are distinguished: Pinus sabiniana, P. strobus, Calocedrus deccurens, Acer negundo, Platanus occidentalis, etc. The enumerated species are distinguished by high adaptivity and their introduction East Georgia is advisable.

Auth.

 

6.B2.30. Pathology of harmful entomofauna of pine trees in the suburbs of Tbilisi and the estimate of their number. /M. Chkoidze, L. Kobakhidze/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.42-45. – geo., res.: eng., rus.

The work deals with the manifestations of latent diseases of the harmful entomofauna of pine trees in the suburbs of Tbilisi and their hematological diagnoses carried out and studied for forecasting physiological activity of pests and working out the appropriate control measures.  

Auth.

 

6.B2.31. New interpretation of Michelson’s experiment and restoration of the ather’s hypothesis. /G. Togonidze,V. Shvelidze/. Georgia Chemical Journal. – 2009. – v. 9. - #6. – pp. 598-602. – eng.; res.:  eng., geo., rus.

The article concerns the error made almost 120 years ago during the interpretation of Michelson’s experiment which caused the great damage to the development of theoretical physics because the aether’s hypothesis was denied. As the Michelson’s experiment took into the consideration the alternation of the light’s velocity C, its mathematical interpretation was accordingly projected. But the experiment didn’t show the alternation of C. So the formula  and , doesn’t correspond to the elementary laws of physics: Because of this error the electrodynamics’ law opposites the Galilee’s transformation formulas. In this article is discussed that the correction of the error made during the interpretation of Michelson’s experiment, revealed that there is no conflict between the electrodynamics’ law and the Galilee’s transformation formulas, when we imagine the light spread area in discreet surrounding, the existence of still material surroundings – historical ether is doubtless. It must be the main starting-point for every movement and simultaneously any physical process, even the mechanical movement, can’t be discussed without the participation of material surroundings. In the article is also shown the amazing philosophic point of view, that our surrounding’s diversity comes from the unifaced particle, which creates the above mentioned material surroundings.

Auth.

 

6.B2.32. Novel corotinoid concentrates from subtropical plants. /D. Chikovani, M. Kobakhidze/. Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Biological Series B. - 2009. - #3-4. – pp. 1-3. – eng.; res.: geo., eng.

Chemical composition of pressed mandarin (Citrus Laus unshiu mau) fruits and fallen leaves of the Caucasian persimmon (Diospyrus kaki L.) were determined. The carotenoid concentrates were obtained from these raw materials. These concentrates may be used in food industry as yellow food colorants as well as food additives for vitaminization of products.

Auth.

 

6.B2.33. Comparison of screening methods for reliable detection of genetically modified organisms. /N. Datukishvili, T. Kutateladze , M. Karseladze, I. Gabriadze/. Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Biological Series B. - 2009. - #3-4. – pp. 4-8. – eng.; res.: geo., eng.

Three PCR primer pairs suitable for common regulatory elements of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) were compared for selection of the most effective screening method for GMO. Two of the primer pairs 35S1/35S2 and 35S-cf3/35S-cr4 are specific to 35S promoter from Cauliflower Mosaic virus and NOS1/NOS2 is specific to the NOS terminator from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The Roundup Ready soybean was used as GM material. The comparison of the primer pairs was carried out in two different PCR conditions PCR1 and PCR2. The results obtained exhibited 35S promoter specific primer pair 35S-cf3/35S-cr4 as the most specific, sensitive and efficient tool for GMO screening in the both PCR conditions applied.

Auth.

 

6.B2.34. Natural food red colorant with radioprotective properties. /N. Mchedlishvili, M. Nikolaishvili, N. Omiadze, M Abutidze, L. Gulua/. Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Biological Series B. - 2009. - #3-4. – pp. 9-13. – eng.; res.: geo., eng.

The chemical composition, antioxidant activity and radioprotective properties of a natural red colorant obtained from green tea and pokeberry were investigated. The colorant was found to consist of phenolic compounds (15.8%), pectin substances (18.0%), free aminoacids (16.3%), reducing sugars (27.0%), organic acids (7.8%), minerals (8.0%). It contains small amounts of radionuclides and toxic elements. The natural colorant revealed high antioxidant activity and showed only about 4 times less antioxidant potential than ascorbic acid. The factor of doze changing was found to be equal to 1.25 indicating the high radioprotective activity of the natural food red colorant. It was shown that the natural red colorant from pokeberry and green tea may be successfully used in food industry.

Auth.

 

6.B2.35. New records of Geastrum persoon (gasteromycetes) for Georgia. /A. Jorjadze/. Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Biological Series B. - 2009. - #3-4. – pp. 14-17. – eng.; res.: geo., eng.

The paper presents diversity of the genus Geastrum in Georgia. Currently, only 14 species are identified, 4 of which (Geastrum berkeleyi Massee, Geastrum kotlabae V.J. Staněk, Geastrum lageniforme Cooke, Geastrum quadrifidum Pers.) are new for Georgia.

Auth.

 

6.B2.36. Effect of seed stratification on embryo growth dynamics and dormancy break in taxus baccata L. /N. Shakarishvili/. Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Biological Series B. - 2009. - #3-4. – pp. 18-23. – eng.; res.: geo., eng.

Seeds of English yew (Taxus baccata L.) germinate in the second or even the third year after ripening due to shift to dormant stage soon after maturation. In order to break dormancy, seeds were warm (25° C, 90 days) and cold (5° C, 90 d.) stratified under moist conditions. At the end of cold stratification, the embryo size increased 3 times; the embryo reached the full length of the seed; the seed coat spitted along the ridges; soon after sowing, the embryo became green and the early germination phase occurred. Over 60% of the stratified seeds had a pregermination potential. The data obtained make it possible to suggest that the most practical and simple method of yew seeds germination is to stop their dormancy as a result of warm and cold stratification under damp conditions. The adoption of this technique might be useful for yew conservation strategies.

Auth.

 

6.B2.37. Dynamics and species composition of phyto- and zooplankton of the Tbilisi Sea, Kumisi and Lisi Lakes in vicinity of Tbilisi, Georgia.  /R. Kalandadze, E. Mikashavidze,  M. Mgeladze , E. Jaiani, N. Janelidze . C. Whitehouse, A. Huq, M. Tediashvili/. Proceedings  of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. - 2009. - #3-4. – pp. 24-34. – eng.; res.: geo., eng.

Three multifunctional water reservoirs in the vicinity of Tbilisi, Georgia - Tbilisi Sea, Kumisi and Lisi Lakes- have been studied during 30 months in 2006-08 for phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance and dynamics, species composition and their role in assessing the ecological status of the reservoirs. Kumisi Lake, a brackish water body, appeared to be most rich in phytoplankton species - 124 species of 8 taxonomic groups were detected, leaded by Bacillariophyta. Cyanophyta dominated by abundance comprising 95% of the total phytoplankton numbers in the Kumisi Lake and causing periodical massive blooms involving toxic forms Oscilatoria planctonica, O. limnetica, O. brevis, Microcystis aeruginosa etc. 90 species of 7 taxonomic groups of microalgae were identified in the Tbilisi Sea, presented by Bacillariophyta (42% of species), Chlorophyta (17%), Cyanophyta (17%) and other groups. The spring and autumn algal blooms in 2006-07 were dominated by diatoms Fragilaria crotonensis and F. capicin, while in summer 2008 the massive bloom of Chrysophyta was detected. Similar phytoplankton composition but slightly lower diversity was observed in the Lisi Lake with 81 species of 8 taxonomic groups leaded by Diatom algae. Several abundance peaks during 2006-08 were due to significant increase in Diatoms, specifically, Nitzschia holsatica numbers and also by pyrrophyte algae (Peridinium bipes, Ceratium carolinenanum, etc). The zooplankton analysis showed presence of three main groups (Rotatoria, Copepoda and Cladocera) in all three reservoirs with certain difference in species composition and abundance. Rotatoria comprised up to 62%, 55% and 63% of total number of zooplankton species in Kumisi and Lisi Lakes and Tbilisi Sea, respectively. The rest was presented by Copepoda (15-19%) and Cladocera (7-15%) groups, also by larvae of Nematodes, Chironomidae and Oligochaeta. In all three reservoirs the indicator phyto- and zooplankton species have been detected, and the saprobic class of water reservoirs was specified. Tbilisi Sea has been attributed to oligosaprobic-β-oligosaprobic reservoirs, while Lisi Lake was classified as β-oligosaprobic- β-mesosaprobic, and Kumisi Lake as α, β-mesosaprobic, eutrophic water reservoirs.

Auth.

 

6.B2.38. Antagonistic activity in the natural populations of Ajara (Western Georgia) and Kakheti (Eastern Georgia) wine yeast. /A. Shatirishvili, M. Menabde, Zh. Chitanava, T Zarnadze/. Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Biological Series B. - 2009. - #3-4. – pp. 35-40. – eng.; res.: geo., eng.

The antagonistic activity of wine yeast strains isolated from natural populations of ecologically distinct regions of Georgia was studied. Wine yeast populations were isolated from small farm wine-cellars where the fermentation of grape juice proceeds spontaneously. K, N and S phenotype strains are revealed in the natural populations of wine yeast. Composite structures of populations appeared distinct.

Auth.

 

6.B2.39. Association between seropositivity for cytomegalovirus (Cmv) and Cd4+ cytotoxic T cells expansions in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocyte leukaemia (B-Cll) and healthy controls. /N. Kulikova, T. Tsertsvadze, P. Tsagareishvili, L. Sereda, M. Tevzadze , L. Kardava, N. Gachechiladze, M. Lukhumaidze, M. Ghirdaladze, N. Amaglobeli, N. Porakishvili/. Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Biological Series B. - 2009. - #3-4. – pp. 41-46. – eng.; res.: geo., eng.

B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) is characterized by the clonal expansion of CD5+CD19+CD23+ B cells. During the course of B-CLL, the expansion of neoplastic clone is accompanied by a disbalance between CD4+/CD8+ T cells and by deficiency of T cell function. We have previously shown an expansion of CD4+ perforin (PF)+ cytotoxic T cells (cytT) with undefined specificity in patients with B–CLL. It has been demonstrated by others that the expansion of CD4+PF+ T cells in control individuals is often associated with chronic viral infections. Taking into consideration that B-CLL patients are immunocompromised, with frequent viral infections, we investigated the role of CD4+PF+ cytotoxic T cells in immune responses to one of the most common chronic viral infections – human cytomegalovirus (hCMV). We studied an association of cytT cell frequencies with the chronic CMV infection in 32 B-CLL patients and 18 age-matched healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were immunostained with anti-CD4~PerCP monoclonal antibodies (mAb), fixed, permeabilised and immunostained with anti-PF~FITC mAb. Cells were fixed and analyzed by flow cytometry. Serum samples were routinely tested for anti-IgG antibodies to CMV. Here we show that CD4+PF+ T cell expansions appeared to be strongly associated with CMV seropositivity in healthy individuals, and, particularly, in B-CLL patients. The immunocompromised status of the majority of B-CLL patients may facilitate expansion of this unusual population of cytotoxic cells to combat reactivation of a chronic CMV infection.

Auth.

 

6.B2.40. Crown gall disease of grapevine in Georgia. /N. Giorgobiani, R. Keshelava, A. Vainstein, L. Chernin, N. Dandurishvili, Sh. Kharadze/. Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Biological Series B. - 2009. - #3-4. – pp. 51-56. – eng.; res.: geo., eng.

Elimination of the thick stand of vineyards caused by diseases, and particularly by crown gall, is one of the considerable potentials for increasing the vineyard capacity. During long term investigations, it was established that crown gall is widespread in the main vine growing regions of Georgia. Spreading of the disease has a focal character; it varies by regions from 16-18% to 55-65% and causes premature withering of grapevines and thick stand of vineyards. The crown gall damages basically the overground organs of vine. The tumors are found near the root neck, on the trunk and on the 1-year old canes. They are found less frequently on the roots and annual shoots. The causative agents of the disease were isolated from different organs of diseased and externally sound vines which points to the presence of the pathogen in the plants and its long-term remaining in a latent state. The pathogens were isolated from xylem exudates, tumors and rhizosphere. The taxonomy of the causative agents has been established – they have been identified as Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

Auth.

 

6.B2.41. Creation and study of antimicrobial-antifungal composite against mixed infection using biodegradable polymer as a matrix. /M. Goderdzishvili, Z.Alavidze, A. Meiphariani, I. Chkonia, L. Dzidzishvili, N. Kvatadze, D. Zhghenti, S. Rigvava, T. Dvalidze, I. Kusradze, N.  Karumidze, N.  Nadirashvili, R. Katsarava/. Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Biological Series B. - 2009. - #3-4. – pp. 57-66. – eng.; res.: geo., eng.

Application of bacteriophages in complex with antifungal preparations for treatment of associated bacterial and fungal infections is being considered as a novel approach to deal with this problem. A biocomposite film was created by using the biodegradable polymer containing new bacteriophage combination (Pyobacteriophage+Klebsiella, Enterococcus, Acinetobacter bacteriophages), Pimafucin and Trypsin. Among the antifungal substances pimafucin was chosen, because it is less toxic in comparison with other antifungal remedies and it does not cause phage inactivation. At a certain stage trypsin contributes to the wound healing process and does not decrease phage activity significantly in laboratory conditions. Therefore this enzyme was chosen for incorporation into the complex. The biocomposite film is characterized by high activity towards bacterial and fungal flora and appeared to work according to the controllable phage release principle provided by the enzyme used in its composition.

Auth.

 

6.B2.42. Quantitative and qualitative content of microscopical fungi in Kumisi alkaline soils (East Georgia).  /N. Melia, S. Surmava, V. Abashidsze, I. Gorozia, Z. Lomtatidze/. Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Biological Series B. - 2009. - #3-4. – pp. 67-71. – eng.; res.: geo., eng.

The qualitative and quantitative content of microscopical fungi in alkaline soils of Kumisi Lake has been studied. It has been established that the intensity of spreading of microscopical fungi in alkaline soils on the territory adjoining to Kumisi Lake depends on the moisture and salinity of these soils.

Auth.

 

6.B2.43. The study of DNA synthesis in functionally distinct flight muscles of locust. /G. Papidze, Ts.  Sumbadze, N. Gachechiladze/. Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Biological Series B. - 2009. - #3-4. – pp. 72-75. – eng.; res.: geo., eng.

DNA synthesis in functionally different monofunctional (MOF) and bifunctional (BIF) flight muscles (dorsal longitudinal 112, tergosternal 113, tergocoxal 119,120) of the locust in the process of imago development (one-day and mature locust) has been investigated. Using H3-timidin as a marker it has been determined that the intensity of DNA synthesis in the locust functionally different MOF and BIF flight muscles of one-day imago (the wings are not functioning yet) is 2-4 times higher than that of mature locust. It indicates that up to this period of development the process of formation of flight apparatus is not finished yet. In MOF muscle 112 of one-day imago as well as in the case of mature locust the level of DNA synthesis was low. The differences among DNA synthesis in other muscles (113,119,120) were not observed.

Auth.

 

6.B2.44. Preliminary results of effect of different water volumes on conidial mass production of beauveria bassiana.  /M.Burjanadze/. Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Biological Series B. - 2009. - #3-4. – pp. 76-81. – eng.; res.: geo., eng.

Mass production of entomopathogenic fungi is an important component of successful microbial insecticide program. The objective of this study was to evaluate the  conidia production of strain Beauveria bassiana (CA-603) on millet growing media at different water volumes (substrate : water 1:0.25; 1:0.5; 1:0.75 and 1:1). The results showed that there were significant differences in conidia production at the water volume of cooking. Conidia production of B. bassiana was significantly higher (3.4 x107 /g millet) at 1:1 water ration and spore viability achieved 90.3%. Although, higher (94.7%) spore viability was observed too in the variant 1:0.25.

Auth.

 

6.B2.45. Villafranchian vertebrate fauna of Georgia and its biostratigraphic significance. /A. Vekua, D. Lortkipanidze/. Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Biological Series B. - 2009. - #3-4. – pp. 82-87. – eng.; res.: geo., eng.

The paper deals with Villafranchian vertebrate fauna of Georgia, biostratigraphic significance of its environment and attempt of reestablishment of the Pliocene. Obtained data indicate that the Dmanisi fauna is older than the end of the Late Villafranchian. It is shown that during the Plio-Pleistocene extensive faunal interchanges occurred via the territory of Transcaucasus.

Auth.

 

6.B2.46. Effect of coniothyrium minitans conidial suspension concentrations on mortality of sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia under controlled conditions. /.N.Bitsadze/. Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Biological Series B. - 2009. - #3-4. – pp. 88-92. – eng.; res.: geo., eng.

Coniothyrium minitans is a biological control agent of white mould causing plant fungal disease sclerotinios. Different concentrations of C. minitans were tested against sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotium. Increasing of the concentration of the mycoparasite caused increasing of sclerotia mortality. Very low concentration of C. minitans was enough to kill sclerotia, but for killing them in a shorter time it was more effective to use higher concentrations (107-108 sp/ml).

Auth.

 

6.B2.47. Reproductive potential of entomopathogenic nematode steinernema feltiae on different hosts (galleria mellonella, hyphantria cunea and leptinotarsa decemlineata). /N.Mikaia/. Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Biological Series B. - 2009. - #3-4. – pp. 93-97. – eng.; res.: geo., eng.

The study deals with the efficiency of comparative reproduction of entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae larvae in the following insects: the wax moth - Galleria mellonella, the fall webworm - Hyphantria cunea and Colorado potato beetle imago - Leptinotarsa decemlineata. An emphasis is placed on the control of parasitic insects number by means of entomopathogenic nematode S. Feltiae. New nutrient media for cultivation of nematode S. Feltiae have been revealed. High indices of S. Feltiae reproduction occur at the 7th day from the invasion on larvae H. cunea - 94.5 %, on L. decemlineata - 98.4 %, on G. Mellonella - 91.8 %. The obtained data make it possible to cultivate S. Feltiae against pests of agricultural crops.

Auth.

 

6.B2.48. Study of biodiversity of Svaneti (Georgia) nematodes. /E. Tskitishvili, M. Kuchava, T. Tskitishvili/. Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Biological Series B. - 2009. - #3-4. – pp. 98-102. – eng.; res.: geo., eng.

In order to study nematode inhabitants of Svaneti region several natural ecosystems were investigated. 45 forms of nematodes were recorded. Among them Mesodorylaimus paetzoldi Altherr, 1965 is new for the fauna of Georgia. Obtained results were compared with the existed data.

Auth.

 

6.B2.49. New lichen species for Georgia from Algeti National Park (East Georgia). /I. Kupradze/. Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Biological Series B. - 2009. - #3-4. – pp. 103-104. – eng.; res.: geo., eng.

The paper presents descriptions of 3 species new to the lichen flora of Georgia recorded in Algeti National Park: Flavopunctelia flaventior (Stirt) Hale, Hypotrachina revoluta (Florke) Hale, Hypotrachina sinuosa (Sm.) Hale. The work serves for revealing specific diversity of lichen flora of Georgia and distribution ranges of the species.

Auth.

 

6.B2.50. Some notes on fungus stigmina obtecta (petrak & esfandiari) M.B. ellis associated with dead twigs of cultivated and wild woody plants in Georgia. /M. Gvritishvili, K. Kacheishvili-Tavartkiladze, M. Churgulia-Shurgaia, N. Gotsadze/. Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Biological Series B. - 2009. - #3-4. – pp. 105-106. – eng.; res.: geo., eng.

The paper deals with nomenclature and host range of Stigmina obtecta associated with dead stems and twigs of different woody plants including mulberry and fig trees.

Auth.

 

6.B2.51. Alkaloids of Georgian endemic plant of buxus colchica pojark. and the anatomy of vegetative bodies of overground parts. /N. Vachnadze, J. Aneli, E. Jakeli, V. Vachnadze, D. Tsakadze/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 7-11. – rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

Investigation of Georgian biologically active compounds of plant and mineral origin dring phytochemical investigations Buxus ñolchica Pojark. 8 individual compounds were isolated and structurally identified, two alkaloids appeared to be new and the next structures were offered: 3b - dimetylamin- 20a -methylamin- 4b, 4a,14a - trimethyl - 9b,19a - cycloprotobuxin-C and (-)N-3-O-16-hydroxi-3a,20a-monomethylamino-4-methylen,14a-methyl-9b19cyclopseudobuxin-D. Jointly with the Department of Pharmacobotany for the first time is described the anatomy of vegetative bodies of Buxus overground parts, which is necessary for identification of raw material and obligatory for reference documentation.

Auth.

 

6.B2.52. Alkaloids of Galanthus latifolius Rupr., grown in Georgia. /L. Kintsurashvili/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 12-15. – rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

Galanthus latifolius Rupr. grown in Georgia was studied for the alkaloid composition. It has been determined that the plant’s overground parts in the phase of flowering contain total alkaloids 0,25%, the bulbs - 0,47%, the content of galantamine in the overground parts is 0,03%, in the bulbs - 0,05%. Licorine, galantamine, tacetine, galantine, demethylhomolicorine have been isolated and identified.   

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6.B2.53. Alkaloids of the growing in Georgia Veratrum lobelianum Bernh.  /T.Suladze/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 16-21. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

During phytochemical investigations of Veratrum lobelianum Bernh., 10 individual compounds were isolated, 9 alkaloids were structurally identified, 8 of which - iervin, veralozin, veralozinin, veralozidin, veratroilzigadenin, psevdoiervin,  veralodin – were found in the plant for first time, whereas O–acetil  iervin and 12α,13β- digidroiervin for the first time are described.

Auth.

 

6.B2.54. Preliminary researches of the growing in Georgia species of the genus Ononis l. for  the content of biologically active compounds. /M. Sichinava, M.  Alanija, I .Moniava/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 22-25. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

Research of separate parts of owo species of the genus Ononis I. growing in Georgia for the content of biologically active compounds. It is established, that the top parts of the plant are rich in flavonoids. A significant content of terpenoids is observed in stalks and roots.

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6.B2.55. Research of separate parts of the growing in Georgia endemic species Astragalus bungeanus Boriss. for the content of various chemical compounds. /Z. Apakidze, M. Alania, A. Bakuridze/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 26-29. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

It is found that flavonoids accumulate basically in the leaves and flowers, less in stalks, and are absent in the roots. A significant content of cycloartans is observed in stalks and roots.

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6.B2.56. Triterpene glycosides from the roots and leaves of Phytolacca americana L. /M. Getia, M. Gabelaia, V. Mshvildadze, B. Tabidze, N. Tabatadze, G. Dekanosidze/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 30-36. – rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

Triterpene glycosides of the roots and leaves of the American pokeweed Phytolacca americana spread in Georgia are studied. It is shown that at least 12 triterpene glycosides are represented in the roots of the plant 13 glicosides in the leaves. Isolated and chemically interpreted are 2 main glycoside structures of the roots - glycoside E and glycoside H; as well as 3 glycoside structures – glycoside A, glycoside B and glycoside C – from the leaves. The biological activity of the total and individual glycosides is studied.

Auth.

 

6.B2.57. Lipids of Medicago sativa  growing in Georgia. /Ts. Sulakvelidze, B. Kikalishvili, M. Malania, D. Turabelidze/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 37-39. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The chemical composition of neutral lipids of the  seeds of Medicago sativa  are studied The class and fatty acidal composition of them are determined and the qualitative and  quantitative analysis of phospholipids  is carried out.

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6.B2.58. Annual wormwood Artemisia annua L. growing in Georgia as a source of obtaining of an antimalarial substance artemisinin and methods of its quantitative determination.  /D. Turabelidze, D. Lagazidze, M. Mikaia/.  I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 40-44. – rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

It is established that the annual wormwood Artemisia annual L. cultivated at I. Kutateladze Institute of  Pharmacochemistry’s experimental station for medicinal plants (Shiraki, Georgia) contains about 0.2-0.25% of artemisinin. A method of obtaining of artemisinin from the leaves and inflorescences and its spectro-photometric and iodometric  detection techniques have been developed. Artemisinin can be proposed as a substance for producing medicinal preparations and for synthesis of highly effective antimalarial compounds.

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6.B2.59. Preliminary investigation of some plants growing in Georgia for the content of biologically active compounds.  /M. Alania, N. Kavtaradze,  K. Shalashvili, T. Saghareishvili, J. Aneli, M. Sutiashvili, M. Churadze/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 45-57. – rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

A preliminary phytochemical investigation of glycosides, flavonoids and saponines of  52  plants growing in Georgia, belonging to 22 families was carried out. A number of promising plants rich in biologically active compounds are veiled  and proposed for a comprehensive chemical investigation.

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6.B2.60. Preliminary investigation of leaves of some higher plants introduced in Georgia for the content of biologically active compounds. /T.Sagareishvili, M.Alania, K, Shalashvili/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 58-65. – rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

A preliminary phytochemical analysis of leaves of some higher plants introduced in Georgia has been  carried out. The promising species rich in flavonoids, triterpens and coumarins were revealed.Some of plants  are proposed for a comprehensive chemical investigation for medical purposes.

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6.B2.61. Development of a standardization method for a new dosage form of the drug colchicine. /P.Iavich, L. Churadze, N. Gagua, T. Rukhadze/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 66-70. – rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

Investigations of a new dosage form of the drug colchicin - gastric soluble capsules - have been carried out. A new method of standardization has been developed. The quantitative analysis precision has been proved by validated characteristics. The capsules’ content of colchicin makes 0,00085-0,00115 g and 0,00051-0,00069 g.

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6.B2.62. Obtaining of pure tannin. /M.Mghebrishvili, A. Sarabunovich, L. Churadze, P. Iavich, E. Kemertelidze/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 71-77. – rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The method of purification of the pharmacopeial tannin from the low molecular mass compounds is described. As model systems: tannin, galic acid, rutin, arbutin, hydroquinone, qvercetin. The ionchange purification on ÊÓ-2, (H+form), ÝÄÝ-10Ï (OH-form), ÈÀ-2 (CL- form) has been found to the most advisable technique. As a result, tannin being practically free from low-molecular admixtures is obtained .

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6.B2.63. Technological and biopharmaceutical aspects of development on the cacao oil base of suppositories with piophages. /M. Orjonikidze, G. Tsagareishvili, I. Dadeshidze, Z. Alavidze/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 78-81. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The biological phenomenon of bacteriophage represents an alternative of antiboticotherapy. The objective of the study is to investigate the compatibility of phages with cacao oil and the possibility of development of suppositories with bacteriophages for the treatment of paraproctitis, vaginitis, cervical erosion, the treatment of which is very complicated due to the antibiotic resistance of claimers. On the basis of complex physico-chemical, technological and biopharmaceutical studies, the possibility of development of suppositories with piophages has been determined, the technology and composition of suppositories with piophages developed, and the physico-chemical and structural-mechanical parameters of quality studied; it is determined that they are in compliance with the standard documentations on suppositories. A method of analysis of specific activity for 5 components of piophage has been developed. It is determined that piophage is released fully from the base and the cacao oil does not affect its specific activity.

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6.B2.64. Technical characteristics and method of standardization of a potential radio protective dosage form and substance. /P. Iavich, L. Churadze, N. Gagua, T. Ruxadze/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 82-90. – rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

Different technological characteristics (breakup, volume weight, residual humidity, friction slope) of a potential radio protective form based on plant extracts and organic acids have been investigated. A relationship between these parameters is found. Based on the State Pharmacopoeia requirements, different tests of the substance and packet dosage forms have been performed. A method of standardization for both the substance and the granulated dosage form has been developed.

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6.B2.65. Study of the liberation of biologically active compounds from dosage forms containing radioprotective ingredients. /P. Iavich, Z. Chankseliani, T. Rukhadze, N. Gagua, V. Khositashvili, L. Khositashvili/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 91-95. – rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

New dosage forms of the drugs tkis nobati and menjuni as well as of the of a radio protective drug IF-stomach soluble capsules and suppositories have been developed. Investigated are their characteristics, which determine assimilation of biologically active compounds by the organism. These data make it possible to suppose a rather high pharmacological activity of the drug.

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6.B2.66. Development of common oak bark and wood extraction technology. /V. Khositashvili, D. Abzianidze, L. Khositashvili, M. Sutiashvili/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 96-100. – rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

In studying the chemical composition of common oak bark and wood, the content of the tanning matter, lignin’s, grass acids, and iron in the plant was determined. The extraction process sheets have been developed.

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6.B2.67. Chemical modification of a complex of papaya enzymes by polymeric ligands. /G. Erkomaishvili, L. Nadirashvili, D. Chanturia, L. Vadachkoria, I. Dadeshidze/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 101-106. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

A complex of papaya protease (CPP) obtained from the latex of unripe fruits of papaya (Carica papaya), possessing high proteolytic, antipyretic and necrolitic properties, is rather effective in the treatment of many diseases that are related to the degenerative changes in the tissues; however, its application is comparatively limited due to its allergenic action. For the purpose of elimination of these undesirable properties, the strengthening of thermostability in the solutions, the chemical modification of the CPP by polyamide ligands with the molecular weight from 30 to 88 kDa, representing by-products of polycondensation of lysine with the adipic or sebacic acid (4- Lys and 8- Lys, respectively), was carried out. The modified preparations preserved 80-95% of the initial proteolytic activity of the CPP, with a sharp increase in the stability in solutions at 500Ñ.

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6.B2.68. Apparatus and method for in vitro study of iontophoretic permeation of proteolytic enzymes in animals skin. /G. Erkomaishvili, L. Vadachkoria, L. Nadirashvili, D. Chanturia/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 107-114. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The simple apparatus and method for in vitro study of electrophoresis regulations of proteolytic enzymes through the membranes of animal skin have been developed. It has been shown that papaya proteases fail to penetrate into the frozen chicken skin rather than overcome this barrier without electric current. During electromigration, a certain part of papaya proteases accumulates in the skin structure. By the experiments on the frozen chicken skin and “alive” rat skin it has been shown that dimethylsulfoxide (2-3 drops by 10 ml of anodic solution) strengthens the permeability of papaya proteases up to 12-14%. The negative influence of the “parasitic” ions of physiological solution on the electrophoresis of papaya proteases has been confirmed, which prejudices the application of the solution in the procedures of electrophoretic treatment with karipazim.

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6.B2.69. Method of determination of the proteolitic activity of karipazim. / G. Erkomaishvili, L. Vadachkoria, L. Nadirashvili, D. Chanturia /. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 115-122. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

A method for determining the proteolytic activity of karipazim -  the medicine containing the complex of papaya proteases, has been developed taking into account the requirements of USSR and Russian standards (USSR STATE STANDARD. 2026.2-88, Enzyme Preparations. Method of determination of the proteolytic activity) and partially - the US Pharmacopoeia (USP25-NF20 supplement 2 Papain).

Auth.

 

6.B2.70. Development of suppository base containing ticha-ascanae. /M. Orjonikidze, I. Dadeshidze, M. Jorbenadze, G. Tsagareishvili/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 123-126. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The studies for the development of a new suppository base containing specially processed bentonite clay - ticha-ascanae, and cacao butter have been carried out. It is established that the introduction of up to 3% of ticha-ascanae in the cacao butter improves the structural-mechanical, rheological and physical-chemical properties of the cacao- butter as the suppository base. The stability of the proposed suppository base in the course of long-term storage (1 year – observation term) under conditions of room temperature and at +3-5ºC has been determined.

Auth.

 

6.B2.71. On the development of an ointment containing Akhtala mud. /T. Rukhadze, E. Gasviani, M. Djavakhia/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 127-130. – rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

Osmotic and colloid characteristics of an ointment containing 10-20% of Akhtala curative mud have been investigated. Different emulsifiers have been used. It has been shown that the best result is achieved when a wax emulgator and 10-20% Akhtala mud are applied. The optimal formula of the oinment has been developed.

Auth.

 

6.B2.72. Herbarium of Iovel Kutateladze Institute of Pharmacochemistry. /M. Churadze, J. Aneli, L. Takidze/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 131-136. – rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The 77-year history of the establishment and development of the herbarium of Iovel Kutateladze Institute of Pharmacochemistry is considered. The role of collaborators in the formation of the herbarium is mentioned. Since 2007, the herbarium has been registered in a Global Directory of Public Herbaria and Associated Staff - Index Herbariorum, 9th volume under the acronym TBPH.

Auth.

 

6.B2.73. Cariogeographical analysis of rare and endemic calcifilous plants of West Transcaucasia. /R. Gagnidze,M. Churadze,T. Cheishvili/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 137-162. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The calcefilous cariogeography of the West Transcaucasis has been studied. For the first time has been calculated the number of chromoses of the species: Aristolochia pontica Stev.2n=12, Epimedium colchicum (Boiss.) Trautv. 2n=12, Amphoricarpos elegans Albov 2n=22, Kemulàriella colchica (Albov) Tamamsch. 2n=12, Leptopuscolchicus (Fisch.etMey.) Pojark. 2n=12, Gentiana oschtenica (Kusn.) Woronow 2n=26, Betonica abchasica (Bornm.) Chinth. 2n=16, Scutellaria helenae Albov 2n=22, Ranunculus grossheimii Kolak. 2n=16, R.helenae Albov 2n=16, Daphne pseudosericea Pobed. 2n=18, Astrantia colchica Albov 2n=14, Heracleum calcareum Albov 2n=22. Based on a cariological and botanical-geographic analysis and against the background of the Euxinian Basin history, the development and formation of the West Transcaucasia limestone flora is discussed. It is found that most calcifilous and facultative species of the northern and eastern areas of the  Euxinian Basin are diploid and preserve the florogenetical links with representatives of the calcifilous flora of the Mediterranean region. These species can be ascribed to the Euxiniam florogenetic element. In terms of systematization, a part of diploid species is isolated, and poliploid endemic species belong to represent arch endemics or paleopoliploids. In addition to the number of chromosomes of the species given in the work, the herbarium number of the studied species, location, collector, as well as the sample storage place (TBI-Tbilisi Botanical Institute,TB-Tbilisi State University) are given.

Auth.

 

6.B2.74. Determination of the content of microelements in some Georgian mineral waters. /B. Gogichaishvili, R. Kavzinadze, I. Khurtsilava/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #1. – pp. 57-61. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

It is shown that among the chemical elements found in mineral waters in small quantity, worthy of notice are microelements of definite biological activity, such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, and Mn. By using a preliminarily developed chromatography concentration method, the above elements have been fixed in some of the Georgian mineral waters, including those of Tskaltubo. For the first time, the content of these elements in mineral waters has been determined

Auth.

 

6.B2.75. Hydrogen bonds in crystal structures of some phseudohydroacetates. /G. Tsintsadze, N. Endeladze, B. Gogichaishvil, A. Chubinidze, R. Kavzinadze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #2. – pp. 15-18. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus

In the work the hydrogen bonds in crystal structures of phseudohydroacetates are studied. The structures of hydroacetates of alkali and alkali earth metals are analyzed and shown that at transition from compounds of metals with small ion radius to the compounds of larger-size cations changes occur in yjr structure which is related to isolation of infinite columns and layers from exygenic polyhedrons of atoms of metals. The analysis of geometric characteristics of hydrogen bonds in structures revealed that formations of dimmers and trimmers are carried out by strong hydrogen bonds when the distance O.... O is less than 2,5Å

Auth.

 

6.B2.76. Reduction of albumin loss upon ultrafiltrative concentration with application of the pulsative flow of solutions of biologically active substances. /R. Lomaia, Sh. Rukhadze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #2. – pp. 39-41. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The reasons of albumin loss upon ultrafiltrative concentration are shown. For reducing albumin loss, the optimum type of the membrane UPM-100 according to selectivity is chosen. The advantage of pulsative mode of divided solution and optimum mode parameters of the division process in the view of the optimal constructive parameter, the height of the channel of division are experimentally established. For ultrafiltrative concentration the flow pulsative mode of divided solution is chosen which is more effective than turbulent mode. The optimum frequency of pulsation (1.1 pulses per second) and the height of channel of division (1,5 mm) are established. It is proved that with application of the abovementioned parameters upona ultrafiltrative concentration the loss of albumin decreases in 5-6 times.

Auth.

 

6.B2.77. Membrane phospholipid ratio and cell stability. /M.Gordeziani, M.Tabatadze, I. Atanelishvili/. Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – v. 3. - # 3. -  pp. 158-161. – eng., res.: geo.

The results of quantitative description of 11 5(1) y Nocardiopsis dassonvillei cells phospholipids exposed to different doses of UV irradiation are presented. Spectral methods are applied to measure the amount of total, amino and choline comprising phospholipids. Additionally, stability of 11 5(1) y Nocardiopsis dassonvillei cells irradiated with the same doses was examined. Different pattern of quantitative changes of amino and choline comprising phospholipids was detected. Functional relationship between phospholipid composition and cell stability is discussed.

Auth.

 

6.B2.78. Some perennial herb representatives of the Asteraceae family in Kutaisi Botanical Garden. /D. Tsulukidze, E. Khutsishvili/. Novation.    2009. – #5 – pp. 81-84. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

The ar­tic­le presents the des­crip­ti­on of so­me pe­ren­ni­al herbs from the Aste­ra­ce­ae fa­mily, mainly Achil­lea fi­li­pen­du­li­na Lam. cv Par­ke`s va­ri­ety, Le­u­can­the­mum ma­xi­mum (Ra­mond) DC. cv 'Alas­ka' and Le­u­can­the­mum ma­xi­mum (Ra­mond) DC. cv 'Ofel­li­a'. They are in­tro­du­ced in Ku­ta­i­si Bo­ta­ni­cal Gar­den from Tbi­li­si Bo­ta­ni­cal Gar­den in 2005-2008. The abo­vemen­ti­o­ned herbs have adapted to Ku­ta­i­si na­tu­ral con­di­ti­ons; they ha­ve a plenty and long-las­ted blo­o­m. They do not ne­ed spe­ci­al ag­ri­cul­tu­ral care. Le­u­can­the­mum is reproduced well both by se­eds and by ve­ge­ta­ti­on - di­vi­ding the bush it­self; and  Achil­lea - only by ve­ge­ta­ti­on. The­se plants are cha­rac­te­rized by high re­sis­tan­ce to diseases and in­sects. Accor­ding to the­se fe­a­tu­res, they can be wi­dely used in dif­fe­rent com­po­si­ti­ons and in bouquets.

Auth.

 

6.B2.79. The prospects of cultivating jujube (Zi­zip­hus ju­ju­ba Mill)  in Georgia to produce a bio-preparation. /G. Gvaladze/. Novation.    2009. –  #5 – pp. 85-89. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

Jujube is the best medicinal plant for cultivating under conditions of West Ge­or­gia; Jujube fruit is easily processed and is rich in biologically active substances, especially in the content of vitamin C, from 222 to 690 mg%. In addition, the jujube fruits can be used to treat different infection-caused pathologies, cardiovascular diseases and hypertension.

Auth.

 

6.B2.80. Mineral composition of a biologically active additive (BAA) produced tea and medicinal plants. /S. Kostava/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 236-240. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

For determining the microelement composition of a BAA, a desktop energy-dispersive X-ray-fluorescence (EDXPF) analyzer ElvaX Spectrometer was used. On the basis of the analysis carried out, it has been established that the BAA is rich in all the microelements necessary for the human organism, especially in the “protective” (Se, Zn, I) and essential (important for the life) K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, Fe, Co and other minerals, which makes it especially promising for use in the normalization of various vital processes, as well as in the treatment and prevention of diseases and enhancing the natural immunity to different environmental artifacts.

Auth.

6.B2.81. Phenol-formaldehyde type polymers on the basis of bisphenols. /N. Gelashvili, G. Papava, M. Gurgenishvili, I. Chitrekashvili, Z. Molodinashvili, Z. Tabukashvili/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 84-89. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

Methylol derivative on the basis of adamantane type bisphenols was obtained. Some kinetic regularities of reaction of interaction of polycyclic bisphenols and formaldehyde were studied. Bisphenol III is taken as an example.  

Auth.

 

6.B2.82. The regularities of electrolytic dissociation of phthalic acid. /E. Kvaratskhelia, R.  Kvaratskhelia, R. Kurtanidze/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 91-94. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

An analysis of the regularities of the dissociation of phthalic (benzenedicarboxylic) acid was carried out with the aid of a method previously described by the authors. The values of the degrees of dissociation for both steps, and the concentrations of various ionized and non-ionized forms of this acid were determined. Empirical equations are also suggested for easy approximate calculation of the degrees of dissociation and pH values of dilute solutions of phthalic acid.  

Auth.

6.B2.83. Amplitude dependence of internal friction and shear modulus of tin-doped monocrystalline silicon. /G. Darsavelidze, I. Kurashvili, G. Bokuchava, T. Mkheidze, E. Sanaia, L. Gabrichidze/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 100-102. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

Internal friction and shear modulus amplitude dependences of tin-doped monocrystalline silicon were investigated. Values of critical strain amplitudes of dislocation segments breakaway, absolute shear modulus and elastic limit were determined. Internal friction, shear modulus and elastic limit are measured. Internal friction and shear modulus hysteretic type variations mechanism were analyzed.

Auth.

6.B2.84. Characteristics of the frequency distribution of some immunogenic markers in the population of the mountain region (Khulo) of Ajara. /M. Nagervadze, R. Khukhunaishvili, A. Diasamidze, M. Koridze, G. Dumbadze, L. Akhvlediani/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 176-179. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

Red blood group antigens represent a genetically stably determined trait, being of many-sided biological and clinical significance. The indigenous Ajarian population (105 subjects) was investigated for ABO, Rh-Hr, Kell, MN red blood group markers. Using immunoserologic methods, 13 erythrocytic group antigens (two of the ABO system: A, B; seven of the RH system: C, C, Cw, D, Du, E, e; two of the Kell system: K and k, and two of the MN system: M and N antigens) were studied. The obtained results were statistically processed. 44±4.9% of the said region’s population are carriers of the blood group 0(I), 37±4.82% are carriers of the phenotypic group A(II). Rather high is the ratio of the B(III) blood-group carriers (17±3.7%). The AB(IV) blood group is observable in 2±1.4%. In studying individual antigens of the Rh system in the Khulo population, the maximum frequency distribution of the e antigen was found (100±3.12%), being followed in frequency by the c antigen (89±3.12%). The frequency of the D antigen made up 82±3.8%, and that of the d antigen - 18±3.8%. The frequency of the c antigen made up 61±4.8%, that of the E antigen 23±4.2%. Six Rhphenotypic groups of various frequencies were recorded for the Khulo region population. The CcDee phenotype is the most characteristic of the said region’s population. Its distribution frequency amounts to 38±4.8%. The major part of the population is the carrier of the M-phenotypic group. The ratio of the MN phenotypic group carrier is 1.5 times less (32±4.6%). The N phenotypic group is characterized by a relatively lower frequency (20±4%).  

Auth.

 

B3. Geology. Geodesy

 

6.B3.1. Optimal methods of the static and dynamic breakdown of rocks. /.G.Baliashvili, F.Bezhanov, L.Gurchumelia, N.Sarjveladze, T.Rukhadze/. Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 33-37. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

Samples of marble, sandstone and tuff broken down by the action of static and dynamic forces are given when tested in the dried, water saturated, SAS saturated state in the air, water and SAS environment. The mechanism of rocks breakdown, causes of the variation of the value of specific work, and the optimal methods are given.

Auth.

 

6.B3.2. The geological policy of the country and rational use of the mineral resources. /.N. Kajaia, N. Japaridze, Sh. Gegia/. Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 38-42. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The optimal use of the country’s mineral resources raises the level of the state independence. Georgia lacks a well organized register of deposits classified by the reliability degree and commercial types of mineral resources. The state control over licensing, certification and utilization of mineral resources needs to be established.

Auth.

 

6.B3.3. Gold deposits prospecting criteria. /.D.Bluashvili, N.Japaridze/.Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 43-46. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The results of gold prospecting carried out since the second part of the last century and up to now are discussed. Three comparative information groups are picked out and the necessary criteria for prospecting gold deposits in the 21st century are considered.

Auth.

 

6.B3.4. Iron in the Early Oligocene sediments of the Georgian block. /A.Makharadze/. Novation. –  2009. – #5 – pp. 256-259. – rus., res.: geo., rus., eng.

Iron mineralogy in the volcanogenic sedimentary silico-manganese formation and its spread regularities are considered. The formation is shown to contain a low percentage of iron and to create small accumulations thereof. Iron in the formation is mainly met in the form of glauconite and iron-montmorollonite. Rarely iron hydro-oxides, oxides and carbon compounds are met.

Auth.

 

6.B3.5. Facies analysis of the volcano-sedimentary host rocks of the Cretaceous Madneuli massive sulphide deposit, Bolnisi District, Georgia. /N. Popkhadze, T. Beridze, R. Moritz, V. Gugushvili, S. Khutsishvili/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 103-108. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

The Cretaceous Madneuli barite-gold-copper-pollymetallic deposit is a major deposit of the

Georgian Bolnisi mining district, located in the Artvin-Bolnisi zone. This contribution presents a detailed lithofacies analysis of volcanic host rocks of the Madneuli deposit, including detailed mapping of six outcrop sections, hand samples studies and thin section observations. The rhyolitic volcanoclastic host rocks can be divided into three groups: (1) massive breccias interpreted as massive breccia flows, (2) stratified tuff and lapilli tuff (including ignimbrites, rhyolite and rhyodacite pyroclastic flows), and (3) turbiditic tuff. On the northern level of the deposit two ignimbrite horizons were singled out. One of them (columnar jointed ignimbrite) was first seen and described by the authors. The same should be said about the association of ignimbrite with rhyolitic pyroclastic lava flows and dacitic hyaloclastic rocks.  

Auth.

 

6.B3.6. Zonal dissection of Aalenian deposits by ammonites of the Caucasus. /M. Topchishvili/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 109-116. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

The author, on the ground of his own materials on the characteristic complexes of ammonites from various geological sections of the Caucasus, together with all available data on the present-day biostratigraphy, has worked out a detailed scheme of zonal dissection of the Aalenian deposits of the Caucasus which is correlated with the standard zone scale of Western Europe.  

Auth.

 

B4. Geography. Cartography. Astronomy

 

6.B4.1. Climatic conditions on the ancient Earth surface. /R. Kiladze/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 61-65. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

Taking into account the greenhouse effect and contemporary surface temperature of Venus, the value 352°C is taken as the ancient Earth’s surface temperature. A model of the atmosphere is beuilt; its principal components are CO2 and H2O. The obtained results radically change the traditional notions on the climatic conditions dominating on the Earth in the epoch of the origin of life on it. The above fact should be taken into consideration when investigating the problem of the origin of life on the planet.

Auth.

 

6.B4.2. Thermal balance of the Earth and global warming. /M. Jibladze, A. Mikaberidze, Z. Razmadze/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 75-78. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

By calculations of the thermal balance of the Earth it is shown that about half of the solar energy falling on the terrestrial surface is spent on evaporation of water from the surfaces of oceans, seas and the land. Part of it is absorbed by green plants, but thermal energy emitted because of human activity is by four orders less than the energy received by the Earth from the Sun. It is also noted that an increase in the concentration of CO2, which is considered to be the principal cause of the greenhouse effect, has a very poor influence on the average-annual temperature of the Earth, and the infrared radiation of the terrestrial surface absorbed by molecules of CO2 cannot evoke the greenhouse effect.  

Auth.

 

B5. OTHER NATURAL AND EXACT SCIENCES

 

6.B5.1.The first Georgian space object. /E. Medzmariashvili/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.13-18. – geo., res.: eng., rus.

The article deals with the first Georgian space object, its orbiting and successful experiment. This event is referred to in astronautics encyclopedia as a beginning of new technologies and the date of its implementation is recorded in the chronicles of the outstanding events in world astronautics.

Auth.

 

C. TECHNICAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES. SECTORS OF ECONOMY

 

C1. Power Industry

 

6.C1.1.The questions of rational using of Georgian water resources from the standpoint of sustainable economic development. /G. Gobechia, K. Makharadze, R. Phirtskhalava/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.46-49. geo., res.: eng., rus.

The questions of rational nature management, in particular using of water resources in Georgia are examined from the standpoint of sustainable economic development. The mentioned problems are essentially connected with a stable supply of population with high-quality drinking water, functioning of the country economy, preservation of the environment. It is shown that in order to ensure the principles of sustainable development, it is necessary to create corresponding indicator system and carry out monitoring in the field of rational use of water resources.

Auth.

6.C1.2. Energy balance of Georgia: transformation and tendency. /D. Chomakhidze, T. Kandelaki/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #4. – pp. 35-39. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

Study of energy of Georgia is the objective of the presented report. For this purpose development of entire fuel and energy complex is analyzed for the last 48 years. It covers actual parameters for 30 years including Soviet period (1960-1990 years) and years of independence (1991-2008 years). The study demonstrated that fuel and energy balance in Georgia for the period since 1960 up to 2008 was always negative. For specific years, demand of the country was met with local production resources as follows (in %) 1960 – 31.2; 1970. – 14.6; 1980 – 45.1; 1990 – 10.2; 1995 – 37.2; 2000 – 47.5; 2005 – 39.8; 2006 – 37.6; 2007 – 40 and 2008 – 39.5. So for the recent period of time tendency of gradually decreasing deficit is evident.

Auth.

6.C1.3. Simplified calculating models of controlled power transmission lines. /O. Zivzivadze, L. Zivzivadze, Sh. Pkhakadze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #2. – pp. 42-45. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.,

The article is devoted to application problems of new methods of electric energy transmission to long distances, in particular the development of calculating model for controlled transmission lines. Controlled lines are lines of a new generation which can change equivalent parameters depending on a mode. In terms of design, a controlled line is a system structured with homonymous phase wires of two chain lines arranged in pairs in which lines are approached to each other on minimal admitted distance, creating maximal electromagnetic interaction between circuits of the line. Due to such design of a line, the equivalent inductive resistance significantly decreases, increasing throughput of the line. In the article calculating method of a controlled line is developed. It is shown that each circuit of such line can be considered as a four-terminal network, transmission constant of which, together with wave parameters, are depended on the angle of shift between voltages of circuits. In contrast to the circuits that are not dependant on the shift angle, particular equivalent circuits are relatively simple. They facilitate calculations and analysis of controlled power transmission lines for the established modes.

Auth.

 

C2. Electrical Engineering. Electronics. Radio Engineering. Communications

 

6.C2.1.New generation network (NGN) transport platform development trends. /K. Khoshtaria, N. Burduli, D. Samushia/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.55-58. geo., res.: eng., rus.

The significant feature of today’s telecommunication is the trend to create packet based multi service networks. The base of transport infrastructure link layer for them is the Ethernet. Therefore, the main task for transport in mentioned networks is transmission of Ethernet traffic, providing all requests concerning to transport layer. In the article there is shown the evolution from TDM to packet switching oriented systems, and briefly considering different transport technologies (SDH, DWDM, MPLS, T-MPLS, PBT) and is suggested opinion, for implementing “perfect” NGN, it is necessary to create full optical transport infrastructure.

Auth.

6.C2.2. Analysis of the process of two-way multipoint electrocontact welding and operation of welding transformers in a consecutive mode. /T. Pkhakadze, M. Shalamberidze, A. Khvadagiani/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.91-93. geo., res.: eng., rus.

The analysis of operation of welding transformers in a consecutive mode during welding has allowed to reveal welding defects by measurement of secondary currents and comparison of their rating values.

 Auth.

                                                              

6.C2.3. Increase of reliability of electrothermal ore alloy furnaces with application of composite materials. /K. Bakuradze, E. Buadze, E. Bakuradze/.  Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #1. – pp. 20-22. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

In the work the question of replacement of copper pipes serving for cooling electro-contact «jaw» of ore alloy furnaces is considered for the purpose of increasing reliability and duration of their work. An alternative method of preparation the «jaw» with application of composite materials by use of a metal-textile composition is offered. The technology of preparation of a composite pipe is given and the tests for its reliability are carried out. Testing of a composite pipe formed by the offered method has shown that the electro-contact “jaw” and its cooling channel completely meet the requirements to the ore alloy furnace. Moisture existing in the composite pipe and the combustible gases are intensively and forced out from the form. The produced «jaw» is of a uniform structure and the performance increases 2-2.5 times. The application of the composite pipe in the electro-contact unit – “jaw” - has decreased their weight by 65kg

Auth.

 

6.C2.4. The simplified calculation of power interaction of conducting bodies in pulsed magnetic field. /B. Mamikonyan, Kh. Mamikonyan/. Novation.    2009. –  #5 – pp. 32-39. – rus., res.: geo., rus., eng.

A la­bo­ra­tory mo­del of bobbin-type electromagnetic accelerator is studied. The re­se­arch aim is the ex­pe­ri­men­tal spe­ci­fi­ca­ti­on of the sim­pli­fi­ed prin­cip­les of re­se­arch pro­ces­ses oc­cur­ring in the de­vi­ce. The sim­pli­fi­ed the­ory of the re­sults of the de­vi­ce’s ex­pe­ri­men­tal research on al­ter­na­ti­ve and di­rect cur­rents is given and the co­in­ci­den­ce ac­cu­racy of the­o­re­ti­cal and ex­pe­ri­men­tal cur­ves of the de­pen­den­ce of short-cir­cu­i­ted ring kic­kback he­ight from the pres­su­re sti­mu­la­ti­on en­clo­sed to the bob­bin is assessed.

Auth.

 

C4. Mining. Metallurgy. Chemical Industry

 

6.C4.1. Development of silicomanganese smelting technologies, studies and industrial development by using high iron-content low-quality manganese ores in the charge at the ferroalloys miniplant “Meteks” Ltd. /Z. Simongulashvili, T. Sharashidze, M. Tsirdava, B. Maisuradze, S. Nebieridze/. Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 52-56. – rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The possibilities of developing new techniques and technologies under conditions of the Ferroalloys Miniplant “Meteks” LTD, the plant’s flexibility to change the technology and the segment of the produced production in the shortest period of time, taking into consideration market demands, have been discussed. The advantages of such miniplants over large plants have been analyzed. The new technology of producing silicomanganese in the charge using high iron-content low-quality manganese ores has been developed for the first time.

Auth.

 

6.C4.2.Rational design of a gear for replacement of automatic mill mandrels. /J. Melkadze, M. Mikautadze, S. Mebonia/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.94-96. geo., res.: eng., rus.

A new design of the gear for replacement of mandrels of automatic mill providing for the operation of the automatic mill of tube-rolling installation “140’’ work with two mandrels is proposed. The gear is so designed as to exclude idling and provide for the conservation of high rate of rolling on the automatic mill of installation “140’’. The introduction of the gear in industry will ensure the mechanization of mandrels replacement, improvement of quality of the manufactured products, especially upon rolling of light-wall tubing, expansion of the range of manufactured products, safe working conditions of the service staff.             

Auth.

 

6.C4.3. Preparation of activated manganese dioxide. /J. Shengelia, T. Agladze, L. Kapanadze, J. Gvelesiani, E. Aliashvili/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.97-105. geo., res.: eng., rus.

The optimal conditions for preparation of the activated manganese dioxide by treatment of the Chiatura second-grade peroxide and first-grade metallurgical concentrates were studied. It was shown that the electrochemical activity of the peroxide concentrate is close to the correspondent activity of the electrolytic manganese dioxide, while the electrochemical activity of the material produced by treatment of the metallurgical grade concentrate is about 87% of the activity of the electrolytic manganese dioxide.

Auth.

 

6.C4.4. Diagnostics of the copper-phosphorous solder fusion by a thermophysical technique. /B. Schukin, G. Jandieri, S. Kvatadze/. Novation.    2009. –  #5 – pp. 52-56. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

Peculiarities of the copper-phosphorous solder fusion control and management are considered. Advantages of the thermophysical technique in the process diagnostics are grounded. By interpolation of the thermograms and copper-phosphorous constitution diagrams, a mathematical expression of the fusion diagnostics, in particular, for analytical phosphorus testing in the melt is obtained.

Auth.

 

6.C4.5. Adhesion strength of secondary dispersion-reinforced thermoplastics at different testing temperatures. /N. Kheladze, D. Kiria/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 138-143. – rus., res.: geo., rus., eng.

The adhesion strength of secondary polyolefin compositions against the filler in the binder-fiber model system has been studied. Measurements were carried out from the liquid nitrogen temperature (-1950) up to +1200. It is determined that, close to the vitrification temperature and above, the adhesion strength in the polymeric material-fiber system does not practically depend on the specimen size, both in respect of the primary and secondary thermoplastics. The temperature dependence of the adhesion strength of different systems has an extreme character, its maximum being observed in the polyolefin vitrification temperature range. An increase in temperature leads to a gradual decrease in the adhesive strength, being especially notable in the polymer softening temperature section, verging to zero.  Other examples of adhesion strength changes are given. 

Auth.

 

6.C4.6. Study of the outcomes of the permanent effect of copper ions on natural populations of wine yeast. /A. Shatirishvili, N. Machavariani, T. Zarnadze/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 122-125. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

Resistance of natural populations of Anaga (Kakheti) and Surebi (Guria) wine yeast to copper ions has been studied. 250 strains of each population have been investigated. Both populations have been found polymorphic to the investigated trait. The Anaga population, in contrast to the Surebi population, has been subjected to the effect of copper ions for decades. As a result of natural selection, a great number of resistant strains have been accumulated in the Anaga population. A genetic analysis has established that out of 10 strains of the Anaga population 6 contain two resistance determining SMF1 and SMF2 dominant genes. The studied strains of the Surebi population have only one active locus.  

Auth.

 

C5. Mechanical Engineering. Instrument-making

 

6.C5.1. Construction of surfaces using first-order tangent transformations. /N.Abuladze, M.Chelidze, T.Shukakidze/. Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 85-88. – rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

Surfaces are constructed on the basis of the first-order tangent transformations by means of a direction vector equation. Here the surfaces, which are supposed to be variety of the tangential elements, are chosen as a prototype and basic figures. The device allows us to construct surfaces according to specified positional and differential – geometric conditions, which are the prerequisite for machining parts of an irregular shape on a machine–tool.

Auth.

 

6.C5.2. Kinematics of an improved brake rigging of electric train’s motor car. /G. Sharashenidze, M. Dolidze, S. Sharashenidze, G. Panjavidze, L. Kuparashvili/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.73-81. geo., res.: eng., rus.

The ideal kinematical parameters of the given brake rigging are determined. The respective formulas necessary for analytical study of kinematics of any brake rigging are obtained.

Auth.

 

6.C5.3. Research of the influence of backlashes on dynamic parameters of the main drive of machine units. /R. Adamia, S. Chagelishvili, Z. Nadiradze/.  Novation.    2009. –  #5 – pp. 21-31. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

The ge­ne­ral met­hod of cal­cu­la­ti­on of dyna­mic cha­rac­te­ris­tics of the rol­ling mills on dif­fe­rent sta­ges of mac­hi­ne star­ting, ta­king in­to ac­co­unt the co-exis­ten­ce of gaps in the dri­ve tran­smis­si­ons is proposed. The anal­ytic de­pen­den­ce bet­we­en the va­lu­es of gaps and ad­di­ti­o­nal for­ces (of im­pact cha­rac­ter) in­flu­en­ced by tem is established.

Auth.

6.C5.4. Peculiarities of analysis and design of washing machine drums. /T. Uriadmkopeli, M. Gurgenidze, O. Purtskhvanidze/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 110-114. – eng., res.: geo., rus., eng.

The work deals with the issues of analysis, design and modernization of washing machine drums, gives the methods of determination of the main technological parameters of the running drums. The necessity of rational analysis and calculation of the technological parameters of the drums and their science-based planning is experimentally justified and grounded.

Auth.

 

6.C5.5. Terminal ballistics of smoothbore firearms. /A. Khurtsilava, Z. Mardaleishvili, I. Chedia, R. Gogelia/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 217-223. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

This ar­tic­le considers the issues of ter­mi­nal (fi­nal) bal­lis­tics of so­me types of bul­lets designated for smo­ot­hbo­re we­a­pons with the application of a mockup target, being an effective substitution of soft tissue of a biological object in terms of its physical-technical characteristics; the issues of the theory of interactions of physical processes are considered.

Auth.

 

6.C5.6. Design of alternative combustion chambers for a multijet sprayer. /V. Gvetadze, G. Purtskhvanidze, D. Chogovadze, L. Gogisvanidze/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 228-231. – rus., res.: geo., rus., eng.

In designing a combustion chamber for a multijet sprayer, the basic attention is given to expanded chambers. They can be classified by several chief features. The first essential feature shall be the combustion chamber’s ability to intensify carburetion at the expense of the toroidal vortex displacement. Another essential feature is the shape of the forming lateral wall of the combustion chamber. Out of the existing combustion chambers, 4 principal types are considered: open, closed and combined.

Auth.

C6. Light Industry

 

6.C6.1. Len­gthe­ning of the boxcalf le­at­her for the footwear up­per. /M. Kar­kas­had­ze, T. Magh­la­ke­lid­ze, L. Sha­nid­ze/. Khandzta. #2(7). – pp. 173-176. – geo.; res.: eng., rus.

Among the mechanical properties of leather, len­gthe­ning is of a spe­ci­al im­por­tan­ce. On the ba­sis of the car­ri­ed out research, it is established that the boxcalf leather len­gthe­ning standard upon 10 MPa load should be replaced with the stan­dard upon rupture or con­stant lo­ad (10 kn/m) according to the width. The de­ter­mi­na­ti­on of such len­gthe­ning should be organized at all le­at­her dres­sing en­ter­pri­ses du­ring a ye­ar, one of the indicators be fixed on the basis of the obtained data, and standards be recommended. Similarly, the uniformity factor for leather lengthening in all directions should be fixed.

Auth.

6.C6.2. Theoretical and manufacturing bases of computer design of ready-made garments. /O. Kardash/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #3. – pp. 14-18. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

Directions of computer software development in the clothing manufacture are shown and their disadvantages are defined. Classification of computer software directions in computer design is developed. The objective and principles of computer design are formulated. The achievement of this objective is shown by examples.

Auth.

 

6.C6.3. Development of basic criteria of sex and age related classification system formation of footwear. /M. Grdzelidze, A. Katamadze, M. Shalamberidze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #3. – pp. 22-26. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The importance of standardization of the differentiation of the juvenile population according to the foot size is shown. From this point of view: current situation and existing sex and age related classification system have been analyzed. Anthropometric research of 10-17 year old teenagers have been carried out; as a result of the obtained information, the basic statistical parameters and regulations of size differentiation have been revealed; the base and basic criteria for formation sex and age related classification system by the new method have been developed.

Auth.

 

6.C6.4. New methods of sex-age specific classification formation to provide juveniles with convenient footwear. /M. Grdzelidze, A. Katamadze, M. Shalamberidze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #3. – pp. 26-29. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The importance of standardization of the differentiation of juveniles in Georgia according to the foot size is shown and the relevant current situation is analyzed. New research results are shown and basic criteria for developing a new method of sex-age specific classification formation of 9-17 year old juveniles are determined. It is established that “integration” of groups by a merger of adolescents of both sexes into the low age group brought forth positive results. In particular, the planning of lasts of one design for the juveniles of both sexes will be sufficient, the number of lasts and, accordingly, cutters, forms and other equipment will be reduced. It is shown that the basis of “integration” is the merger of adolescents of senior age (over 14) with the adult population that entails the reduction of lasts and other manufacturing equipment. Under condition of small enterprises, this will make possible to diversify footwear manufacture; for example, the enterprise will be able to make footwear not only for women but also for girls (group 7), not only for girls, but also for boys (group 4), etc. The new system will ensure rational supply of an enterprise with lasts and the corresponding reduction of the cost of products and increase in revenues. In addition, the new system will ensure better satisfaction of the young people with footwear, and is to be introduced at small shoe factories.

Auth.

 

6.C6.5. Structural-logical model for formation footwear assortment. /S. Garkavenko/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #3. – pp. 32-37. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The structural-logical model of the footwear assortment formation is given.  As a result of the carried out research, the structural-logical model of the range of footwear made of leather and other materials is designed, for manufacture of which enterprises are being specialized based on a complex analysis of the portfolio of the subjects of monopolistic competitive market. The assortment so analyzed requires further detailing, taking into account the stochastic environmental factors that influence the demand for the enterprise’s products. A follow-up study for perfecting the assortment formation methods should take into account other factors, such as seasonality and uncertainty, as well as additive components on the basis of the models of dispersive and covariance analyses. The major stages of the company trade portfolio formation process are determined. On the basis of a complex portfolio analysis, a logical model of the assortment formation is offered.

Auth.

 

 

6.C6.6. Research of a possibility of technological parameters improvement for flat  knitting machines. /Z. Vadachkoria/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #3. – pp. 38-40. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The possibility of technological parameters’ improvement for flat knitting machines is discussed. A stretching device of set loops for flat knitting machines of the type ÏÂÊÌ and ÏÂÐÊ is developed, which exceeds by its technical parameters the existing ones. It enables improving the loop setting process and quality of the produced knitted garments. The device does not complicate the machine’s design and service or affect its technological possibilities; on the contrary, using of a supplementary feeder, enhances the patterning possibilities of the machine.

Auth.

 

6.C6.7. Development of knitted filters for technical purposes.  /Z. Vadachkoria/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #3. – pp. 40-42. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The materials for development of technical textile, in particular technical stockinet are given. An analysis of the existing woven filters with their positive and negative aspects is made. The requirements to the technical filters are shown. An analysis of knitted loops is made and the knitted loop which best meets the set requirements are chosen. The advantages of using stockinet against the existing woven filters are given and the corresponding conclusions are made.

Auth.

 

6.C6.8. Research of operation of a filling thread compensator of a pneumatic rapier weaving  machine ÀÒÏÐ-120 upon lapping of rotor spinning cotton yarn ÁÄ-200. /O. Purtskhvanidze, M. Gurgenidze, T. Uriadmkopeli/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #3. – pp. 43-46. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The principle of operation of the filling thread compensator of the loom ÀÒÏÐ -120 upon one shaft revolution is analyzed. The thread movement speed through the eye of the compensator, angles of bending, loop length, tension of the lapped filling thread at various distances are formulated. It is established that the angles of bending of lapping yarn reach the maximum value in the lowermost position of the compensator that gradually reaches the minimum value upon initial lapping of the filling thread through the mouth. It is shown that the loop length in the compensator’s eye is also maximal in the lowermost position and minimal upon meeting of the right and left rapiers. The maximum lapping speed of the filling thread corresponds to the movement of the left rapier through the mouth.

Auth.

 

6.C6.9. Study of factors influencing shrinkage of textiles. /N. Ghintibidze, N. Tkhelidze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #3. – pp. 47-52. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

It is shown that quality improvement of textile materials depends on many factors and first of all requires the knowledge of textile material properties, their correct and accurate estimation, objective appreciation and control of their quality parameters, the influence of deteriorative factors on the product quality. As it is known, textile materials tend to change a linear dimension which is conditioned by a number of factors. First of all, it is swelling, relaxation and friction between fibers and threads. All these factors are interconnected, which enables additional study of their impacts on the shrinkage. 22 samples of clothes and fabrics are chosen for studying. They are grouped according to the fibrous structure in the following order: cotton - 33.3%, wool – 22.2%, flax – 11%, silk – 28.5%. The shrinkage of surface fabrics is determined by a new technique developed by the authors. The dependence of the set of wrap and the set of weft on shrinkage and air permeability is determined. The comparison of the obtained result demonstrated that the shrinkage studied by our technique decreased in the samples 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 15, 16, 18, 19, 22 and increased in the samples 1, 4, 5, 8, 10, 11. However, such differences cannot be considered as deterioration of properties, as the difference is not big and it does not depend only on conditions of operation. For the purpose of establishing a regulation between the above-mentioned parameters, the obtained results are processed by methods of mathematical statistics, using two-factor and multifactor analyses. The coefficients of correlation and regression equations are calculated, and the regression equations are constructed for both the normalized and natural variables.

Auth.

 

6.C6.10. Measurement of humidity for fibrous materials. /A. Khurtsilava, N. Kanteladze, N. Ghintibidze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #4. – pp. 7-10. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The peculiarities of measurement of specific humidity of fibrous materials by means of electrical method are shown. It is indicated that fibrous materials have both the active and reactive conductance and are characterized of the polarization current at the dc voltage, which is associated with the measurement error. For measuring humidity at the alternating voltage, the capacity method is recommended. An analysis of the design of condensers is given, on the basis of which it is established that capacitor transducers cannot provide input and removal of materials in the gauge and cannot ensure accuracy upon non-uniform distribution of moisture in the materials. For reducing the measurement error caused by non-uniform distribution of humidity in the material and density changes and for preserving the transducer operation condition, it is recommended that the capacitor transducer be designed as a plane-arranged electrode condenser.

Auth.

 

6.C6.11. The diabetic foot and requirements to diabetic footwear. /A. Katamadze, M. Grtzelidze, M. Shalamberidze/.  Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #4. – pp. 11-14. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The forces affecting the human foot and hence the peculiarities of a rational design of diabetic footwear are discussed. The causes of the foot and the whole organism pathologies are analyzed and the flat-foot causing symptoms are shown. The importance of diabetic footwear in the prevention of diabetes mellitus is given. Proposed are five characteristics developed as a result of the study that should be taken into consideration when choosing and wearing diabetic footwear, especially orthotics. The importance of collaboration of podiatrists, endocrinologists and diabetic footwear makers for manufacturing such therapeutic footwear is underlined.

Auth.

 

6.C6.12. Device and technique of string friction coefficient at movement on thread guide surface. /M. Gogoladze, A. Badzgaradze, N. Abesadze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #4. – pp. 14-17. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The dependence of the constant of friction on the thread speed and pressure on the thread guide surface, in particular in the yarn removal device of a pheumomechanical spinning machine is established. It is shown that an increase in the yarn tension upon increase of the radius of funnel inlet hole occurs at the expense of pressure reduction and, consequently, upon increase in the constant of friction. It is established that the application of a spiral leads to an increase in the yarn tension, of the yarn speed and, consequently, of the constant of friction.

Auth.

 

6.C6.13. Importance of special footwear for diabetics. /A. Katamadze, M. Grtzelidze, L. Schalamberidze, L. Chubinidze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #4. – pp. 17-20. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

An information survey of the state of diabetic people, whose number has dramatically increased all over the world, is given. A similar situation is observed in Georgia. The importance of diabetic footwear for preventing the disease is underlined. The impact of footwear on different moments of walking is analyzed. It is shown that to cope with the problem, active efforts on the part of professional diabetic footwear makers are also necessary.

Auth.

 

6.C6.14. Influence of the electrostatic charge in clothes on children’s health. /N. Ghintibidze, N. Tkhelidze, P. Gelkhviidze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #4. – pp. 39-42. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The value of electrostatic charge is determined on the device HB 3-2 offered by the authors. The electrostatic charge value is measured in the textile materials used in children’s clothes. The recommendation of the materials to be used in the manufacture of baby clothes is given. The existence of human being in any environment is connected with the influence of electromagnetic fields. In the case of motionless electrical charges we deal with electrostatic fields. Together with natural static electrical fields under condition of technosphere and in life, people are subjected to the effects of artificial electrostatic charges. They affect the nervous and cardiovascular systems. According to the charge value, the studied samples have been grouped in the following order: cotton yarn, silk thread, viscose thread, viscose staple fiber yarn, acetate staple fiber yarn, wool yarn, Capron staple yarn, Capron complex thread. The most undesirable in manufacturing children’s clothing is the Capron complex thread.

Auth.

 

6.C6.15. Improvement of construction method of dummy surface development. /M. Datuashvili, I. Charkviani/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #4. – pp. 45-47. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The question of dummy surface development by means of an arch notch method is discussed. The process of breadboarding obtained by the existing method has shown complete discrepancy of development details to the form and sizes of the dummy. For elimination of the mentioned discrepancy, a special dummy surface investigation device has been developed (making it possible to determine a distance between two points on both the dummy and any curved surface), as well as a technique of a dummy surface construction. The surface development obtained by means of the developed technique is characterized by high accuracy and completely corresponds with the surface of the object under study.

Auth.

 

6.C6.16. On a new method for studying the exterior of a human body. /M. Datuashvili, N. Dolidze, K. Chirgadze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #4. – pp. 47-49. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The questions of research of the exterior of a human body, body frame and construction are discussed. The issues of the exterior form research of a human body deserve special attention in the improvement of military uniform design methods. On the basis of the research analysis, a new type of gadget is developed for researching the human body build. On the basis of a comparative analysis of the human body build carried out by the existing and developed methods, the degree indicators of the angle between the straight spots in the upper parts of the backbone are established; recommendations on establishment of the type of body build of military personnel are developed on the basis of the carried out research.

Auth.

 

6.C6.17. Distribution of appendages on different parts of clothing depending on the item’s shape and the material applied. /L. Lursmanashvili, N. Dolidze, M. Datuashvili/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.106-110. geo., res.: eng., rus.

When designing clothes, attention should be paid to appendages, the sizes of which should be in line with the shapes, patterns, materials, outfit, and design of clothes, the person’s body build features, etc., so that a rational clothing design is obtained.

Auth.

 

6.C6.18. Determining the thread form and tension in the feeder of a spinning and twisting device. /M. Gogoladze, I. Khurtsilava, N. Pailodze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #1. – pp. 24-28. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

Analytic dependences determining the form of a cylinder and thread tension in the feeder of a rotary spinning and twisting device upon manufacture of twisted core-spun yarn are obtained. A substantial growth of the twisted thread tension in the feeder and the cylinder shape of the fed thread are established.

Auth

 

6.C6.19. Study of the structure of a thickener modified with bentonites. /E. Buadze, M. Sharabidze, R. Bochorishvili/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #1. – pp. 37-43. - eng.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The aim of the present work was to study the structure of a thickening agent having been modified with bentonites by means of X-ray phase analysis. According to the outcome of X-ray phase analysis, the following conclusion is made: manutex and bentonites form a polymeric system, in which montmorollonite is set on the polymeric structure of manutex that causes its chemical modification. It is determined that after printing, the thickener-contained bentonite remains on the amorphous parts of the fibroin (manutex being completely washed). Being a perfect sorbent, the remained bentonite absorbs additional amount of dye, as a consequence of which the coloring power increases

Auth.

 

6.C6.20. Weaving looms with flexible foil and their use for producing decorative fabrics for furniture. /N. Abesadze, N. Chkhaidze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #1. – pp. 50-54. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The work gives characteristics of weaving looms with flexible foil and kinematic scheme of its preparation. We have researched the driving peculiarities of high density weft yarn, including fashion yarn, also conditions of convolutions of the fashion yarn from two different types of weft bobbins. Recommendations for using “rocket” shaped bobbins for weaving is given.

Auth.

 

6.C6.21. Development of knitted fabric for technical purposes. /Z. Vadachkoria/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #2. – pp. 50-52. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The possibility of obtaining knitted fabric for technical purposes on the loom with a shutdown press is discussed. Six variants of knitted fabrics have been developed which differ from one another in thread laying and applied raw materials. The pieces of knitted fabric have been studied for the following parameters: longitudinal and transverse breaking tension, durability, hygroscopic property, air permeability. The cotton-yarn knitted samples are characterized of high hygienic properties – high hygroscopic property and air permeability, but have very law durability. But the stretch-thread knitted samples are characterized of high physical and mechanical properties and low hygienic parameters. The cotton-yarn knitted variants combined with stretch thread have been found to possess the best properties of both raw materials. It is shown that for knitting fabric for technical purposes is expedient to use combination of cotton yarn and stretch thread.

Auth.

 

6.C6.22. Research of the process of yarn winding on  ÁÄ-200 and ÏÊ-100 spinning machines. /O. Purtskhvanidze, T. Uriadmkopeli, M. Gurgenidze/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 120-123. – rus., res.: geo., rus., eng.

The article deals which research of a mathematical model of the yarn winding process with the help of first-order differential equation of drawing of a uniform and perfectly elastic product. The formula, worked out as a result of the research, defines the product drawing on the machine; the process of yarn winding is followed by the first-order drawing.

Auth.

 

6.C6.23. Research of balloon parameters during the winding of twist yarn from cylindrical bobbins of the PK-100 machine. /O. Purtskhvanidze, T. Uriadmkopeli, M. Gurgenidze/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 124-128. – rus., res.: geo., rus., eng.

The article deals with variation of the balloon parameters during rewinding of yarn from the cylindrical bobbin of the PK-100 spinning and twisting machine. Cotton yarn of 15, 4 text×2, 178, 5 text×2 and 37 text×2 has been used in the full-scale experiment. Four types of variable winding speed have been selected for each yarn: 10; 13,3; 16,6 and 20 m/second. Strain-gage recording, study of the balloon shape variations across the different diameters of the bobbin, and other processes were carried out during the experiment. As a result, the balloon parameters during winding of the twist cotton yarn on the PK-100 machine have been experimentally determined. The theoretical and experimental dependences of the thread tension have been compared.

Auth.

 

6.C6.24. Research of an analytical method of conditions of manufacture of an accidental bed of rotor yarn in the course of twisting. /M. Gogoladze, Z. Maglaferidze/. Novation.    2009. –  #5 – pp. 129-133. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

For re­duc­ing a share of blanket fibers of a rotor yarn, it is ne­ces­sary that the yarn ri­gi­dity du­ring twisting be increased. Although, it not so efficient and in­sig­ni­fi­cantly in­flu­en­ces the yarn du­ra­bi­lity.

Auth.

 

6.C6.25. Analysis of the properties of a pure yarn produced by a pneumomechanical way of spinning. /M. Gogoladze/. Novation. –  2009. – #5 – pp. 134-137. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

The pa­raf­fining of the pneumomechanical yearn leads to a reduction of durability parameters, with the concurrent reduction of the yarn hairiness. In order to increase the number of fibers in the cross section and preserve elasticity, fibers of low linear density are used. This has a positive effect on the yarn quality, increasing its durability and reducing irregularity along the linear density.

Auth.

 

C7. Food Industry

 

6.C7.1. Fo­od sa­fety and mar­ket formation principles and pe­cu­li­arities. /N. Jab­nid­ze/. Khandzta. #2(7). – pp. 122-125. – geo.; res.: eng., rus.

The­ article deals with fo­od sa­fety prob­lems and the current sta­te of the agricultural products mar­ket functi­o­ning in Ge­or­gia. The shortcomings existing in this sphere and the food safety parameters are discussed, as well as the principal means and directions of handling this problem.

Auth.

 

6.C7.2. Experimental grounding of parameters of dry tea selective breaking. /Z.Ja­pa­rid­ze/. Khandzta. #2(7). – pp. 137-139. – geo.; res.: eng., rus.

The optimal values of parameters of dry tea se­lec­ti­ve bre­a­king are ex­pe­ri­men­tally grounded. A rol­ler tea bre­a­king mac­hi­ne has been designed as a la­bo­ra­tory de­vi­ce, which makes it possible to chan­ge the ope­ra­ting fac­tors in the gi­ven in­ter­vals.  The criterion determining technological efficiency of separation of a two-com­po­nent blend in two frac­ti­ons is ac­cep­ted as a criterion for estimating the experiments, the extreme value of which is being found by using the sim­plex met­hod. As a re­sult, it is concluded that the highly ef­fective se­lec­ti­ve bre­a­king of dry tea is achieved under conditions of the mi­ni­mum va­lu­es of the rol­lers’ di­a­me­ter of the bre­a­king mac­hi­ne and low solidity of its elas­tic sur­fa­ce.

Auth.

 

6.C7.3. Utilization of wine production waste in the making of rum. /T. Rukhadze, P. Toroshelidze/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.111-114. geo., res.: eng., rus.

The utilization of wine production waste in the rum-making technology is a rather important subject and presents a technology novelty. A new strain of yeast and was used and the sugar-cane raw material was fermented with wine production waste, in particular the grape seeds and skins. Hence it means that the endogenic alcoholic yeasts have been substituted with natural yeasts of the endogenic wine. The wine aroma and flavor can easily be perceived in the drink so made.

Auth.

 

6.C7.4. Concentration of extracts by reverse osmosis in the production of non-alcoholic drinks. /Sh. Rukhadze, R. Lomaia, A. Aptsiauri, N. Tsutskiridze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #1. – pp. 62-65. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The work deals with the possibility of concentration of vegetable extracts (eleuterococcus, St.-John's wort, and liquorice) by means of a reverse osmosis. Technological processes of the preparation of extractive and flavor components of the non-alcohol drink are described. The osmotic pressures of vegetable extracts and regime parameters of the processes of concentration by reverse osmosis are determined.

Auth.

 

6.C7.5. Technology of a new kind of  vegetable aromatizer remedy and bioproduct from the feijoa fruit (Feijoa sellowiana Berg). /G.Ghvaladze/. Novation.    2009. –  #5 – pp. 90-95. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

The feijoa fruits are rich in essential oil, iodine microelements and pectin. The feijoa fruits are characterized by high flavouring qualities, taste of exotic banana and pineapple aroma. Proceeding from this, the technology of production of a new aromatizer by using the feijoa fruits, known as “feijoa” and “feialcol” has been worked out. The aromatizer is used in the production of various products, including alcoholic drinks, new kinds of liqueur, fruit drinks, wines, etc. In addition, the feijoa fruits were used to make a new biopreparation, which contains iodine microelements and can treat the thyroid gland dysfunctions and the concomitant pathologies. The proposed product has good prospects for introduction in the food and pharmaceutical industry with the resulting social and economic effect.

Auth.

 

6.C7.6. Microwave drying of the secondary grape processing products. /E. Pruidze, G. Khetsuriani, A. Ghvinepadze/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 101-104. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

The work considers the convective and microvawe drying of the grape processing waste –  husks of various white grapes. The microvawe drying has been found to considerably increase the drying speed and reduce its duration by 3-4 times.              

Auth.

 

6.C7.7. A new range of cookies using the secondary grape processing products. /G. Khetsuriani, E. Pruidze, N. Minadze, A. Ghvinepadze/. Novation. –  2009. – #5 – pp. 110-109. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

The main tendency of contemporary confectionary industry is wide application of natural ingredients and orientation to the concept of healthy diet. A dry white powder is produced from the blend of squeezed skins of various white sorts of grapes to be added to the reference formulas of ship’s biscuit and cracker in the amount of 5, 10, and 15% of the flour weight. The reference samples are made in compliance with the traditional technology. An analysis of the half-finished and finished products has shown that the optimum quantity of the added powder is 10%. The obtained product is in full compliance with the relevant standards.    

Auth.

 

6.C7.8. Storage of finished tea under conditions of reduced atmospheric pressure in the presence of inert gas. /K. Kintsurashvili, R. Melkadze/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 241-245. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

The storage of finished black tea under conditions of the reduced atmospheric pressure and in the presence of an inert gas (nitrogen) is investigated. It is shown that during 12 months, the quality indicators of the test tea remain unchanged, whereas under ordinary storage conditions the tea quality worsens by 1-2 categories. The obtained results allow considering of the proposed method of tea storage as an effective and secure means of preserving the initial chemical and quality indicators of the product.

Auth.

 

C8. Construction. Architecture

 

6.C8.1. Definition of optimum parameters of three-rod truss. /B. Gvasalia, D. Jankarashvili, T. Sherazadishvili/. Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 9-13. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

A mathematical model of a three-rod truss is determined. A problem of optimal selection and design of sections of a three-rod truss is set to minimize the truss weight and to comply with the requirements to rod durability, hardness and stability the truss. A set of applied programs using the random search algorithm for searching for the global extremum has been developed.

Auth.

 

6.C8.2. Testing of a reinforced concrete construction element for bending, vibration and identification of its initial rigidity. /I. Kvaraia, N. Mskhiladze/.Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 14-18. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The development of modem computer technologies allows controlling the constructions in an uninterrupted automatic regime. This requires that the information on test results is to be obtained through the existing converters and transformed in a form that is easy to process. Therefore, during any test, it is necessary that, first of all, the test parameters be identified and the methodology for their identification selected. In order to identify the parameters in their entirety, which are important at any stage of the strained deformed state of bending reinforced concrete constructions, a simple methodology has been developed. In addition, the initial dynamic and static rigidities have been established and compared with the theoretical value of the rigidity.

Auth.

 

6.C8.3. Deformation of light concrete at cyclic pressing tension. /I.Kvaraia, N. Mskhiladze/.Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 19-24. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

Georgia, as an active seismic region, much importance attaches to a wide use of light concrete in the construction industry. Based on the light concrete effectiveness, the production of artificial light concrete aggregates, which is rather costly, has been practiced globally for a long time now. As for Georgia, whose reserves of natural aggregates of volcanic origin, the physical and mechanical properties of which are well studied, are practically unlimited, are less employed. Given the booming construction in the country, further study of the concrete based on such aggregates is necessary. For this purpose, light concrete testing for axial compression and tension in the case of both one-time as well as of cyclically increasing static loads of seismic type have been carried out.

Auth.

 

6.C8.4. Questions of formation of the architectural environment and interior of family hotels in high mountainous regions of Georgia (by the example of  Khevsureti and Back Pshavi) /I. Gabashvili, M. Milashvili/.Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 57-62. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The role of tourism as one of the leading directions in terms of socio-economic development in the 21st century world economy is considered. Tourism is an important source of economic wellbeing and the creation of a competitive network of family hotels in the resort areas of Georgian is a priority task. Pshav-Khevsureti – the most scenic and original region, located on a complex mountainous natural landscape and rich in architectural and historical monuments, represents the most promising region for the purpose. The article deals with the urgency, objectives, problems, the ways of their handling, as well as the outcomes of familiarization with and analysis of the tourist–recreational resources of the region and  their implementation for developing specific planning proposals and recommendations on the construction in the region of appropriate family hotels and adapt the available housing for the purpose.

Auth.

 

6.C8.5. Determination of factors influencing operation regimes of machines and their importance for fracturing asphalt-concrete pavements. /M. Baratashvili/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #4. – pp. 57-62. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The necessity of determination of effective methods and specific operation regimes for machines designated for asphalt-concrete pavements regeneration is substantiated. The results of theoretical and experimental investigations of asphalt-concrete pavement cutting processes are considered and analyzed. The nature of basic factors influencing the cutting process of paving materials is defined The substantiation of specific geometrical properties of the cutting elements and values of indices, such as warming-up optimal temperature and speed of cutting of asphalt-concrete pavements, obtained on the base of analysis of the concrete experimental investigations, are given. The specific mathematical dependences for determination of operation regimes of machines repairing the road pavements are given. The dependence of stress value calculation directed to the cutting element of the machine’s operating unit is given together with the specific values of basic calculating parameters conditioning the loads on the machine’s operating units.

Auth.

 

6.C8.6. The tunnel building experience using the New Austrian Tunneling Method. /M. Grdzelishvili, A. Tskvitinidze/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.82-85. geo., res.: eng., rus.

The New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) is widely used in construction of underground structures. The article considers in detail the advantages of this method and the examples of its application in many countries of the world.

Auth.

 

6.C8.7. Does the country need construction managers? /A. Sokhadze, J. Chogovadze, R. Makhviladze/. Building. – 2010. - #1. -  pp. 6-10. – geo.; res.: geo., rus., eng.

Under conditions of modern market economy, the creation of the investment environment and its provision with labor and material resources in the construction sector are managed by qualified staff having obtained the knowledge in the spheres of construction economy, marketing and management. The local building and developing companies lack qualified personnel in this respect, which greatly affects their financial standing and goodwill. The authors think it necessary that the Georgian Technical University undertook the training of such personnel within the scope of their curricula.

Auth.

 

6.C8.8. Peculiarities of foundation, computer simulation and design of drinking water reservoirs in Salibauri. /J. Gigineishvili, I. Timchenko, G. Chikvaidze,  D. Gigineishvili/.  Building. – 2010. - #1. -  pp. 11-16. – geo.; res.: geo., rus., eng.

The article deals with the results of a comprehensive study carried out by means of the up-to-date hardware and software facilities necessary for reliable foundation and construction of buildings and structures under conditions of complicated geological and hydrogeological conditions, given the static and seismic loads. To analyze the mode of deformation and stability of the slopes and the reservoir, different software has been applied, including the software complex LIRA 9.4.

 

Auth.

 

6.C8.9. Simplified method of continuous beam analysis. /Z. Madzagua, R. Tskhvedadze, D. Tabatadze, D. Jankarashvili/.  Building. – 2010. - #1. -  pp. 17-21. – geo.; res.: geo., rus., eng.

A new approach to the analysis of continuous beams by force method is given, which consists in the application of image patterns in determining coefficients of canonical equations set and free terms of the method.   

Auth.

 

6.C8.10. Preparation of inexpensive concrete using ground limestone. /G. Baliashvili, L. Gurgenidze, N. Gureshidze, A. Meburishvili, R. Samadashvili/. Building. – 2010. - #1. -  pp. 30-35. – geo.; res.: geo., rus., eng.

The efficiency of using ground limestone in the preparation of concrete is discussed. By adding ground dolomitic limestone (from Tskaltubo), the strength of concrete increases by 40%. The use of the same material instead of quartz sand increases the strength of concrete by 50%, reducing the cost of 1 cu m of concrete decrease by GEL 8-10.

Auth.

6.C8.11. The basic principles of spatial planning of the town of Rustavi. /E. Papuashvili/. Building. – 2010. - #1. -  pp. 45-50. – geo.; res.: geo., rus., eng.

The article deals with the necessity of the conduct of reconstruction and planning work in the town of Rustavi aimed at its prospective development.

Auth.

 

6.C8.12. Heredity in Georgian architecture. /M. Begiashvili/. Building. – 2010. - #1. -  pp. 51-59. – geo.; res.: geo., rus., eng.

General tendencies of generation and development of Georgian orthodox, religious cross-domelike architectural monuments from the 4th to the 13th century inclusive are reviewed in the article. The main stages of Georgian architecture development, beginning from the architectural construction art of the early Christian period and ending with the Middle Ages monuments are presented. Also presented are the creative regularities worked out in the architecture by the use of which the composite structure of Georgian national monuments was formulated. The accumulated creative experience was transferred from generation to generation serving as the basis for the Georgian-national architectural-artistic unity and for creating diversity in this unity.

Auth.

 

6.C8.13. Kaspi zeolitic tuff as a building material.  /Z. Karumidze,   A. Chikovani,   G. Bokhashvili,  M. Kiknadze/. Building. – 2010. - #1. -  pp. 65-68. – geo.; res.: geo., rus., eng.

The possibilities of using the zeolitic tuff located in Kaspi district as a building material are investigated. The tuff has been found to posses perfect heat-insolating properties.

Auth.

 

6.C8.14. Specification of probable zones of damaging factors for the purpose of ensuring the security of oil terminals. /M. Tsikarishvili, G. Eragia/. Building. – 2010. - #1. -  pp. 69-74. – geo.; res.: geo., rus., eng.

The emergencies having taken place in oil terminals within the last decades are reviewed and analyzed with the specification of the probable zones of damaging factors.

Auth.

 

6.C8.15. Night city illumination history. /G. Abuladze/. Building. – 2010. - #1. -  pp. 75-79. – geo.; res.: geo., rus., eng.

During many years, the night-time illumination has assumed an important function, given that urban life remains to be active in the evening and night hours as well. The full-value night-illumination of the city requires the creation of comprehensive and many-sided systems. The constituent elements of these systems have of a special influence on the people and hence the study of this sphere acquires a special importance in the formation of the city’ artistic appearance. The issues of nigh-illumination history of the City of Tbilisi are discussed.

Auth.

 

C9. Agriculture and Forestry. Fishery

 

6.C9.1. Ge­ne­tic peculiarities of split­ting of se­pa­ra­te signs of the tea plant depending on the ac­ti­on of an­thro­po­ge­nic fac­tors. /D. Ba­ra­tas­hvi­li/. Khandzta. #2(7). – pp. 118-121. – geo.; res.: eng., rus.

The ge­ne­tic peculiarities of split­ting so­me signs of the tea plant na­tu­ral mu­tant forms in M2, de­pen­ding on the pol­lu­ti­on of the eco­lo­gi­cal zo­ne by the io­ni­zing ra­di­a­ti­on and he­avy me­tals are considered. It is shown that the in­he­ri­tan­ce of the tea plant se­pa­ra­te mu­tant signs de­pends on the eco­lo­gi­cal zo­ne of cul­ti­va­ti­on.

Auth.

 

6.C9.2. Hazelnut pro­duc­ti­vity in the Black Sea sub­tro­pi­cal zo­ne of Georgia. /N. Jab­nid­ze/. Khandzta. #2(7). – pp. 126-130. – geo.; res.: eng., rus.

The prob­lems of promotion on the part of the state of the production of hazelnut crop in West Georgia, one of the most priority directions in the country’s agriculture, as well as the species composition of the crop are considered.

Auth.

 

6.C9.3. The tea le­af P factor ac­ti­vity de­pen­ding on the le­af age and sort of spro­uts. /M. Imna­is­hvi­li, A. Ki­pi­a­ni, N. Orag­ve­lid­ze/. Khandzta. #2(7). – pp. 131-133. – geo.; res.: eng., rus.

The tea leaf phe­nol compounds are studied as a qu­an­ti­ta­ti­ve indicator of the vi­ta­mi­no­us acti­vity change, de­pen­ding on the le­af age, sort and sof­tness of the spro­uts. It is shown that the high vitaminous activity is observed in the be­gin­ning and mid­dle of the se­a­son, especially in the green tea made from the upper 1-2 le­af soft spro­uts.

Auth.

 

6.C9.4. Se­ri­cul­tu­re de­ve­lop­ment and review of co­co­on pro­ces­sing. /Z. Va­dac­hko­ria, N. Idad­ze/. Khandzta. #2(7). – pp. 177-179. – geo.; res.: eng., rus.

Silk is a na­tu­ral fi­ber cha­rac­te­ri­zed by the best con­su­mer properties. In spi­te of this, the silk has failed to hold its worthy place in knit­ting in­dustry. The go­al of this work is to de­fi­ne the re­a­sons that hin­der the application of silk in the manufacture of knit­work. For this purpose, the sericulture development and cocoon processing history is surveyed.

           Auth.

 

6.C9.5. So­me ag­ro-eco­lo­gi­cal pro­per­ti­es of ro­ses. /I. Mi­ke­lad­ze/. Khandzta. #2(7). – pp. 183-184. – geo.; res.: eng., rus.

On the ba­sis of ex­pe­ri­ments and ob­ser­va­ti­ons con­duc­ted in Ba­tu­mi Bo­ta­ni­cal Gar­den, the ag­ro-eco­lo­gi­cal ru­les and norms (pla­ce se­lec­ti­on, plan­ting, so­il fer­ti­li­za­ti­on, scra­ping, etc.), which are ne­ces­sary for shaping rose bus­hes and cutting roses for rose bo­u­qu­ets have been developed.

Auth.

 

6.C9.6. New organizational forms of Georgian forestry management. /A. Zedginidze, T. Patarkalashvili, L. Zedginidze/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.115-117. geo., res.: eng., rus.

The organizational structure of the forest management before and after its reforming is considered. Both positive and negative aspects of the new management structure are discussed. It is pointed out that the new organizational structure of the Georgian forestry management does not meet the requirements to forest sector under the present market economy conditions.

Auth.

 

6.C9.7. Peculiarities of seed production in mountain beech stands in connection with selective cuttings. /K. Makhauri/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.118-121. geo., res.: eng., rus.

The beech begins good seed production at the age of 50-60 years and produces seeds once in 3-5 years periodically. The beech seed production sharply differs in even-aged and all-aged stands. In an even-aged stand, according to the Kraft’s classification, only trees of a high class produce seeds. Unlike the even-aged stand, in an all-aged stand, the trees of the first- and second-age generations produce seeds, while the trees of the third-age generation do not participate in the process. Both in the first and in the second case, thanks to selective cutting of crowns and the creation of favorable conditions of illumination, according  to the Kraft, the trees of the third-fourth class of the even-aged stand, and the trees of the third generation - in the all-aged stand start to produce seeds. According to the Kraft’s classification, the best seed production is characteristic of the trees of the second class and the second-age generation.

Auth.

6.C9.8. A historical review of bee-keeping and its development prospects in Georgia. /S. Kamarauli/. Agrarian-economic Science and Technologies. – 2010. #1. – pp. 83-87. geo.; res.: geo., eng.

Georgian bee–keeping dates back to the 6th B.C. Some regions of Georgia were not only consumed the naturally produced honey, but were actively engaged in its production. The well-developed bee–keeping in Georgia is evidenced in the works of the famous Georgian historian and geographer Vakhushti Bagrationi. The number of bee families in Tbilisi and Kutaisi provinces accounted for: in 1989 - 47,3 thousand, in 1910 - 52,8 thou; in 1913 – 60 thou; in 1921 – 50 thou; in 1963 – 162 thou; in 1970 – 175 thou; and in 2008 – 206,9 thou, accordingly.

Auth.

 

6.C9.9. The effect of precursors and varietal origin on winter wheat grain quality. /G. Bolgashvili/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 11-13. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The varietal origin and precursors are very important to secure the winter wheat grain quality. In the scientific-production experimental stations of the Georgian Farming Institute (Magharo, Ulianovka, Shiraki), the effects of the varietal origin and precursors on the winter wheat grain quality were studied. 

Auth.

 

6.C9.10. To sow annual and perennial grasses. /V. Rukhadze, K. Popkhadze, K. Koranashvili, N. Bendianishvili/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 16 -19. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

Perennial grasses are very important during crop-rotation. They are able to restore soil productivity and improve its physical and chemical properties. We can restore soil structure by sowing a mixture of perennial legume and cereal grasses. Therefore, the right selection of perennial grasses is very important under diverse natural conditions of Georgia.

Auth.

 

6.C9.11. Increasing soil productivity by modern agrobiological technologies. /N. Bendianishvili, V. Rukhadze, K. Popkhadze, K. Koranashvili, E. Razmadze, J. Saralidze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 19 -24. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The restoration of soil productivity is possible only by using a mixture of perennial legumes and cereal grasses with filamentous roots and rare bushes. The ratio of components and soil cultivation technologies must be chosen correctly.

Auth.

 

6.C9.12. Study of the production of high yield of green and seed material of alfalfa by a simplified technique under irrigated conditions of Shida Kartli. /Q. Popkhadze, T. Akhaladze, N. Bendianisvili, E. Razmadze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 25 -27. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

At present, alfalfa is cultivated using deep and repeated tillage before sowing, which is connected with high expenses. The authors have set a goal to work out a simplified technique for producing alfalfa hay and seeds under irrigated conditions of Shida Kartli. Based on the three-year study results, its has been found that a high yield of alfalfa can be achieved without the pre-sowing cultivation through direct sowing in the disk-tilled or rotary  tilled soil.

Auth.

 

6.C9.13. Alfalfa-ryegrass mixture cultivation technology with minimum tillage under dryland conditions of Shua (Inner) Kartli. /K. Popkhadze, T. Akhaladze A. Devidze,  N. Bendianashvil/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 28 -31. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The experiment was carried out in 2001-2005 on non-irrigated meadow-cinnamon soils of the research institute’s experimental station. The early spring sowing of an alfalfa-ryegrass mixture on the said soils with minimal tillage produced a full-value sprouting and high crop of green material. The preceding crops were wheat, kidney beans and maize. As a result of two mowing a year on the minimally tilled beans stubble field, 13.3 t\ha of green material was produced. The method is rather cost-effective.

Auth.

 

6.C9.14. The effect of mineral fertilizers on the productivity of winter wheat variety “Koper” on meadow brown soils in long-term experiments. /K. Koranashvili, B. Rukhadze, Q. Fofkhadze, N. Devdariani, N. Bendianishvili/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 31 -35. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

In long-term trials, given the right crop rotation system and optimal fertilizer rates, the application of N N90P90 rate in meadow brown soil rich in potassium is quite sufficient to produce a high yield of the “Koper” winter wheat variety.

Auth.

 

6.C9.15. The coefficient of utilization of primary nutrient elements by haricot bean, maize and winter wheat from the soil and applied fertilizers. /K. Koranashvili, V. Rukhadze, K. Popkhadze,  N. Bendianishvili. N. Modzgvrishvili/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 35 -41. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The coefficient of utilization of nutrient elements by haricot bean, maize and winter wheat from the soil and applied fertilizer on the meadow brown soils rich in potassium after application of the potash fertilizer has grouped as follows: N>P>K; N>P. With an increase in the fertilizer rate, the coefficient of utilization of nutrient elements (nitrogen and phosphorus) from the soil and the applied fertilizer decreases; the potassium utilization coefficient from the ground equals 5.9% for maize, 2.2% for winter wheat, and 1.4% for haricot bean.

Auth.

 

6.C9.16. Intermediary oat-mixed vetch and pure-sown vetch in grass arable rotation and under conditions of sowing in succession in the West Georgia lowland. /J. Nikoladze, T. Katamadze/.  Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 42- 45. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

In order to perfect the cultivation of an intermediary oat-mixed vetch and pure-sown vetch, experiments were held and are being at the Ajameti experimental station. The intermediary oat-mixed vetch and pure-sown vetch may be cultivated in the late autumn, when the crop area is comparatively vacant. The role of intermediary crops in intensive farming is very important and is a source of extra harvest during the year.

Auth.

6.C9.17. The yield capacity of haricot bean varieties and their suitability as a winter wheat precursor in the wheat-growing regions of East Georgia. /I. Kochashvili/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 45- 50. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The work deals with the results of a study carried out at the Kakheti-based experimental station of the Georgian Farming Institute to investigate the yield capacity of haricot bean varieties and the possibility of their use as a winter wheat precursor. Presented are the high-yielding haricot bean varieties and the amount of organic remains in the soil together with nutrient elements according to the varieties, as well as the study results concerning the early-ripening varieties that ensure the accumulation of soil moisture and high yield of the winter wheat harvest.

Auth.

 

6.C9.18. The variety-dependent symbiotic activity of haricot bean in the cereals-groeing regions of East Georgia. /I. Kochashvili/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 50- 53. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The work deals with the 2007-2008 study results concerning the symbiotic activity of haricot bean varieties species carried out at the Kakheti-based experimental station. The symbiotic activity variation is presented according to the haricot bean varieties and the phases of their growth and development. The best haricot bean varieties (Jvari, Porumbitsa, Mukhranela, etc.) and the phases of their growth and development are identified and other. On display there are also those growing periods (flowering, fill of grain) that under conditions of the zone provide for the highly active symbiotic potential and intensive accumulation of molecular nitrogen in the soil.

Auth.

 

6.C9.19. Buckwheat cultivation under conditions of Gare (Outer) Kakheti. /D. Kusikashvili, G. Bolgashvili/.  Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 54- 58. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The experiments conducted at the Magharo-based experimental station in 1993-1996 have demonstrated that a relatively higher yield of buckwheat (by 1.0 and 1.7 c/ha, respectively) is achieved in case the inter-row sowing, with the recommended sowing density of 2-3 million seeds/ha when the inter-row space makes 45 cm, and 3 million seeds/ha, when the inter-row space is 30 cm. The study results can be introduced in Sighnaghi, Dedoplistskaro, Sagarejo, Gurjaani and other Georgian districts with similar soil and climatic conditions. 

Auth.

 

6.C9.20. Production of ecologically safe tomatoes by green manuring under conditions of Mukhrani-Saguramo plain. /A. Saralidze, L. Nozadze, Ts. Bichiashvili,  N. Chobadze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 59- 61. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

Against the background of application of an organic fertilizer and green manuring, the plowing down of vetch into soil significantly increases the quantity of hydrolysable nitrogen, labile phosphorus and exchangeable potassium. The high yield of tomatoes in the trial variants 1, 2, 8 and 9 sharply increased the taking up of nutrient elements and their washout from the soil. In the case of green manuring, the amount of nitrate nitrogen in tomatoes decreases, making about 36.0-104.0 mg/kg according to the trial variants.

Auth.

 

6.C9.21. Production of virus free seed potato in the Georgian lowland. /L. Nozadze, Ts. Bichiashvili, T. Tavadze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 61- 63. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

According to the conducted research, preference is given to the virus free seed material of the Felicitas potato variety. The variety is early ripening; tubers sprout in two weeks and can produce two harvests during one vegetation period. The harvest is almost virus free. The production technique can be introduced almost on the whole irrigated lowland area of Georgia up to 400-500 meters above sea level where frosts are not expected until the late autumn and early spring.

Auth.

 

6.C9.22. Perfection and specification of cultivation of dill (Anethum graveolens) in Imereti lowland. /N. Chaganava,  N. Nishnianidze, N. Chkhobadze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 64- 66. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The work deals with the results of an experiment on the perfection and specification of dill cultivation carried out at the Tskaltubo-based experimental station. The experiment was conducted on clay alluvial soils, where the maternal rock was sandstone. To produce seed material, the sowing is recommended to be made in the early spring – before the first of April. A double-row band sowing is preferable. The distances shall be: 60 cm between strips, 30 cm between rows, and 10-15 cm between plants.

Auth.

 

6.C9.23. The role of mineral fertilizers in white head cabbage productivity raising. /N. Chaganava, N. Nishnianidze, N. Chkhobadze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 67- 69. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The experiments held at the Tskaltubo-based experimental station have demonstrated the following: (1) the obtaining of a high yield of white head cabbage on average-yielding alluvial soils of Imereti lowland requires the application of the NPK mineral fertilizers; (2) the optimum mineral fertilizer rates for the early-season white heed cabbage variety  “Kharisgula” are N120P120K60 kg/ha; (3) the optimal mineral fertilizer rates for the mid-ripening “Braunschweig Goruli” variety of the white cabbage are N150P120K60 kg/ha; (4) in the case of both varieties, the full rate of phosphorous and potash fertilizers must be applied during the main soil cultivation, whereas nitrogenous fertilizers should be applied fractionally: 1/3 - before planting, 1/3 - at the first feeding the second feeding.

Auth.

 

6.C9.24. Study of the effect of intercropping on the yield capacity of tomatoes. /N. Nishnianidze, N. Chaganava, N. Chkhobadze/.Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 70-73. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

Taking into account the current deficiency of organic fertilizers in the country, the study’s aim was to apply local organic fertilizers, or green manure, together with mineral fertilizers to obtain a high yield of tomatoes under the lowland Imereti conditions. The best results are obtained in the trial variant where the green material of the oat-mixed vetch   experiment is plowed under as a green manure. The average yield of tomatoes in the given variant totaled 238 c/ha, outyielding the check variant by 68.9 c/ha, or 40%.

Auth.

 

6.C9.25. The biological, economic and biochemical indicators of F2 generation eggplant. /Z. Sapatov. E. Motiashvili, Z. Liparteliani/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 73-75. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

It is experimentally shown that earlier hybrids are mostly obtained in the hybrid combinations, where early parental forms participate in breeding. If one parent in the combination is early and another one mid-early, most hybrids will be earlier than their parents. The high-yielding hybrids are obtained from that combination where the mother form outperforms the father form in yielding.

Auth.

 

6.C9.26. Fixing chickpea sowing dates and their effect on chickpea grain yield. /P. Vacheishvili, L. Kirikashvili/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 76-78. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The article considers the 2006-2007 results of a study of chickpea sowing dates. According to the results, the best sowing date for 10 varieties can be considered the pre-winter sowing, from the second half of November to the first half of March.

Auth.

 

6.C9.27. Investigation of Georgia’s edible mushrooms and attempts to cultivate some of them. /L. Bazerashvili, N. Devdariani,  N. Chkobadze, K. Niauri, A. Jorjadze, N. Jibghashvili/ Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 79-81. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The article presents the results of a study concerning edible mushrooms and attempts of artificial cultivation of the introduced and local mushrooms in Georgia. The number of registered in Georgia micromycetes account to 1,200 species, of which 250 are edible. Also established are the frequency and seasonal dynamics of the spreading of wood decomposing mushrooms; the impact of physical factors on the mushroom morphogenesis; the substrates for cultivation of mushrooms are selected. The cultivation of mushrooms on the waste of cotton production is considered to be best. It is scientifically found that the cultivation of the strain L. edodes is quite possible and practicable on straw, maize cobs and beech stumps

Auth.

 

6.C9.28. The effect of the bacterial-organic-mineral fertilizer BOMS upon the kernel yield and quality of the maize variety “Kartuli Krugi” and soil fertility under irrigation conditions of Samgori Plain. /L. Sakhvadze, G. Jamburia, A. Tkeshelashvili, L. Chachava, N. Devdariani, T. Ghlonti/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia.  – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 82-84. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The effect of the bacterial-organic-mineral fertilizer BOMS on the maize variety “Kartuli Krugi” is discussed. The economic indicators concerning the advantages of the BOMS against mineral fertilizers are given.

Auth.

 

6.C9.29. New germplasm obtained by crossing a mutant form of the wheat variety “Lagodekhi Long-stalked” with “Makha”. /P. Naskhidashvili, G. Ckhutiashvili, M. Chokheli, G. Khutsishvili, N. Sulaberidze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 85-89. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The hybrid forms produced by crossing mutant forms of the variety “Lagodekhis Long-stalked” with the old Georgian variety “Makha” represent valuable germplasm and are kept   in the institute’s gene bank. The germplasm can be used in breeding new crop-intensive wheat varieties.

Auth.

 

6.C9.30. The results of genetic and selection study of Georgian maize varieties. /O. Liparteliani, G. Jamburia, A. Tavadze, F. Begoidze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 89-92. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The work deals with the results of a long-term genetic and selection study of 246 varieties and populations in all the wheat regions of Georgia, as well as the combination and selection significance of these varieties.

Auth.

 

6.C9.31. Breeding of high-yielding hybrids of barley. /Z. Saralidze, L. Kirikashvili,  N. Lominadze, N. Sokhashvili/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 92-95. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The correlation of productivity elements in the barley hybrids obtained has a positive character.

Auth.

 

6.C9.32. Study of new early-season and mid-early-season maize hybrids. /M. Tusiashvili, L.Kirikashvili, A. Mumladze, T. Kodua, T. Tavadze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 96-97. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The article presents the results of developing and testing of early-season and mid-early-season high-yielding hybrids with positive economic properties. The experimental hybrids have been developed based on new self-pollinated lines from the hybrids introduced from Ukraine. These lines were received in 1998-2003. The new hybrids were tested in 1998-2008, at two stations in Tserovani and Gori. As a result of the study, 5 promising hybrids have been selected and are to be tested in a variety trial in the years to come.

Auth.

 

6.C9.33. Early-ripening forms of haricot bean chosen from collection nurseries. /T. Kodua, L. Kirikashvili, Z. Saralidze, E. Gogilashvili, J. Gokadze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia.  – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 97-99. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

Haricot bean is widely spread in Georgia and holds the first place among the grain-legume crops. In 2004-2007, the early-ripening forms of haricot bean from the local and foreign collection materials were studied to single out the most promising forms. Early ripeness is a very significant property for plants. They are mostly cultivated in mountainous regions of Georgia; most of them are noted for simultaneous ripening of pods and relatively stable yield by years.

Auth.

 

6.C9.34. The lentil world collection study results. /P. Vacheishvili/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia.  – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 100-102. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The article deals with lentil as a high-protein legume crop, its food and agrotechnical significance. The work on the selection of lentil has been in progress at Mtskheta breeding station of the Georgian Farming Institute since 1998 based on the selection material received from the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA). 565 numbers were analyzed by the sampling technique, out of which 113 numbers were chosen. The variety “Pablo” was zoned in East Georgia. Two promising numbers #2 and #8 were selected. The number 8 is going to be zoned throughout West Georgia, with the exception of Kolkheti lowland.

Auth.

 

 

6.C9.35. Hybrid maize seed breeding and improvement in Georgia. /A. Mumladze L. Kirikashvili Z. Jinjikhadze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia.  – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 102-105. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

To obtain high yield and quality seed per hectare, the following maize hybrids have been developed: Ulevi, Kvirila, Modinakhe and Mtskheta-2004. As the maternal forms were used the high-yielding single-cross hybrids Enguri - (B73XMo17), Tserovani 1 - (B73XMo17-2426), Tserovani 2 - (B73-1161XMo17-2426). The paternal forms were Abashuri Kviteli, Geguturi Kviteli and Kartuli Krugi. All the four hybrids are high yielders, producing 8-10 ton/ha. It is possible to receive 5-6 tons of F1 seeds per 1 hectare.

Auth.

 

6.C9.36. Seed production of bulb onion “Pink 32”. /E. Motiashvili, Z. Sapatov, Z. Liparteliani/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia.  – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 105-106. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The sampling technique and seed production of a new bulb onion variety “Pink-32” are considered and its biological and economic traits are studied.

Auth.

 

6.C9.37. Virus-free potato seed production and obtaining of stress resistant forms. /F. Bakradze, A. Zubiashvili,  R. Gamkrelidze, N. Sulamanize, T. Akhaladze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia.  – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 107-110. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

Microclonal propagation of potato plants in vitro has shown that stress conditions, when the day length reduces by 50% and light intensity - by 33.4%, provoke accelerated transfer of clones to the formation of micro-tubers without vegetation. In spite of the restricting factors, the resistant forms managed to completely reconstruct plants and started forming micro-tubers in test-tubes. This method enables to find the stress-resistant forms in a short period of time.

Auth.

 

6.C9.38. Collection, conservation, documentation and use of genetic resources of grain (dry) and green common bean. /N. Kakabadze/.  Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 111-113. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The common bean species being cultivated in Georgia for about 300-350 years and collected under different climatic conditions have been studied. Observations and calculations during field demonstration trials were carried out according to international descriptors. After propagation, the yield, with its respective documents, was disposed in the institute’s gene pool for long-term conservation and use.

Auth.

 

6.C9.39. Collection, conservation, documentation and utilization of plant genetic resources. /A. Gulbani, M. Chokheli, T. Akhaladze, A. Devidze, T. Koshadze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 113-117. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

Georgia is the center of origin of many crop plants. Regrettably, most traditional cultivars, which have been developed by Georgian peasants for centuries, are critically endangered.  The revealing, restoration and preservation of the natural gene pool of these century-old crops is the priority objective at present.  For this purpose, the Georgian National Science Foundation financed in 2006 the project:”Collection, Conservation, Documentation and Utilization of Field Plant Genetic Resources”. The main goal of the project was to establish the state of genetic diversity of local ex situ collections, to study the storage conditions, to identify their number, to organize collection missions to different regions of Georgia to study the cultural and wild flora, to collect wild and endemic species of cereals, food legumes, fodder grasses, etc.

Auth.

 

6.C9.40. Grain yield and gluten content in wheat forms selected from international nurseries. /.G. Chkhutiashvili, M. Barisashvili, B. Tsereteli/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 118-120. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The work deals with the wheat accessions from international  nurseries distinguished by the content of gluten and grain yield.

Auth.

 

6.C9.41. Wet gluten and yield indices of winter wheat. /M. Barisashvili, B. Tsereteli/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia.  – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 120-122. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The winter wheat gluten and yield indices are given in the article. According to the study data, the studied wheat varieties do not differ much by these indices.

Auth.

 

6.C9.42. Immunologic study of new wheat endemic varieties. /N. Sulamanidze, G. Chkutiashvili, M. Chokheli/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 122-124. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The Georgian endemic wheat varieties are noted for high immunity to the diseases widely spread in the country. The immunity of endemic varieties is conditioned by their content of disease-resistant genes, which enables their active inclusion into the existing breeding programs.

Auth.

 

6.C9.43. Immunologic study of eggplant selection material. /N. Sulamanidze, E. Motiashvili, Z. Liparteliani, N. Modzgvrishvili, M. Girsiashvili/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia.  – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 124-129. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

During the last (2007-2008) years, the following eggplant diseases have been widely spread: Phomopsis blight, Alternaria blight, Werticillium wilt, etc. The conducted immunologic studied have shown that the accessions 31 and 37 from the eggplant collection nursery are resistant to the above-mentioned bacterial diseases. The accessions GarX18 and OiX30 from the variety trial on a farm scale are characterized by both high productivity and resistance to bacterial diseases.

Auth.

 

6.C9.44. Potato scab causing fungi. /B. Akhobadze, N. Zhvania, N. Sulamanidze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 130-133. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The research carried out in Georgia revealed the following types of potato scab: silver scab (Spondyloclodium atrovirens); black scab (Rhizoctonia solani); common scab (Actinomyces scabies); powdery scab (Spongospora subterranea); and the skin spot (Oospora pustulans). These fungi damage different organs of potato. They affect the growing capacity, potato seed and root tubers and the yield. The silver, black and common scabs mostly prevail in Georgia.

Auth.

 

6.C9.45. Immunologic study of new inbred maize lines. /N. Zhvania, L. Kirikashvili, K. Niauri, T. Tavadze, M. Berishvili/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 133-135. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

The immunologic study of new inbred maize lines conducted in 2007-2008 revealed prevalence of such fungal diseases as helmintosporiosis and corn smut. The corn borer (Pyrausta nubilalis) is one of the greatest potential insect enemies of the maize crop. As a result of the study, the lines with high and medium resistance to the above diseases and pests and susceptible genotypes have been revealed. The promising lines will be used in the breeding of new high-yielding resistant hybrids.

Auth.

 

6.C9.46. Immunologic evaluation of maize lines developed from the local variety “Abashuri Kviteli”. /N. Zhvania, K. Niauri, T. Kodua, L. Kirikashvili, N. Lominadze, T. Tavadze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 136-138. – geo., res.: rus., eng.

Resistance to the deceases and pests is one of the most important qualities of plants. The immunologic evaluation carried out in 2007-2008 revealed some promising maize lines with complex resistance to diseases and pests.

Auth.

 

6.C9.47. The main principles of assessing the efficiency of agro-forestry systems. /M. Khutsishvili/. Agrarian-economic Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #3. -  pp. 106-109. – geo.; res.: eng.

Researches have proved that for enhancement of yield capacity of agricultural crops and stock–breeding products the main reserve is the stopping of wind erosion and decrement of draught effects by means of agro-reclamation methods. A diversity of natural–economic characteristics of Georgia conditions a different approach to forest shelter belts. For practical realization of a multi-purpose forest management strategy on agricultural lands, a planning system based on a matrix model of integrated utilization of field-protecting forest plantations, analysis of the hierarchic objectives and forest-economic activity planning has been tested.

Auth.

 

6.C9.48. The changeability of teaflavines and tearubigines in the production of Georgian black tea. /R. Melkadze, R. Melkadze-Jurchadze, N. Zumbadze/. Novation.    2009. –  #5 – pp. 60-67. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

The accumulation and changeability character of black tea “pigments” – teaflavines and tearubigines are studied during the fermentation process. The primary dependence of relative teaflavines/tearubigines on the manufactured black tea semiproduct has been established, making 1:(8,38-8,87) for the first-roll fraction 1:(7,90-8,04) for the third-roll fraction. This can be recommended as a supplement to organoleptic methods of black tea tasting.

Auth.

 

6.C9.49. The effect of planting sweet bay planting stock on the permanent place on its growth and development under conditions of Imeteri (West Georgia). /D. Kurashvili/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 260-263. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

The bay laurel cultivation is one of the ol­dest fi­elds of Georgian ag­ri­cul­tu­re. The plan­ting of bay planting stock is carried out according to se­ve­ral met­hods: rootball planting; bare-root slush planting. All the­se pro­ces­ses affect the growth and de­ve­lop­ment and of bay la­u­rel.

Auth.

 

6.C9.50. Rehabilitation of bay laurel plantation under conditions of Imereti (Western Georgia). /D. Kurashvili, G. Kilasonia/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 264-267. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

The article deals with the rehabilitation of bay plan­ta­ti­ons that tend to be thin under con­di­ti­ons of Wes­t Ge­or­gia, which greatly affects their yield capacity. The li­qu­i­da­ti­on of thin­ness or rehabilitation work that was conducted during 3 years – in the autumn-spring period is discussed.

Auth.

 

C10. Water Industry. Melioration

 

6.C10.1. Socio-economic aspects of land-reclamation systems (according to a  Gallup poll). /I. Palelishvili/. Agrarian-economic Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #4. -  pp. 47-53. – geo.; res.: eng.

The article deals with the socio-economic aspects in connection with the infrastructure rehabilitation of land-reclamation systems in Georgia carried out under the World Bank’s International Development Association program “Irrigation and Drainage Community Development in Georgia”.

Auth.

 

6.C10.2. Estimation of water supply to consumers upon weater-pipe fault.  /V.  Nachkebia, E. Gvaramadze/. Building. – 2010. - #1. -  pp. 60-64. – geo.; res.: geo., rus., eng.

In case a water-pipe fails, water supply to consumers can be secured through the arrangement of switchovers between water-supply lines. The switchover effect will be different depending on the water supply duty (under constant or live pressure). The article informs how to estimate the given effect depending on necessary costs and the number of switchovers upon the water-pipe fault.

Auth.

 

C11. Foreign and Domestic Trade. Tourism

 

6.C11.1. Economic and mathematical model of the sustainable use of a landscape as of a tourist recreational resource. /B. Barkalaia/.Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 101-103. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The economic and mathematical model of the sustainable use of a landscape as of a  tourist recreational resource is considered, where the main emphasis is made on long-term use of this resource under conditions of stable economic gain.

Auth.

 

6.C11.2. The role of climatic factors in tourism and agroecology. /L. Kartvelishvili, K. Rokva/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.50-54. geo., res.: eng., rus.

Local climatic conditions should be taken into account when planning a number of economic branches. Especially important is to study climatic factors for the sectors susceptible to climate change, such, for example, as tourism and ecology. The work considers the principal climatic factors, in particular the air temperature and precipitation in the Black Sea coastal zone of Georgia.

Auth.

 

6.C11.3. Proposals on regulation of the export-import regime and free trade between Georgia and EU. /G. Doghonadze/. Agrarian-economic Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #3. -  pp. 26-30. – geo.; res.: eng.

The development of Georgia has been oriented at integration in the Euro-Atlantic space, which is justified both historically and politically. For many reasons, the development of foreign economical relations with the European Union is very important partner for Georgia. For example, compared with 2003, in 2007 the trade turnover with the EU countries increased 3,5 times, including export by 3,3 times, making 21.64% of the total export), whereas import increased 3,6 times (29.3% of the total import). On of the main tasks for Georgia is the wider use of the principle of Four Freedoms - free movement of goods, services, capital and people, which will allow Georgia’s involvement in the various EU programs.

Auth.

 

6.C11.4. Sale and promotion of a tourist product. /I. Gabadadze, A. Mushkudiani, N. Mushkudiani, S. Nemsadze, I. Tsereteli/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 252-255. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

To­u­rism is the pri­o­rity branch of the na­ti­o­nal eco­nomy development. Based on the above, the fol­lo­wing to­u­rist pro­ducts can be offered: a pac­ka­ge of adven­tu­re tours; cultural tours, religious and pilgrimage tours; winter sport tours; hun­ting and fis­hing tours. As to the sale of a to­u­rist pro­duct, tra­vel com­panies can do it themselves or through to­u­rist agencies or trade networks. To introduce a new product on the market and to revive demand therefore, various motivation tools are applied. These tools can be di­rec­ted to the company personnel, tra­de agents and cli­ents. The motivation will condition increased sales and, therefore, increased revenues of travel companies.

Auth.

 

6.C11.5. A perspective design of a recreational complex "Dolphin" for population and tourists. /A. Prangishvili, Z. Tsikhelashvili,  T. Batsikadze, T. Gvelesiani, N. Chkheidze, G. Dolidze/. Building. – 2010. - #1. -  pp. 26-29. – geo.; res.: geo., rus., eng.

A perspective design of a recreational complex "Dolphin" for population and tourists is proposed. It is to be constructed on floating coast-protecting structures. The design is recommended for application in the corresponding innovation projects both in Georgia (Batumi, Poti, etc.) and abroad.

Auth.

 

C12. Transport and Machine-building

 

 

6.C12.1. Vibrational load of the truck driver’s seat. /M. Tkeshelasvili, G. Lekveishvili, I. Kachakhidze, K. Chanturia/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.59-62. geo., res.: eng., rus.

The main attention in the work is given to horizontal vibrations acting on the driver’s seat. Also given are the transfer ratios from the truck frame to the cabin and the spectral distribution of accelerations on the driver’s seat. Over-the-road tests evidenced that the horizontal loads are less dependent upon speed fluctuations (constituting approximately 3–5%) and make 60–80% of the vertical fluctuations. The rate of loads in the longitudinal direction is 20–25% less for the experimental suspension compared with the commercially made one, and the transfer ratio is improved by 18–23%. The vertical load acting on the driver’s seat is especially disturbing in the 1,5–2,5 Hz frequency span. The rate of spectral distribution in the longitudinal direction is 16–20% less for the experimental embodiment as compared with the commercially made one in the 1,5–2,5 Hz frequency span, and makes 26-50% in the 4-6 Hz frequency span. In the high frequency span, the difference is insignificant. 

Auth.

6.C12.2. The pneumatic tyre-ground interaction test-bench. /T. Morchadze, D. Kbilashvili, G. Gogitidze/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.63-69. geo., res.: eng., rus.

The work presents a test-bench design for determining the pneumatic tire-ground interaction and the bench testing methods. The test-bench design enables investigation of the roadability parameters of the oscillating and non-oscillating tires upon rolling in the dirty road track in both the driving and driven modes. For this purpose, an inertia vibrator of rotations is used in the wheel fixing device of the test-bench, which ensures the wheel’s sinusoidal vibration of different frequency and amplitude during its rolling on the ground surface. To assess the impact of vertical vibrations of different frequency and amplitude on the coefficient of resistance to the wheel rolling, the so-called relative characteristic is introduced. It represents a ratio of rolling resistance coefficients being determined for the cases of switched-on and switched-off vibrators under identical test conditions.    

Auth.

 

6.C12.3. Geostrategic factors of combined service development. /P. Kenkadze, L. Lomsadze, Z. Goletiani, G. Gogmechadze, V. Beraia/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.67-69. geo., res.: eng., rus.

The conditions of functioning of modern combined services against traditional traffic are discussed. The significance of geostrategic factors for combined service in transport networks of Georgia is justified.

Auth.

 

6.C12.4. Basic directions of Georgian railway development. /Z. Tevzadze, I. Tsiklauri, K. Sharvashidze/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.70-72. geo., res.: eng., rus.

The current state of the Georgian railway network is analyzed and the necessity of its further development is justified. The basic directions of the Georgian Railway’s perspective development and the ways and methods of perfection of the transportation process on the Georgian Railway are proposed.

Auth.

 

6.C12.5. Specifics of hydraulic calculation of hydraulic deposition tailing pond and dam distribution pipeline. /V. Silagadze, M. Jangidze/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.86-90. geo., res.: eng., rus.

The article concerns the issue of hydraulic calculation of hydraulic deposition (distribution) pipeline; the necessity of considering specification of movement in silting regime during determination of hydrodynamic parameters is proven; the methodological sequence of hydraulic calculation (distribution) of hydraulic deposition pipeline is presented.

Auth.

 

6.C12.6. Modern ways of improvement of high-speed diesel engines /V. Gvetadze, G. Purtshvanidze, A. Lomidze, L. Gogisvanidze/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 224-227. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

The combustion process intensification in diesel engines with the chamber in the piston is connected first of all with the generation of an air charge at the inlet. Another modern trend is increasing a share of volumetric fuel mixing until full suppression of a film component. Comparative researches of various ways of the mix preparation process with air charge regulation made it possible to obtain full information on the possibilities of each combination of the applied compression chambers and fueling equipment.

Auth.

 

 

C13. Medicine. Healthcare

 

6.C13.1. Our experience of surgical treatment of the abdominal wall obturator hernia. /V. Tedoradze, D. Menabde, A. Beridze, K. Kashibadze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #4. – pp. 62-64. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The treatment results of 378 patients with the obturator abdominal wall hernia of different localization are analyzed. Methods of alloplasty with the application of synthetic polypropylene mesh with the rational selection of anesthesiology, antibiotic therapy, adequate drainage, the degree of disease and the selection of patient according to concomitant diseases are characterized by the minimal number of postoperative complications. During operations with traditional methods, relapses occurred in seven cases (2.3%) and were not recorded in plasty with polypropylene mesh. Specific complications during plasty of local tissues occurred in 21 cases (6.5%), during alloplasty - in 4 cases (4.9%). Non-specific complications during autoplasty occurred in 9 cases (3.1%) cases, during alloplasty - in 2 cases (2.7%). The fatal outcome during traditional treatment was observed in 4 cases (1%) and was not recorded during alloplasty.

Auth.

 

6.C13.2. The structural and functional organization of the somatosensory impulses’ travel from the superior limbs to brain structures. /R. Sakandelidze, A. Shalamberidze, T. Lomsianidze/.  Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #2. – pp. 21-23. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.,

The work comes out with the suggestion about the functional importance of contralateral and ipsilateral somatosensory afferent projections of the superior limb and of the character of the participation of these projections in the compensatory-restoratory reorganization of the central nervous system upon injury of the musculocutaneous analyzer. The work results significantly supplement theoretical conceptions of the structural and functional organization of the somatosensory inpulses’ travel towards the central nervous system in general, and from the superior limb to the brain structures, in particular

Auth.

 

6.C13.3. Endotheliocytes of placenta at primary hypothyreosis and its subclinical form. /N. Lomitashvili/. Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – v. 3. - # 3. -  pp. 173-175. – eng., res.: geo.

The placental endothelium at primary hypothyreosis has been studied by the method of light and electron microscopy, 10 cases in total. It was revealed that endothelial cells were mostly broken. Their forms are often changed, slots between cells, through which fibrocytes penetrate into deeper layers of placenta, appear; the forms of erythrocytes are changed, forming “sharp angles” in them; the structure of endotheliocytes changes, haemorrhage nuclei grow, mitochondria are mostly broken, and the capillary endoplasmic reticulum dominates.

Auth.

 

6.C13.4. Patient-centric web 2.0 technologies for health care. /C. Andreescu, I. Kopaliani/. Novation.    2009. –  #5 – pp. 40-51. – eng., res.: geo., rus., eng.

The health care industry in the United States is under great economic and political pressure to reduce costs, optimize its operations, and serve more customers with fewer resources. The industry faces increased demands from stakeholders to improve the quality, safety, security, effectiveness, and efficiency of the entire health care system. The health care industry is evaluating emerging information technologies to help implement the paradigm and technology shifts needed to meet stakeholder demands. These transformations affect consumers, providers, insurers, and employers. Information technology (IT) promises to change the landscape of health care, shifting the focus from hospital- and office-based care to customer-centric systems, including care based on the patient’s location. Health care consumers will be able to take advantage of social networking opportunities that will enhance their health care education and empower them with more control over their health care options. Some companies are offering innovative solutions, but lack a well-defined business model to motivate investors. This research presents some of these technologies, participants that are using them and the barriers that they are facing. It also looks at the future of technology-enabled health care.

Auth.

 

6.C13.5. Computer vision syndrome: development of a new medicinal-preventive product. /V. Khve­de­lid­ze/. Novation.    2009. –  #5 – pp. 74-80. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

On the basis of tealeaf catechin complex and antocyanides of bilberry fruit, a natural antioxidant complex – adaptogenic vegetable preparation has been developed. The preparati­on, as a bi­o­lo­gi­cally ac­ti­ve additive, is capable of im­pro­ving the fun­cti­o­nal sta­te of visual organs, of com­plex prop­hyla­xis of eye di­se­a­ses and twilight vision. Due to its antioxidant qualities, the pre­pa­ra­ti­on is highly effective ­in treating asthenopia, es­pe­ci­ally du­ring regular work with com­pu­ters.

Auth.

 

6.C13.6. Peculiarities iron absorption and transport in human body. /M. Tatvidze, V. Khvedelidze, B. Butskhrikidze/. Novation. –  2009. – #5 – pp. 96-100. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

The article deals with the ro­le of iron in the human body fun­cti­o­ning, provides the information abo­ut the iron-con­ta­i­ning ani­mal and plant pro­ducts, des­cri­bes the peculiarities  of iron ab­sorpa­ti­on and transport, considers the role of iron ac­ti­va­tors and in­hi­bi­tors in iron ab­sorp­ti­on ef­fi­ci­ency.

Auth.

 

6.C13.7. Investigation of the possibility of using untwisted yarn as retraction thread. /T. Moseshvili, I. Kldiashvili/.Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 115-119. – rus., res.: geo., rus., eng.

The retraction thread/cord is widely used in dentistry for rapid and effective retraction of gums. The available knitting and woven threads may be impregnated with styptic mater. The untwisted yarn is formed at pasting of separate fibers as a result of interaction of binding substance with fibers.The structure of the untwisted yarn enable to apply them as the retraction thread. As researches have shown, fibers on all length are extended in parallel of the yarn axis to be located close to the product axis. Investigation of water adsorption and capillarity of untwisted yarn has shown that epinephrine absorption speed in the untwisted yarn is higher by 40% than in standard Gingi-Pak retraction threads.

Auth.

 

6.C13.8. The ro­le of flu­o­ri­ne in the de­ve­lop­ment and prevention of ca­ri­es in childho­od. /I. Kldi­as­hvi­li, T. Ku­ta­te­lad­ze, O. Asa­ti­a­ni/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 144-147. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

The fac­tor for the de­ve­lop­ment of ca­ri­es is a scar­city of flu­o­ri­de ions. The hu­man or­ga­nism ob­ta­ins them thro­ugh the drin­king wa­ter. The stan­dard is wit­hin 0,8-1,2 mg/l. The amount of flu­o­ri­de ions in the drin­king wa­ter in Ku­ta­i­si is di­sas­tro­usly low – 0,001 mg/l, this being one of the most sig­ni­fi­cant fac­tors in the de­ve­lop­ment of ca­ri­es in chil­dho­od. In or­der to cope with the problem, it is ne­ces­sary that flu­o­ri­des be entered in­to the or­ga­nism of chil­dren by dif­fe­rent ways. This is qu­i­te a long pro­cess but is a re­li­ab­le pre­ven­ti­ve measure. 

Auth.

 

6.C13.9. The influence of some pesticides on human body. /N. Khazaradze, L. Gobejishvili, N. Kamkamidze, G. Bukhaidze/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 148-152. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

A new ge­ne­ra­ti­on of pes­ti­ci­des enables their sa­fe use. However, some pesticide residua may affect the human health. The­ir exis­ten­ce in the or­ga­nism is greatly de­pen­dent on the metabo­lic processes taking place in the environment. Most sub­stan­ces that create hydro­philic particles du­ring me­ta­bo­lism are incapable of accumulation in the in hu­man or­ga­nism.

Auth.

 

6.C13.10. Dual inhibition of cholesterol synthesis and absorption by statins and ezetimibe: a new approach to dyslipidemia treatment. /N. Kipshidze, K. Nadaraia/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 150-155. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

In clinical practice, clinicians may not increase statin dose levels out of concern for potential adverse events or because titration of statin doses provides only limited additional effectiveness. Ezetimibe, a novel agent inhibiting cholesterol absorption, can be effectively and safely co-administered with any dose of any statin and, compared with the single inhibition of cholesterol production, afforded by statins alone, provides consistently greater reductions in LDL-C through dual inhibition of both cholesterol production and absorption. The aim of our study was to evaluate the additional effectiveness and safety of Ezetimibe in high risk patients with documented coronary heart disease who were not at goal with starting doses of a statin. The including criteria of 127 patients, enrolled in the study were the presence of established CHD plus type 2 diabetes of at least 3 months duration and/or other major risk factors, LDL-C > 100 mg/dl and < 250 mg/dl, high triglycerides (TG) ≥200 mg/dl and <400 mg/dl. Patients had to have been receiving therapy with a stable dose of baseline statin, either simvastatin 20 mg or atorvastatin 10 mg, for at least 4 weeks. At randomization, patients were assigned to switch to ezetimibe/atorvastatin 10mg/10mg (Gr. 1) or to continue baseline statin at double the dose: simvastatin 40mg or atorvastatin 20 mg (Gr. 2). After 12 week follow up analysis of the study showed that 72.6% of patients (45 from 62) in Gr. 1 achieved LDL-C < 100 mg/dl vs 27.7% of patients (18 from 65) in Gr. 2 (P<0.001). 29.0% of patients (18 from 62) from Gr. 1 reached More lower LDL-C goal of below 70 mg/dl vs 4.6% (3 from 65) of patients in Gr. 2 (P<0.01). Patients from Gr. 1 experienced an additional mean LDL-C reduction of 29.2% after 12 weeks vs 12.3% in Gr. 2 (P<0.001). No statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 treatment groups with respect to musculoskeletal or overall adverse experiences. Conclusions. According to our study we conclude that for high risk patients with CHD who did not achieve LDL-C goal on their starting dose of statin therapy, ezetimibe/atorvastatin combination provided superior lipid-lowering efficacy vs doubling the dose of the baseline statin after 12 weeks of study. Therapy with ezetimibe/atorvastatin was generally well tolerated. Dual inhibition of hepatic cholesterol synthesis and intestinal cholesterol absorption may be a new and practical approach to today’s treatment for dyslipidemia.

Auth.

 

6.C13.11. Georgian-English-Russian-Latin explanatory dictionary of medical terminology. /G.  Gogichadze, A. Gedenidze, J. Chumburidze/. – 2009. – pp.495. – geo.

The dictionary reflects both the vocabulary of medical thought as well as the diversity of the contemporary scientific or practical subjects. Together with the medical issues, the dictionary describes the definitions and terms of molecular biology, genetics, medical parasitology, and main diseases of the bacterial, viral and other etiology. It explains up to 5,400 widespread notions, word combinations and terms, their etymology, providing, in some cases, their synonyms. In addition, the dictionary pays a special attention to biological peculiarities of some infectious agents.   

Auth.

 

6.C13.12. Application of natural zeolites for medicinal purposes. /T. Andronikashvili, K. Paghava, T. Kurashvili, L. Eprikashvili/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 158-166. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

This paper discusses the effects of natural zeolites (particularly clinoptilolite-containing tuffs from various deposits) on the living organism, both animal and human. It is shown that natural zeolites are harmless, possess the metabolism-normalizing, bactericidal, immunostimulatory and antioxidative properties. They diminish mortality and morbidity with regard to many diseases and disorders affecting cattle, sheep and goats, swine and poultry. Hence, it is rational to utilize zeolites in animal husbandry. They are used successfully in the treatment of different human diseases. The zeolite efficacy in gastroenterology merits particular attention. It is established that zeolites can be used both in human and veterinary medicine as biologically active food additives (dietic additives), drugs, drug carriers, adjuvants in anticancer therapy and antimicrobial agents as well. The data fully substantiate the expediency of further research in terms of studying natural zeolites and their biological and medicinal effects.

Auth.

 

6.C13.13. The cell protective manifestations in the organism interrelated with  the nervous and immune systems /N. Khvitia, E. Khvedelidze, Z. Topuria, S. Zurabashvili, B. Kochlamazashvili/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 173-175. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

Heterogeneous interest of blood corpuscles taking place in protective manifestations points to the existence of the immune centre in the cortex, the function of which is broken at the moment. The clinical material demonstrates that the protection of the immune system during oncological diseases takes place improperly, which conditions the patient’s state deterioration. Concurrently, the authors state that in any case cells can be found where the proper direction is seen. However, the number of such cells is insignificant.  Hence, it may be concluded that the linkage of the immune and nervous systems is broken.

Auth.

 

6.C13.14. Aging and salt sensitivity. /G. Simonia, I. Andronikashvili, P. Nozadze/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 181-184. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.

Salt sensitivity was assessed in normotensive 48 young and 62 elderly males. Salt sensitivity was assessed by the difference of mean arterial pressure (MAP) on high (200 µmol Na/day) vs. low (40 µmol Na/day) sodium diet. Plasma rennin activity (PRA) was assessed during both diets. High salt diet led to significant increase in systolic blood pressure and MAP only in salt-sensitive subjects with peak levels in the elderly. Only salt-resistant subjects responded adequately during high salt diet by decrease in PRA which was significantly lower compared to basal levels. In salt-sensitive groups, especially in the elderly, PRA decreased to a lesser extent. Final clarification of mechanisms of salt-sensitivity in normotensive elderly calls for further investigations.

Auth.

 

D. INTERSECTORAL PROBLEMS

 

D1. Organization and Management

 

6.D1.1. Obligations, responsibilities, risk and received profit of cooperative members. /T. Dudauri/. Science And Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.122-126. geo., res.: eng., rus.

Based on an analysis of the experience of cooperatives of the developed countries in the world, the article discusses advantages and profitability of agricultural cooperatives. On the basis of individual examples, the co-op members’ obligations and responsibilities are established; the risk to be allocated among the co-op members in the course of their economic activity is analyzed; the technique of product purchase pricing in the process of calculation of the co-op members’ revenue is given by specific examples; a method of selection of the desirable option is analyzed and its advantages are substantiated.

Auth.

 

6.D1.2. Risk management mechanism in farms. /O. Keshelashvili/.  Agrarian-economic Science and Technologies. – 2010. - #1. -  pp. 6-11. – geo.; res.: eng.

A completely new mechanism (system) for agricultural risk appreciation and management has been worked out for the first time. It is based on specific risk factors and puts in order the entire risk setting, criteria selection, assessment and management process. The selected indicators help prove the reasonability of risking in the taking of any economic- organizational or technological measure, in the realization or any direction or activity in order to ensure a better economic effect.

Auth.

 

6.D1.3. Agrarian production optimization problem. /O. Keshelashvili, M. Nikoleishvili/. Agrarian-economic Science and Technologies. – 2010. #1. – pp. 92-95. - geo.; res.: geo., eng.

The science-based handling of the set problem should contribute to the development of Georgian agriculture, specialization of agroproduction, effective use of the economic and technological environment and proper determination of scopes of farming activities, agricultural inputs and revenues. This is the current and future strategic task to be coped by the state. Given that a model ensuring the optimization and sustainable development of agricultural production based on the conservation of the industrial-resource potential and its implementation mechanism in the form of economic-organizational recommendations has not been worked out in Georgia, it is evident that studies in the matter are rather urgent and of great practical significance.

Auth.

 

6.D1.4. Organizational culture and its role in strategic management of an organization. /S. Zhorzholiani/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #1. – pp. 66-70. - rus.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The article analyzes the role of organizational culture in the strategic management of an organization is considered. Definitions of corporate and organizational culture are given; an analysis of the organizational culture of enterprises from the former USSR up to now is done; a number of major functions implementable in respect of the organization of culture is determined, as well as components of the organizational culture.. The article considers the major elements of the modern conception of management, shows that the development of the strategic objectives of a company is necessary in order to be competitive and provides ways of their fulfillment.

Auth.

 

6.D1.5 Entrepreneurial (economic) risk evaluation  and management in farms. /O. Keshelashvili, J. Bazhunaishvili/.  Agrarian-economic Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #4. -  pp. 20-41. – geo.; res.: eng.

The entrepreneurial risk management should be carried out on a stage-by-stage basis.  The following stages are of importance: risk analysis, risk control, risk management, and risk financing; The entire spectrum of risk (individual and social) importance is divided, according to the so-called “traffic light” principle, into three areas: the unacceptable risk area – “red” area; the acceptable risk area – “yellow” area; and the ignorable risk area – “green” area. Based on the conducted research and generalization of the data on farms, it may be concluded that the risk management mechanism in Georgian farms should be of a clear-cut hierarchic character in order to reduce the negative risk impact and where necessary to adjust it as a result of the implementation of the set activities.

Auth.

 

6.D1.6. Proposals on the economic-organizational perfection of agro-tech service /T. Tavidashvili/. Agrarian-economic Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #4. -  pp. 42-46. – geo.; res.: eng.

Enterprise management costs should be covered from own income, while the enterprise development is to be carried out based on shareholder contributions and own funds. Specialized repair shops and plants can be assigned the status of an independent enterprise. Under conditions of a market economy, a special attention should be paid to the free choice of material and technical means on the part of consumers. Therefore, the authors of the article believe that, together with centralized agricultural supply, a network of intermediary supplying cooperatives should be established. Also of importance today is the effective utilization of machine and tractor fleets, their optimization and regional and differential completing of their stock. State complex programs should be worked out to handle all the above problems.

Auth.

 

6.D1.7. Game theory; decision-making and economic behavior. /O. Keshelashvili/. Agrarian-economic Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #3. -  pp. 6-12. – geo.; res.: eng.

One of the main tasks of the game theory is the determination of conflict situations and the type and degree of a conflict for the purpose of its further regulation and control. Based on this theory, one can investigate the decision-making process under conditions of interaction of the interests of the conflicting parties. The game theory is the most complex and promising applied science for studying the decision-making process and analyzing the economic behavior. The game theory has brought to the forefront new approaches, implying that the decision-making is directly connected the risk taking and management. It should be clearly stated that any decision should be made only on the basis of determination of the risk (economic risk) reasonability and profitability levels. Otherwise the decision-making will be unjustified and unprofitable.

Auth.

 

6.D1.8. Risk management as a prerequisite of the sustainable development of the agrarian sector and its strategic programs. /O. Keshelashvili, J. Bazhunaishvili, E .Dzagania, M.Mechurchlishvili/. Agrarian-economic Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #3. -  pp. 13-19. – geo.; res.: eng.

In managing risk in the agrarian sector, the subject can apply different tools. Depending on the application purposes and conditions, the following the three main groups of such tools can be distinguished: managerial decisions; private sector service/instruments; and state programs. These instruments can be used separately as well as in combination. To reduce risks in the management of agricultural enterprises, it is necessary that a correct, managerial decision is taken on the basis of the following factors: cost-benefit analysis, risk assessment, production marketing strategies (specialization, diversification, integration, stock management, making production and marketing contracts, development of the infrastructure, product quality/safety management, observing legal norms, etc.) It is underlined that the main instrument in the risk management and distribution is the ensuring by the state of an adequate degree of competition in any link of the “production, processing, distribution and consumption” chain.

Auth.

 

6.D1.9. Simulation of the optimal and sustainable development of agriculture to ensure food safety/.O. Keshelashvili, M. Nikoleishvili/.Agrarian-economic Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #3. -  pp. 20-25. – geo.; res.: eng.

The optimal and sustainable management of agriculture development processes requires that the agricultural production, the functionally associated with it food processing industry, the market demands, and export-imports issues be considered in the aggregate. The problem may be set as follows: the optimal reconstruction of the national agricultural production, coordination and specialization of its branches with account for the outlet markets and export-import volume, the population’s demands for safe farm produce and securing maximum revenues. The economic-mathematical model includes the criterion function and restrictions. The restrictions reflect the current economic conditions and possibilities in agriculture, while the maximum, profit, maximum output, maximum commodities, minimum expenses, etc. can be taken as the criterion.

Auth.

 

6.D1.10. Social responsibility and target marketing. /Kh. Todua/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 232-235. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

Target marketing helps companies in more efficient running of business and better satisfaction of their customers’ demands for products they prefer. However, there are cases when potentially harmful products enter the undefended market segment.

Auth.

6.D1.11. Organization of marketing activity of a hauler on the transport service market. /T. Kochadze, I. Dangadze, J. Chogovadze/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 246-251. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.

A mar­ket is a polysemantic concept comprising in addition to its economic content also the political, social and ethical issues. In other words, market is a method of society’s economic interrelations, whose main components include the individual’s rights, obligations and freedoms. The transport service market consists of three main elements: free production, free demand, and free service price-forming on the transport market. Disregard of any of these elements will mean the absence of a real transport market. It should be mentioned that the principal driving force of a civilized transport service market is competition among haulers (transport service companies) that prevails in two forms: price competition; and new technology competition. In order to be competitive, transport service companies should have a well-organized marketing service.

Auth.

D2. Environmental Protection. Ecology

 

6.D2.1. Increasing ecological compatibility of motor vehcles by the use of waste oils as the new oils base. /J. Iosebidze, G. Abramishvili, T. Apakidze, L. Zurabishvili, A. Chkheidze/. Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 89-93. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The so-called waste oils of M-8B1 and M-8Ã2Ê brand are used as a base for new automotive transmission oils, the utilization of which in Georgia is not carried out. To obtain new functional properties, a multifunctional addition - amorphous high-dispersive carbon (AHDC) and additive “Akop 1” were added to such oils after they have been purified. The carried out experiments showed that the so produced experimental transmission oils are outperform the known market automotive transmission oils ÒÀï-15Â and ÒÑï-15ê. The preparation and utilization of these oils will guarantee the reduction of environmental pollution.

Auth.

 

6.D2.2. The effect of knock characteristics of gasoline on ecological compatibility of an automobile. /J. Iosebidze, G. Abramishvili, T. Apakidze, L. Zurabishvili, A. Chkheidze/. Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 94-100. – geo.; res.: geo., eng., rus.

The effect of the factors acting on the knock properties of gasoline (octane number, carbon monoxide formation, aromatic hydrocarbons, soluble gums, sulfur content, breakdown time, etc.) on the toxicity of waste gases of an automobile engine is analyzed; a conceptual dependence between these indicators and ecological safety of automobiles is established; it is proved that out of the indicators determining the anti-knock properties of gasoline, the octane number and the content of soluble gums and aromatic hydrocarbons signi