À6. Other Social Sciences
B3. Geology. Geodesy
C1. Power Industry
C6. Light Industry
C7. Food Industry
C13. Medicine. Healthcare
In the history of Georgia, almost all forms of state government and their varieties have been used. Until the first annexation of Georgia by Russia (1801), in the course of many centuries, Georgia had been a monarchical State represented as an absolute monarchy. In the 12th century, under Queen Tamar, there was an attempt to establish a parliamentary monarchy. After the restoration of Georgian state independence in 1991, in the past 17 years, all types of republican government - parliamentary, presidential and semi-presidential systems – alternated in Georgia. Recently, an idea of the expedience of establishing a parliamentary monarchy has emerged. The article analyses the pro and contra arguments. It is observed in this article that the choice between a republic and a monarchy should be made by the people through a referendum.
4.A2.1. Social system and person’s value orientation. /S. Lominadze/.Proceedings - Appendix to the Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences – 2008. - #11. – pp.219-221. – Rus. (res.: Geo., Eng.)
The article deals with basic value orientations of individuals. Study of value orientations of the youth is noted to be very important for teachers. The dialectic of interaction between society and an individual is exposed. The author holds that free-thinking plays the main role in the development of society. It is emphasized that the values common to mankind are able to unite the nation and their serves as a guarantor of life, truth and freedom.
The major characteristics of financial globalization are as follows: 1) the creation and accumulation of enormous valuables in financial spheres; and 2) a gigantic growth of loan capital, direct foreign investments, portfolio investments, and currency market. A world-scale overview of each category is provided. The financial globalization has a certain positive effect on the economic development of sovereign states. Although, together with positive sides, it has some negative aspects as well, the most important being the economic instability that, rather frequently, creates a danger of transition to financial crises.
Following the “Rose Revolution”, the facts of both official and unofficial expropriation of property, non-formal taxation of business, etc. were frequent in Georgia. The dynamics of the money mass circulating in Georgia is of interest. In 2005, when coupon was replaced by the national currency – Lari (GEL), only GEL 95 million was circulating in the country. By December 2007, the figure exceeded GEL 1.3 billion, which was expected to result in a drop of the rate of exchange. However, the opposite happened. The event might have an anti-inflationary impact but it adversely affects the deficient balance of payment as it is. At the same time, arresting inflation is still a problem in Georgia. According to predicted governmental data, inflation will reach 9 percent in 2009, gradually slowing down to 8, 5, 8 and 7 percent in the years to come, which, in itself, is a rather high rate. The excess of imports over exports makes 23 percent. Against such background, of importance is to assign a high degree of independence to the National Bank of Georgia (NBG) - the principal implementer of the monetary policy in Georgia. The article gives diagrams showing the quantity of money in circulation, the GEO-USD-Euro rate of exchange, as well as the foreign trade figures and inflation index.
Practice has worked out a series of methods for bank liquidity risk management, which are based on the management of assets, liabilities, or both of them. The article deals with advantages and disadvantages of these methods, as well as with other liquidity management techniques: the reserve position management method, bank securitization and immunization, coefficient method, the funds flow management mechanism. The liquidity management of a commercial bank is also carried out by the central bank, which establishes uniform standards of liquidity, binding reserve requirements, carries out refinancing.
Characteristics and regulatory norms of a microfinance organization, statistical data concerning the functioning of registered microfinance organizations are given. The 2002 legislation concerning credit unions - non-bank depositary institution has not lost its importance. Credit unions operate with the legal status of a cooperative and can play a significant role in the small business development, especially in rural areas. An opinion in favor of the development of local economy according to the cluster principle has also been voiced.
The state intervention into economy under a market economy conditions is justifiable and even necessary only when the effects of free market forces are ineffective for society. In other words, the state intervention into economy is justified when the market fails to “work” in national interests or to ensure an optimal allocation of resources in order to sufficiently make the “public benefit”. As regards the necessity of activation of the state’s role in the economy regulation at the modern stage, it is dictated by the market activity slumps that have resulted in: a high level of unemployment; outflow of able-bodied population from and country and aggravation of the demographic situation; the low accumulation of local capital and its drain abroad.; lack of power resources. In order to cope with the aforementioned problems, the state shall elaborate and fulfil a priority economy sectors’ development program.
4.A3.6. Export and import - components of aggregate expenditures. /N.Guramishvili/. Works - Appendix to the Newsletter of the Academy of Education Sciences of Georgia. – 2008. – #11. – pp. 40-41. – Rus. (res. Geo., Eng.)
The economy internationalization process causes, the forms of their demonstrations, as well as the advantage of participation of countries in the world economic relations and the problems cause thereby are considered.
A serious economic crisis in our country reveals itself in several parameters, one of which is a decrease in employment. Private structures resort to redundancy measures that result in a decrease in locally made products. This concerns both industry and the construction sector, which, like the major portion of economy segments, is almost idle. Thus the crisis situation has been clearly formed. The studies carried out are indicative of the imminent national currency devaluation. The process will last until the export production and the export-import balance, also investment flows are restored to the earlier extent. Will these events lead to a monetary crisis? We have all means to avoid such crisis. On the one hand, the currency reserves of the National Bank exceed USD one billion. On the other hand, by decision of 22 October 2008, Georgia is to get a monetary aid worth USD 4.5 billion from the European Union, U.S., Japan, and other donor countries. Given the expected foreign currency transfers from Georgian national employed abroad, as well as foreign investments, it might be said that the fears of the monetary crisis in Georgia are exaggerated.
4.A3.8. Methodological approaches to business evaluation and determination of financial solvency. /I.Palelashvili, S.Turmanidze, G.Dzagnidze/. Agrarian-Economic Science and Technologies. – 2009. – #1. – pp. 36-40. – Geo. (res. Eng.)
Among numerous indicators of solvency estimation of agribusiness enterprises priority should be given to the three basic indicators: liquidity ratio of long-term obligations, current liquidity ratio and intermediate liquidity ratio. The full solvency ratio of a profitable enterprise is calculated by a ratio of equity capital to total liabilities, whereas in a low-profitable or unprofitable enterprise - by a ratio of current assets to total liabilities. Therefore, an agribusiness enterprise may be evaluated in the following sequence: a. valuation of the enterprise property; b. calculation and analysis of profitability, solvency, financial stability, efficiency and economic growth in prospect.
A stable financial position of enterprises can be reflected by a uniform system of economic indicators in which a balance sheet structure of an enterprise will be comprehensively displayed. However, a multitude of such indicators sometimes interferes with an objective financial rating of business activity. Therefore, it is expedient that only a part of these indicators be prioritized; in addition, introduced should be ratios such as: debt-to-equity ratio, debt-payment liability ratio, own funds ratio, and financial stability ratio. For a full-value financial rating of an agricultural enterprise, an integral financial position ratio should be employed which will give a clearer picture of complex assessment of efficiency of activity of an enterprise (firm).
Two variants of calculation of profits are practiced: the Anglo-American and the French-German. The both variants have their shortcomings. Therefore, advantages of the methods of both variants should be summarized first to better characterize the agribusiness profits and to make it possible to increase them. All this can be achieved in two ways: by increasing production activity and better using own assets. Thus, the employment of the invested capital and sales indicators would be more expedient for assessing profits an agribusiness enterprise.
In the process of budget formation, great importance is given to its structure ensuring a rational balance between expenditures and incomes. When forming the budget, expenditures should be prioritized over incomes. Rather important is to determine budget expenses and resources to such a level that could ensure implementation of the tasks set before the society. Economic development is one of the most important priorities for the country's government. Changes in the fiscal sphere are the most important part for the economic reform and the economic policy as a whole. In addition, the Georgian government plans for the next 5 years include strategic changes for perfecting the fiscal policy and improving the financial situation in Georgia. All these will provide for the macro-economical stability, the growth of expenditures in the priority directions and the strengthening of financial order.
4.A4.1. On the problem of training scientific personnel in the area of natural history. /R. Jobava, M. Lomouri, L. Geonjian/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology. - 2008. - vol.115. - pp. 204-213. - Geo. (res.: Geo., Eng., Rus.)
Based on the necessity of increasing the level of professional education in physical geography, a study of the 2008 entrance examination results of the contingent admitted to the Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences of Tbilisi State University has been conducted. The ways of raising the level of training have been designed.
4.A5.1. Information support to the commercialization of research results. /N.Makhviladze, E.Pawlowic, T.Chubinishvili/. Theses of International Scientific Conference: Modern Technologies and Materials. – 2008. – pp. 207-208. – Geo.
Innovative activity represents a process of materialization of a scientific idea and of a research outcome into the production process, its product. In addition to research activity, this process encompasses such activities as marketing, promotion and advertising, protection of intellectual property, establishment of a business plan, techno-economic and information analysis, etc. Each of the above comprises to a great extent information activity. Correspondingly innovation needs a strong information support. During the last 30 years an informal innovative infrastructure has been actually established in economically developed countries, one of the priority components of which is the information and communication infrastructure. Regrettably, due to a whole number of objective and subjective conditions the development of innovative activity as well as the process of establishment of the related infrastructure, including the information one, has been impeded in Georgia. Irrespective of a significant progress in the introduction of information and communication technologies in the world, Georgian scientists and engineering personnel are in the majority of cases devoid of an opportunity to employ these technologies. In order to partially eliminate this shortcoming, Techinformi engages in the promotion of the innovative proposals of Georgian scientists and the research results that would be useful for commercialization by employing information technologies. In particular, relevant databases have been generated and are being disseminated through telecommunication networks, by laser CDs. Widely used are such international sci-tech services as ICSTI and ISTC, FAO AGRIC/CARIS. A three-year (2007-2009) information strategy development plan worked out by Techinformi that provides for the planning, management and coordination of these activities and ensures the appropriate participation of Georgian scientists in European Union’s research and innovative framework programs has been included in the Activity Plan of the European Neighborhood Policy. According to this plan, Techinformi has started intensive use of the EU’s scientific information services.
4.A5.2. Information technologies in the science reforming process. /T.Chubinishvili, P.Tsotskolauri/. Theses of International Scientific Conference: Modern Technologies and Materials. – 2008. – pp. 219-220. – Geo.
The reforming of the research and innovations management process is an essential part of an economic reform. This process is being actively implemented in Georgia, beginning with the restructuring of research institutions and ending with the state support to research and innovative activities. Notwithstanding the said efforts, the research management process is still of unplanned nature. They fail to fully cope with the regulatory role in respect of the ongoing processes, nothing to say of stimulating measures. This can be explained by a number of reasons, among which the priority one consists in the lack of a proper analysis of the actual situation. A strong network of research organizations used to function in Georgia. These organizations created a large amount of scientific products in the form R&D works, dissertations, scientific papers or inventions. The existing system of recording/registration of such products made it possible for interested persons to retrieve and use the said material whenever needed. However, it should also be mentioned that there concurrently existed a very serious impediment, namely the lack of possibilities of dissemination of these material outside the country. Given this, five years ago Techinformi started activities for dissemination of scientific products created by Georgian scientists through international databases. The communication channels were the databases of FAO, ISTIC and other international organizations. In view of perfecting management in the science transformation area, the dissemination of scientific products will not suffice. It is necessary that the assessment of the effectiveness of using such products would also become possible. This can be achieved by means of citation index establishing systems created by international organizations. Techinformi has already initiated activities in this direction; it is, however, necessary that the work for creating such an index would be started in Georgia as well. The identification of the scientific research efficiency and applicability index will make practicable the process of assessment of research activity of Georgian scientists and help financial bodies prioritize funding of the most economically feasible researches. All the above will make it possible to reorganize the system of funding of research and innovative activities as well. Employment of the indexing system will deepen scientific cooperation, enhance the attraction of investments in the research and innovations sphere, and facilitate the formation and expansion of production-research-higher education institution links. All this will, in turn, contribute to an increase of a share of funding from the economic activity in the system of financing of research in addition to the state allocations.The working out of the activities aimed at the development of the sphere of research and innovations should be based on the indexes shoeing the actual research activity progress in the country. In addition, the research and innovations restructuring activities should be provided with a legislative base that has been amended and supplemented in line the up-to-date requirements.
4.B1.1. On perturbation of an orthotropic half plane caused by movement of a concentrated force on the boundary. /T.Iamanidze, M.Losaberidze/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2008. – vol. 2. – # 3. – pp. 43-47. – Eng. (res. Geo., Eng.)
The paper deals with a problem of perturbation of an orthotropic half plane caused by movement of a concentrated force on the boundary. Stresses and wave range transmission in the anisotropic body are shown to have greater values than in isotropic materials.
4.B1.2. Comparative analysis of average characteristics of p–mesons and protons produced in non-central and semi-central CTa-collisions at 4.2 AGeV/c. /L.Akhobadze, V.Garsevanishvili, Y.Tevzadze/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2008. – vol. 2. – #3. – pp. 51-57. – Eng., Geo. (res. Eng.)
A comparative analysis of the average characteristics of π– -mesons and protons produced in non-central and semi-central CTa-collisions at the momentum of 4.2 AGeV/c is made. The angular dependence of the temperature of nuclear matter T is studied. One centre- and two-centre production mechanisms are considered. The results obtained are compared with the Dubna version of the cascading model (DCM) and with the results of other works.
Correlation characteristics of high energy very high multiplicity interactions are investigated.
4.B1.4. The mechanism of occurrence of a negative differential conductivity in pure p-Ge at helium temperatures. /Z.Kachlishvili, L.Kukutaria/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2008. – vol. 2. – #3. – pp. 62-64. – Eng., Geo. (res. Eng.)
The current-voltage characteristic of pure p-Ge in a pre-breakdown region of a shallow-level impurity breakdown has been estimated using the Monte-Carlo simulation in the isotropic-parabolic and crimped dispersion law model approximations. It is shown that under conditions of crimped band dispersion a negative differential conductivity region is observed on the current-voltage characteristics, which is due to the light hole weighting phenomenon.
4.B1.5. Construction and investigation of hierarchical models for thermoelastic prismatic shells. /G.Avalishvili, M.Avalishvili, D.Gordeziani/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2008. – vol.2. – # 3. – pp. 35-42. – Eng., Geo. (res. Eng.)
In the present paper an initial boundary value problem for thermoelastic prismatic shells is considered. Three-dimensional dynamical problem for prismatic shell with surface forces given along the upper and the lower faces of the shell is reduced to hierarchy of two-dimensional problems. The obtained problems are investigated in suitable function spaces, the convergence of the sequence of vector-functions of three space variables, restored from the solutions of two-dimensional problems to the solution of the original three-dimensional problem, is proved and the rate of approximation is estimated.
4.B1.6. Optimization of a delay variable structure system with mixed intermediate condition. /T.Tadumadze, A.Arsenashvili/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2008. – vol.2. -#3. – pp. 22-26. – Eng., Geo. (res. Eng.)
In this paper an optimal control problem for a two-stage variable structure control system is investigated, whose law of movement is described by an ordinary differential equation at the first stage and by a delay differential equation at the second stage. These two stages of the system are connected by a mixed intermediate condition. The necessary conditions of optimality are obtained: for optimal control in the form of maximum principle and for the optimal structure changing moment in the form of equality, containing the effect of the mixed intermediate condition. The general results for linear time-optimal control problem are concretized.
4.B1.7. Maximal and potential operators in variable exponent Morrey spaces defined on non-doubling quasimetric measure spaces./V.Kokilashvili, A.Meskhi/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2008. – vol. 2. – #3. – pp. 18-21. – Eng., Geo. (res. Eng.)
The boundedness of modified maximal operator and potentials in variable Morrey spaces defined on quasimetric measure spaces, where the doubling condition is not needed, is established.
4.B2.1. Biotechnology in Georgia for various applications. /L.Mosulishvili, N.Tsibakhashvili, E. Kirkesali, L.Tsertsvadze, M.Frontasyeva, S.Pavlov/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2008. – vol. 2. – #3. – pp. 88-94. – Eng., Geo. (res. Eng.)
The results of collaborative work carried out in the field of biotechnology at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) (Dubna, Russia) jointly with scientists from Georgia are presented. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA), significant results were obtained in the following directions – medical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology and industrial biotechnology. In the biomedical experiments a blue-green alga Spirulina platensis biomass has been used as a matrix for the development of pharmaceutical substances containing such vitally important trace elements as selenium, chromium and iodine. The feasibility of target-oriented introduction of these elements into Spirulina platensis biocomplexes retaining its protein composition and natural beneficial properties has been proved. The adsorption of such toxic metal as mercury by Spirulina platensis biomass in dynamics of growth has been studied also. NAA has been successfully applied to investigate the biotechnology of toxic Cr(VI) transformation into less toxic Cr(III) complexes by Cr(VI)-reducer bacteria isolated from polluted basalts in Georgia. This method was used to track accumulation of chromium in the bacterial cells. To monitor and identify Cr(III) complexes in these bacteria, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry was employed. For the first time, the elemental composition of Cr(VI)-reducer bacteria has been studied, using epithermal NAA. The natural organic mass of vegetal origin – peat – was applied as a source of microorganisms to study the bacterial leaching of some metals from lean ores, rocks and industrial wastes.
4.B2.2. The history of veretebrate fauna in Eastern Georgia. /A.Vekua, D.Lordkipanidze/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2008. – vol. 2. – #3. – pp. 149-154. – Eng., Geo. (res. Eng.)
At the end of the Middle Miocene the Caucasus represented a land forepart, the geographic position of which induced the development of peculiar flora and fauna in Eastern Georgia. On the territory of Eastern Georgia several reference fossil vertebrate sites are discovered, among them Udabno (Maeotian), Dzedzvtakhevi (Maeotian), Iaghludja (Sarmatian-Maeotian), Kvabebi (Akchagilian) and others are worth mentioning. In the Pliocene an interesting association of vertebrate fauna was developed, the early Homo becoming the most remarkable representative.
4.B2.3. Biological activity of the natural zeolite – clinoptilolite-containing tuff. /T.Andronikashvili, T.Urushadze, L.Eprikashvili, M.Gamisonia, E.Nakaidze/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2008. – vol. 2. – #3. – pp. 99-106. – Eng., Geo. (res. Eng).
This paper discusses the questions of biological influence of natural zeolites – clinoptilolite-containing tuffs and peaty-zeolitic and organo-zeolitic fertilizers prepared on their basis on the qualitative and quantitative composition of soil microorganisms. It is shown that their influence causes the reproduction of useful microflora, in particular azotobacter. Azotobacter contributes to fixing air nitrogen by transferring it into the so-called “biological” one. The latter is cheaper than technical fertilizer that is applied into the soil as mineral one. Furthermore, far from contaminating the soil, it largely supplements its nitric stock of the soil reserve. It is established that under the influence of organo-zeolitic fertilizers, the quantity of useful soil microflora increases, being of pulsatory character due to the reproduction and necrosis of microorganisms. It must be noted that under the influence of zeolites and especially organo-zeolitic fertilizers the intensive vitality of bacteria continues in winter period.
4.B2.4. The role of mitochondrial lectin in the activity of creatine kinase system. /N.Koshoridze, Z.Kuchukashvili, T.Vardiashvili/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2008. – vol. 2. -# 3. – pp. 113-115. – Eng., Geo. (res. Eng.)
Influence of glucose specific lectin separated from the mitochondrial membranes of bovine brain on creatine kinase activity has been studied. It has been observed that inhibition of enzyme activity starts with the lectin action. The inhibition process starts under conditions of a certain concentration of the components of enzymatic reaction, which presumably facilitates regulation of the reaction.
4.B2.5. Coordination compounds of some d-elements with 1-[2-(benzylcarbamoil)-ethyl]-2-isonicotinoilhydrazone (nialamid-L). /M.Tsintsadze, N.Gegeshidze, N.Zhorzholiani, I.Beshkenadze, T.Tsintsadze, I.Gvelesiani, L.Skhirtladze/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. -vol. 8. – #3.
The coordination compounds of some transitive elements have been synthesized with 1-[2(benzlcarb-amoil)-ethyl]-2-isonicotinoilhydrazone (nialamid-L), some physical-chemical characteristics and absorption IR spectra have been investigated. The structure of the investigated complexes has also been given.
4.B2.6. Coordination compounds of some d-elements' thiocyanates with 1-[2-(benzylcarbamoil)-ethyl]-2-isonicotinoilhydrazone nialamid-L). /M.Tsintsadze, N.Gegeshidze, N.Zhorzholiani, I.Beshkenadze, T.Tsintsadze/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #3
Coordination compounds of some transitive elements thiocyanates have been synthesized with 1-[2-(benzylcarbamoil)-etil]-2-isonicotinoilhydrazone (nialamid-L), some physical-chemical characteristics and IR spectra of absorption have been investigated. The structure of the investigated complexes is also given.
4.B2.7. Electronic structure and complex-forming ability of paradimethylaminobenzaldehyde nicotinoilhydrazone. /M.Tsintsadze, N.Kilasonia, T.Tsintsadze, I.Gvelesiani, Ts.Dolidze, M.Chanturia, N.Tatiashvili/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #3
Interatomic distances, valence angles, effective charges and electron density on atomic orbitals have been calculated by quantum chemical semi-empirical method AM1 for the molecule of paradimethylamino-benzaldehyde nicotinoilhydrazone. Potential donor atoms: nitrogen of heterocycle and hydrazine and oxygen of carbonyl group have been determined.
4.B2.8. Full x-ray structural study of bio-coordinative admixture of Bismuth with medical preparation of Cardiamine. /T.Tsivtsivadze, N.Chigogidze, R.Skhiladze, R.Kldiashvili, G.Sulakvelidze/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #3.
The structure of a bio-complex admixture of Bismuth with the heart preparation of Cardiamine (BiCl3 (Cor) (C2H5OH) (where Cor - Cardiamine, N,N – diethylnicotineamide, C10H14N2O; C2H5OH - ethanol) has been identified by means of an x-ray– structural method. The biocomplex crystals have been determined to belong to rhombic syngony (Feodorov’s group D24 =P212121) with elementary cell parameters: a=8,064(1), b=8,141(1), c=21,211(3)Å, d=2.58g/sm3, V=1390.7Å3, number of formulary units Z=4. In the studied structure cardiamine displays the function of monodentate ligand and co-ordinates with complex forming Bismuth atom by means of an oxygen atom of carbonyl amide group. This de-facto result makes corrections into infra-red spectral interpretation, according to which cardiamine coordinates with central atoms only by means of a pyridine nucleus heterocyclic nitric atom or rarely by means of carbonyl amide group oxy-gen and heterocyclic nitric atoms in the form of bidentate-bridge ligand. Display of either function of cardiamine with complex former towards dentations seems to depend on composition of admixture, M:Cor stereochemical proportion and nature of metals. The work presents crystallographic parameters of biocomplex admixtures, atom co-ordinates, their iso- and anisotropic temperature factors, interatom distance and valence angle magnitudes, complex bond types, some stereo- chemical peculiarities of the structure in co-ordinative polyhedron forms, etc. Findings can serve as a stimulus for purposeful synthesis and study of biocoordinative admixtures, for determination of the influence of structural and geometric characteristics on physical, chemical and biological properties, for conducting quantum and chemical calculations, etc.
4.B2.9. Some structural peculiarity of bio-complexes of arsenic, stibium and bismuth amides of pyridine carboxylic acids. /T.Tsivtsivadze, N.Chigogidze, R.Skhiladze, R.Kldiashvili, G.Sulakvelidze/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #3.
Some structural and stereochemical peculiarities of arsenic, antimony and bismuth bio-complex compounds (pycolynamide - PkA, nicotinamide - NkA, and isonicotinamide - InkA) have been studied by IR spectroscopy. It was established that pyridine planar ring of pycolynamide and amide groups have almost the same geometry as corresponding groups of nicotinamide and isonicotinamide molecules. Pycolyn-amide molecules of As, Sb and Bi in bio-complex compounds are bidentical. Nitrogen atom of amino-groups and heterocycles causes bidentical nature of PkA in As(III) and Bi (III) bio-complexes, but in Sb (III) complex -nitrogen atom of NH2-group and oxygen of carbonyl group. In all cases five-member ring is formed. In bio-complex admixtures of Arsenic, Stibium and Bismuth halides nicotineamide serves as a monodental ligand – coordination is performed only by means of a heterocycle nitric atom. In bio-complexes NkA molecules are in the form of dimere. In isonicotine containing As, Sb and Bi biocomplexes organic ligands are as a bidental bridges, but the difference is that in As (III) and Bi (III) biocomplexes INkA coordinated by the N of heterocycle and O of carbonyl group, but in Bi (III) biocomplexes – by the N of heterocycle and amino group. Coordination number of all PKA, NkA and INkA containing biocoordinated compounds are 6 and 7. Bio-complexes have octahedral shape.
4.B2.10. Synthesis and research of physical and chemical properties of benzaldehyde benzoilhydrazon and of complex compounds of some metals’ tiocianates synthesized on its basis. /M.Tsintsadze, T.Giorgadze, G.Tsintsadze/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #3.
Coordination compounds M(SCN)2·Ln·m(H2O) where M = Co (II), Ni (II), Cd; L = BGBÀ; n=1, 2; m = 0, 2; have been synthesized and studied by UR spectroscopic and radiographic methods. The ways of coordination of hydrazon and SCN– groups have been established and assumptions of a structure of the synthesized complexes are stated.
4.B2.11. Oxidation of stibium oxide (IV) with potassium bromate (V) in alkaline medium. /M.Rusia, M.Kopaleishvili, N.Sagaradze, M.Kikalishvili, R.Gigauri/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #3.
A possibility of oxidation of stibium oxide (IV) with potassium bromate (V) in an alkaline medium for obtaining corresponding antimonite through the hydrochemical reaction has been studied. The potassium bromate is widely used for quantitative determination of stibium in different objects. Interaction of stibium oxide (IV) with the above-mentioned oxidizer for obtaining commercial products has not been investigated until now.
Bis (salicyl-pyrocatechol) borates of Mg, Ca, Ba and Zn have been synthesized. Elementary composition has been determined. IR spectra and thermoanalytical curves have been investigated. On this basis the structures of synthesized compounds are proposed.
Within the scope of quantum-chemical half-empirical method AM1 the borate anyone of bis (disallicyl) borate cupper (II), interatomic distances, valence angles, the population of electrons on atomic orbitals (electronic density) and effective charges on the atoms of this anion have been calculated.
Coordinative formulas of the compounds synthesized by Prof. P.G. Melikishvili are given in this article.
4.B2.15. A comparative characterization of chemical properties of water of some West Georgian Lakes. /N.Kiknadze, M.Kiknadze, T.Bauzhadze, T.Mzhavanadze/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #3.
Three relict lakes of West Georgia have been chemically observed: Paleastomi (Kolkheti Lowland), Ardagani and Nuri lakes (Ajarian shore). The results of the observation are compared to the former data. On the basis of their generalization, it is established that physical and chemical parameters of the water of these three lakes are not within the permissible standards. This is caused mainly by the negative influence of the factors of anthropogenic origin. Based on the strategic importance of the observed lakes, their regulat cleaning and a systematic monitoring of their hydro-chemical parameters are necessary.
4.B2.16. Dyed oligomers and polymers on the basis of polyvinyl alcohol and a,w-bis (trimethylsiloxy) nethylhydridesiloxane. /M.Karchkhadze, O.Mukbaniani, R.Tkeshelashvili/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #3.
Dyed polymers have been obtained through both the „direct” and chemical dying method. In partciluar, by etherification of polyvinil alcohol and dehydrocondensation reactions of a,w-bis(trimethylsiloxy)methylhyd-ridesiloxane with some azo- and diazo-groups-containing stains oligomers and polymers with chromophoric groups in the side chain have been synthesized..
Some transformations of ferrocene-conteining bis-vinilacetilene carbinol FK-3G-reduction reaction with the complex LiAlH4/AlCl3 and reaction of catalytic hydrogenation on Pd/CaCO3 have been studied. Corresponding products have been obtained.
4.B2.18. Mono- and bis-vinylacetylenic carbinols of a ferricene series – new special-purpose effective catalysts. Study X. /E.Gigineishvili, N.Lekishvili/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #3.
The catalytic and plasticizer properties of ferrocene-containing monovinilacetylene carbinol FK-3G were investigated. The results were compared with standard catalyst of burning of mixture solid rocket fuels – diphenylferrocene (DEF). It has been established that FK-3G, by its catalytic efficiency, predominates the standard catalyst (DEF) by 40-50% and is recommended for its substitution and inclusion in the production of MSRF.
The conversion of methane into benzene over M and Ì-ReOx/Al2O3 (where M = Ni, Co, Pt) at 650°C and GHSV = 1500 hour-1 and the conversion of C6H6-C3H8 mixtures into propene, cumen and other aromatic hydrocarbons at 180-350°C and GHSV = 500 hour-1 over MReOx+H– form of zeolites Y, M or ZSM-5 have been studied. It has been established that the course of reactions is dependent on a cyclic reduction of metallic sites Ì-Î-ReOx by hydrocarbons or hydrocarbon and H+ with the follow-up oxidation of the reduced ÌReOx sites by the formed H2O molecules.
4.B2.20. Study of phenol interaction process with 1-methylcyclohexene in the presence of phosphorus-containing catalyst on a regressional mathematical model. /R.Azimova, L.Zeynalova, R.Jafarov, A.Azizov, Ch.Rasulov/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #3.
A regressional model of the process of interaction of phenol with 1-methyl-cyclohexene in the form of a polynome on the basis of minimal experimental data with the usage of the method of multifactor programming of experiment has been developed.
4.B2.21. Degree of accuracy of Cp,298 and ∆G0f,T values computed by the Academician N.Landia's method. /A.Sarukhanishvili, E.Matsaberidze, M.Gugeshidze, M.Kapanadze/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #3.
The results of comparison of standard values of heat capacity of a number of compounds calculated by means of a computerized method of the Academician N. Landia are given and presented in the IVTANTERMO database. The difference between these values is found not to exceed 15%, which allows calculating ∆G0f,T within not more than one-percent accuracy.
4.B2.22. An algebraic-chemical investigation of the “structure-properties” correlations for N-alkylanilines. /M.Gverdtsiteli, N.Basharuli, M.Gverdtsiteli/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #3.
The “structure-properties” correlations have been constructed and studied for N-alkylanilines within the scope of quasi-ANB-matrices method. The calculations show the correlations to be satisfactory.
4.B2.23. Theoretical investigation of aluminohydrides of alkali metals within the scope of pseudo-ANB-matrices method. /M.Gverdtsiteli, N.Basharuli, M.Gverdtsiteli, G.Chachava/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #3.
Two correlation equations have been constructed and investigated for aluminohydrides of alkali metals within the scope of pseudo-ANB-matrices method. The calculations show the correlations to be satisfactory.
According to literary data, the Circassian walnut leaves containing tannins, flavonoids, vitamins, different acids, among them unsaturated fat, quinones, alkaloids etc. in the form of infusions, decoctions, extracts, ointments and powders are widely used in popular medicine for treating a wide range of diseases. In the traditional medicine, the leaves are used for treating gastrointestinal tract, cutaneous diseases, avitaminosis, and helminthosis. They are also used in cosmetics and for other purposes. There are data concerning the use of walnut leaves in treating oncological diseases and radiation damages. On the basis of the available data, a cream, containing a thick extract of the Circassian walnut leaf, a new (bentonite clay) base of the preparation “Thicha-Ascanae”, lanolin and oil, has been prepared. The physico-chemical characteristics of the cream are given. The cream is found to fully meeting the existing requirements The microbiologic characteristic of the cream have been studied to found that that the cream’s storage is not liable to the formation of microbial, bacterial and fungous flora, which is indicative of its high activity. The cream is recommended for treating cutaneous diseases related to streptococcus, staphylococci and fungous damages and for cosmetic purposes.
The content of biologically active compounds in berries and flowers of the hawthorn plant growing in the outskirts of Tbilisi has been studied. According to the obtained data, a number of tests corresponding to the pharmacopoeia are recommended to be increased.
The properties of dietary fibers for normalization of the gastrointestinal tract action have been established. The efficiency of using wheat bran for treating and preventing gastrointestinal diseases has been detected.
Today, there is a real opportunity for making a new variety of wheat flour through a special milling method consisting of grinding the whole grain and baking a new variety of bread with high nutritional qualities.
4.B2.28. A combined hydrometallurgical treatment of an oxidized concentrate of Madneuli pyrite and Chiatura manganese. /L.Bagaturia, V.Gaprindashvili, N.Barnov, M.Gvelesiani, T.Lezhava/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #3.
For extracting main components (Mn, Fe) from pyrite and manganese concentrates, a mechanical-chemical activation process is recommended at the first stage of hydrometallurgical treatment of their blend. In the process of mechanical-chemical activation, an increase in the specific surface area of the tested blend and the breaking of the lattice take place, leading to the activity of substances in the process of subsequent treatment. The proposed process excludes the use of high temperatures and concentrated acids and guarantees the possibility of extraction from the initial raw stock of the main components in the form of manganese and iron sulphates at high rates (Mn – 90%, Fe – 80%).
The product obtained as a result of pyrolysis of used oil products has been investigated. It is shown that the pyrolyzate contains valuable aromatic compounds. In addition, gasoline and kerosene fractions can be used as useful components for industrial-technical purposes, while the residue over 350°C can be recommended as a component for fuel oil.
A scheme of wall-paper manufacturing water purification using the processes of coagulation, flocculation and sorption has been developed. The full water purification and decolorization takes place by adding reagents of aluminium sulphate, lime milk, coal ashes from thermal power stations and polyacrylamide in definite quantities. The water purification quality makes possible to re-use it.
Ecological efficiency has been determined given a significant share (70%) of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted by motor transport. The Natakhtari-Ardoni highway section has been estimated for the amount of main greenhouse gas (CO2, N2O) emissions from both the Roki highway tunnel and the Dariali cross section. The ecological efficiency of the Roki highway tunnel is assessed as a result of reduction of GHG emissions. The economic efficiency of the tunnel construction is estimated in relative units.
The quantitative data on greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles on Rikoti (Georgia) highway section have been presented when using both the tunnel and adjacent cross. The ecological efficiency of the highway tunnel is assessed as a result of reduction in GHG emissions. The economic effectiveness of the tunnel construction is estimated in relative units.
4.B2.33. The effect of anthropogenic factors on the physico-chemical parameters of the Black Sea water in the Ajarian coastal strip. /N.Kiknadze, M.Kiknadze/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #3.
The present chemical and ecological state of the Black Sea water in the Ajarian coastal strip, namely in Kvariati, Adlia, Batumi University and Batumi Port water areas has been studied. For this purpose, some physical and chemical parameters of the Black Sea water (temperature, pH, salt, instant oxygen contents, biochemical usage of the oxygen) have been seasonally determined. These parameters are found to be within permissible standards in the Kvariati water area. Any anthropogenic factor effect causes pollution of the Black Sea water. From this point the most polluted is the Batumi Port water area. For rational and successful use of the Black Sea genetic pool, regular chemical and ecological monitoring is to be carried out in order to control the water quality.
Examples of an electronic balance method application for organic reactions are considered.
The complexes Cu(AGSA)2X2·nH2O, where AGSA = H3CCONHNC(H)C6H4OH, X = Cl, Br, NO3, ½SO4. n = 2 or 3, have been obtained by interaction of copper (II) chloride bromide, sulphate, nitrate with salicylac aldehyde of acetylhydrazone. Some of the properties and IR absorption spectra of the complexes are studied.
4.B2.36. Synthesis, Structure and Properties of Biocoordinative Admixture of Arsenic, Stibium and Bismuth Halides with Cordiamine. /T.Tsivtsivadze, N.Chigogidze, R.Skhiladze, R.Kldiashvili, G.Sulakvelidze/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #4.
The methodology has been worked out, purposeful synthesis conducted and 9 new bio-coordinative admixtures of arsenic, stibium and bismuth with the heart preparation of Cordiamine obtained with total structure: MX3(Cor)·(C2H5OH)n, where M = As(III), Sb(III), Bi(III); Cor = cordiamine (N,N-diethylnicotineamide, C10H14N2O); C2H5OH - ethanol; n = 1, 2. Optimum conditions for the synthesis have been determined. The structure of the synthesized bio-complex and the question of stereochemistry have been studied by means of x-ray structural analysis and infra-red spectral absorption. The obtained structural data can serve as a stimulus for purposeful research of mixed bio-coordinative admixture and for determination of the influence of structural and geometric characteristics on their physical, chemical and biological properties. These results are of utmost importance for revealing subtle peculiarities of interaction between the complex-forming atoms and ligands (acydo and organic) when they contain different competitive donor atoms. The studied data of mixed bio-complexes, their inter-atom distances and other geometric parameters are necessary for conducting different quantum-chemical calculations. Conditions for thermal stability of synthesized bio-coordinative admixtures under different temperature regimes have been determined by means of a thermographic research.
By means of a devised methodology nine new antitubercular bio-complex admixtures of arsenic, stibium and bismuth with antitubercular medical preparation of Larusane (furfural acetone isonicotinoil-hydrazone monohydrate, C14H13N3O2·H2O = Lar) have been synthesised in non-aqueous solutions with the total formula: MX3(Lar)2(C2H5OH), where M = As(III), Sb(III), Bi(III); X = F-, Cl-, Br-, I-; Lar – Larusane, C2H5OH – ethanol. Optimal conditions for synthesis, some questions concerning thermal stability of bio-complex admixtures and other basic physical, chemical and physico-pharmacological characteristics have been determined. According to the preclinical studies, the synthesized bio-complex admixtures have displayed strong bioactivity towards tubercular mycobacterium.
An opportunity of clinoptilolite's use in the etherification reaction between boric acid and methanol has been studied in order to dehydrate the azeotropic mixture of methanol+methylborate+water.
4.B2.39. Synthesis of some bis-indole compounds on the basis of azelaic, sebacic acids and 7-methyltriptamine. /J.Lagidze, L.Talakvadze, T.Revazishvili/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #4.
On the basis of dichloroanhydrides of azelaic and sebacic acids and 7-methyltryptamine the corresponding bis-indoles: bis-N,N'-[2-(7-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amide of the azelaic acid and bis-N,N'-[2-(7-me-thyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amide of sebacic acid have been obtained. By cyclization of the latter under Bishler-Napiralsky reaction bis-b-carbolines (1,7-bis-(8-methyl-3,4-dihydro-9H-b-carboline-1-yl)-heptan and 1,8-bis-(8-methyl-3,4-dihydro-9H-b-carboline-1-yl)octane) have been synthesized. The structure of these compounds has been established on the basis of elementary analysis and spectroscopic investigations. As it is known, such bis-indoles and b-carbolin derivatives are widely used in medicine as effective antiblastomatic preparations. At the same time, they are used as high antidepresant and hypotensic means. Biological investigation of the synthesised compounds has shown that they easily overcome the hematoencepalic barrier and accumulate in high concentrations in the brain tumour cells of experimental animals. Studu of their biological activity is under way.
4.B2.40. Obtaining of new potentially bioactive derivatives based on 1h-bBenzo(E)thiophene(3,2-E)benzimidazol. /T.Khoshtaria, N.Gakhokidze, M.Maisuradze/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #4.
By merging two heterocyclic systems – dibenzthiophene and benzimidazol, which are separately characterized by a rather wide range of biological activity (tuberculostatic, antimalarial, psychotropic etc), a new heterocyclic condensed tetracycli system 1H-benzo(e)thiopheme(3,2-e)benzimidazol and its 2-methyl-, 2-chlormethyl-, 2-phenyl-, 2-o-chlorphenyl- derivatives were obtained and methods of their preparation were elaborated; also some of their spectral characteristics were studied.
4.B2.41. Thermo-analytical research of alkylphenolate-type polyfunctional boron-containing additives. /T.Akchurina, A.Mamedova, E.Nagiyeva, Sh.Amidova/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #4.
Intermediate and final products of synthesis of multifunctional additives which are calcium salts of condensation products of alkylphenol with formaldehyde and ammonia or monoethanolamine treated by boric acid have been studied by methods of thermal analysis in comparison with analogous additives not containing atom boron. It is shown that a boron-containing additive of the product of phase condensation of alkylphenol with formaldehyde and monoethanolamine has increased thermostability, 360°C, and the best thermo-oxidative efficiency to oil as well.
Glasses produced on the basis of PbO-MnO-B2O3 system are considered as nanocomposites, for they are characterized by signs of amorphous matrix nanocomposite materials. It is supposed that amorphous (glassy) materials obtained in this system consist of several kinds of structural units, which can be considered as nanodimensional inclusions. The effect of correlation and sizes of inclusions on the character of dilatometric curve of materials and volume electrical resistance is shown.
The basic factors causing corrosion and the character of local failures of pipelines, which are worsened by vital functions of sulphate-reducing bacteria are discussed. It is shown that pipeline service life does not exceed 1-1.5 years though, according to standards, it must be 7.6 years. The expediency of using pipes with protective silicate enamel coatings is justified. Experimental tests of coatings on hydrosulphuric corrosion have shown positive results.
Quantitative distribution on the size of particles in the powders of organophilic clinoptilolite prepared by a method of mechanical adsorption has been investigated. Dependence of the size of a specific surface of powders and speed of their saturation by water or toluene on the change of the organophilization degree of a surface of these powders is shown. According to the findings, the optimum amount of surfactant – octa-decylamine - was selected (1% of a taken clinoptilolite) which under conditions of the given degree of dispersion provides the preparation of a powder with the maximal dispersibility and affinity to polymers. Investigation of physical and mechanical properties of the compounded coverings containing clinoptilolite, organophilized in a various degree, has shown suitability of the prepared clinoptilolite as active extender for polymers.
investigation of crystalline boron of a- and b-modifications was carried out by thermogravimetric method. Heating on the air of a-romboedrical boron powders to 600°C is accompanied with the dehydration process of orthoboric acid. Intensity of the process is determined by the content of boric anhydride of glassy modification in starting powders. The temperature of the oxidation process starting and the oxidation coefficient of crystalline boron powders when heated to 1000°C have been determined. The oxidation coefficient of b-rombo-edrical boron is ~25%, while a-romboedrical boron is ~35%.
4.B2.46. The use of a mathematical planning method of an experiment in the process of joint extraction of hallco-pyrite and manganese concentrates. /L.Bagaturia, V.Gaprindashvili, N.Barnov, M.Gvelesiani, T.Lezhava/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #4.
The optimal conditions of sulphur acid extraction process of former activated mixtures of hallco-pyrite and manganese concentrates have been found: extraction duration - 2 h; the process temperature - 90ºC, liquid : solid ratio - 10:1, sulphur acid concentration is 10%, grinding time - 1h. Degree of copper ex-traction is – 93.7%, manganese – 99.8%. The obtained solutions containing Cu - 13; Fe2+ - 10; Fe3+ - 4,2; Mn2+ - 80; H2SO4 – 33.5 g/l after purification from iron are valid for obtaining metallic copper and manganese compounds.
4.B2.47. Quantum-chemical investigation of a complex-forming ability of oxymethyl-amide of pyridine-3- and 4-carboxylic (nicotinic and izonicotinic acid). /G.Tsintsadze, T.Tsintsadze, D.Lochoshvili, I.Gvelesiani, L.Skhirtladze, M.Kereselidze, J.Kereselidze/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #4.
By the quantum(chemical method AM1 the energetic, electronic and structural characteristics of oxymethyl-amide of pyridine(3( and 4(carboxylic acid have been calculated. A method for coordinating this molecule was determined on the basis of the calculated data.
4.B2.48. Theoretical investigation of magnesium halides within the scope of ANB-matrices method. /M.Gverdtsiteli, K.Kupatadze, M.Gverdtsiteli/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #4. – p. 370. – Eng. (res. Geo., Rus.)
Four correlation equations have been constructed and investigated for magnesium halides, within the scope of the ANB- matrices method. Calculations show the correlations to be satisfactory.
4.B2.49. Mathematical-chemical investigation of the hydrides of VIA group elements within the scope of ANB-matrices method. /M.Gverdtsiteli, K.Kupatadze, M.Gverdtsiteli/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #4.
Correlation equations are constructed and investigated for the hydrides of VIA group elements within the scope of ANB-matrices method. Calculations show the correlations to be satisfactory.
4.B2.50. Mathematical-chemical investigation of glymes within the Scope of quasi-ANB-matrices method. /N.Ovsyannikova, M.Gverdtsiteli, N.Kuprashvili, M.Gverdtsiteli/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #4.
Within the scope of the quasi-ANB-matrices method correlation equations are constructed and investigated for glymes. Calculations show the correlations to be satisfactory.
4.B2.51. Study of anti-inflammatory action of a tooth-paste containing vegetative extracts. /B.Butskhrikidze, M.Bakhtadze, M.Gegeshidze, G.Gorgodze, G.Khvedelidze/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #4.
The ability of the the tooth-paste containing an extract oil of tea leaves and extracts of blackberry leaves to limit exudates component of inflammation and inflammatory damage has been determined. In addition, it contributes to proliferation of woven and active healing of wounds. All these properties are indicative of good prospects for practical use of the tooth-paste.
4.B2.52. Influence of extraction methods on thei quantitative and qualitative composition of a tea lipid complex. /G.Gorgodze, M.Gegeshidze, M.Bakhtadze, G.Khvedelidze/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #4.
Organic solvents have been selected and the use of trichloroethylene for extraction of a tea lipid complex has been considered expedient. The tea leaf granulation prior to extraction that increases the outcome of biologically active substances is recommended. The extraction length and temperature have been fixed, as well as the weight proportion of the solvent and tea leaf which should be taken into account in an industrial experiment.
4.B2.53. Intensification of the regeneration of water-purifying ionite filters by an ultrasound device. /N.Kalabegashvili, D.Ioseliani/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #4.
The process of intensification of the regeneration of water-purifying ionite filters by an ultrasound device has been studied. The ion-exchange capacity of cationites as a result of irradiation by an ultrasound device is found to increase by 12%, while the ion-exchange capacity of anionites - by 9%. Moreover, as a result of ultrasound irradiation, the anionized water almost does not contain SiO32– ions.
An optimal scheme of hot regeneration of anionite filters of the Tbilisi State Regional Power Station has been elaborated. Implementation of this scheme will ensure the release of anionite filters from polymerized silicic acid accumulated during years, the resultant increase of the ion-exchange capacity and service life of anionites, and high quality of water purification at thermal and nuclear power stations.
4.B2.55. Sorption power and possibility of use of waste coal of Tkibuli Coal-Preparation Plant /M.Tsverava, T.Palavandishvili, E.Shengelia, L.Gvasalia/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #4.
The sorption power of waste coal of Tkibuli Coal-Preparation Plant towards water colour and organic matters has been studied and tested as filtering material by the water-treatment shop of Rustavi JSC “Azoti”.
4.B2.56. Investigation of sorption power of waste coal of Tkibuli Coal-Preparation Plant towards heavy metals. /T.Palavandishvili, M.Tsverava, L.Gvasalia/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #4.
The dependence of water purification from heavy metals on the concentration correlation and solution pH has been studied on the waste coal of Tkibuli Coal-Preparation Plant as a natural sorbent. The mathematical model of purifying the polluted water from heavy metals has been designed.
4.B2.57. On the mechanism of membranotropic action of heavy metal ions on plant cells. /J.Oniani, R.Gakhokidze, T.Oniani, E.Gakhokidze, L.Tabatadze, T.Mchedluri, V.Yurin/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #4.
The regularities of interaction between heavy metal ions and plasmalemma are described on the basis of measurements of bioelectrical reactions of the cell and cyclosis velocity. It is shown that Pb2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Ni2+ ions in concentrations of 10-6-10-3Ì have a direct membranotropic effect. Copper in concentration above 10-5 M exerts an indirect membranotropic effect in both short- (10-15 min) and long-term (more than 20 min) experiments. In this respect, a scheme for the chemical agents' classification is suggested according to the elements of membranotropic effect mechanism and with consideration of the shifts in the ion permeability of membrane.
4.B2.58. Evaluation of membranotropic effects of water samples according to electroplasmographic analysis data. /J.Oniani, R.Gakhokidze, T.Oniani, M.Gakhokidze, L.Tabatadze, T.Mchedluri, V.Yurin/. Georgian Chemical Journal. – 2008. – vol. 8. – #4.
In a framework of the model, which describes potential-dependency of the velocity of cellular cyclosis in the characeae algae, the evaluation of the action character of the tested water samples was performed. The tested water samples were found to pronouncedly differ from each other according to their action on the cyclosis. The detected regularities make possible to test biological quality of the water medium.
Extrapolating from the laboratory analyses, it is estimated that about 66% of total volume of obsolete pesticides contain POPs, bringing the volume of POP pesticides in the regional stores to 235 t.
The rheological basis of reprocessing technology of shell-shaped and used articles made from polyolefins have been considered. Experimental flow curves have been built with the help of reometer for the used contaminated and washed samples. An attempt has beem made to explain the fact of shear stress reduction at high deformation speeds for the contaminated samples. Processing methods of used articles, their variety and the temperature regimes are given conditionally.
Proceeding from the analysis of the composition, structure and the forming mechanism of the Upper Eocene chaotically built formations of a part of the Alpine folded area (the Swiss and French Alps, the Dinarides, the Southern Slope of the Greater Caucasus), event deposits have been established; they are observed in the form of olistostromes and wild flysch. It is ascertained that the major factors of their formation were oft-recurring catastrophic events related to the thrusting accompanying the Pyrenean phase of folding, at the terminal of Late Eocene. With due regard for the degree of force and scope of display of these catastrophic events, it can be inferred that the olistostromes and wild flysch are event deposits of a higher order than the analogous ones of the rhythmically built formations (tempestites, turbidites).
4.B3.2. Influence of foehn phenomena on the processes of atmospheric air pollution. /G.Gunia, Z.Tskvitinidze, B.Kholmatjanov, Z.Fatkhullaeva/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2008. – vol. 2. -# 3. – pp. 65-69. – Eng., Geo. (res. Eng.)
The paper presents the results of investigations of the influence of foehn phenomena on the level of pollution of atmospheric air of Kolkheti lowland (South-Western part of the Caucasus) and Akhangaran valley (Western Tien Shan). The calculations of the distribution fields of NOx concentration in the region of Akhangaran valley are presented. It is shown that foehn events have a significant impact on the level of atmospheric air pollution in conditions of mountainous countries.
4.B3.3. Some Results of electrometric survey of the territory of magnetic sands of the Ureki seaside resort. /G.Berishvili, A.Tarkhnishvili, J.Lominadze, N.Mebaghishvili, G.Tabaghua, K.Kartvelishvili/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2008. – vol. 2. -#3. – pp. 70-73. – Eng., Geo. (res. Eng.)
The curative properties of Ureki seaside resort are widely known, although this region is not practically distinguished for climatic and geological peculiarities from other areas of the Black Sea coastal area, by being affected by space geophysical fields and other clearly notable factors. In addition, the beach line is definitely uniform in terms of the coastal sands and their content of magnetite. According to geomorphologic research, the geological structure of this region must have been formed with the participation of river sedimentation represented in the paleobed of the River Supsa, this being evidenced by electrometric data. The said dislocation of the sediments represented on Ureki territory, electrically, the so-called “peninsular” model, by its hydro geological peculiarities is an exception to the littoral strip of the region. Further research is advisable to be carried out as a complex one – with participation of physicists, geophysicists, medical men, and specialists from other related branches, whereas for the purpose of identifying new prospective areas, detailed field work should continue in the Poti-Batumi littoral.
4.B3.4. Kinematics and morphogenesis of intermontane molasse depression block structures of the Caucasus (Georgia). /L.Basheleishvili, M.Qumelashvili, S.Stambolishvili/. Institute of Geology, Collection of Papers. – 2008. – pp. 61-68. – Rus. (res. Rus., Geo., Eng.)
Modern structure of the South Caucasian molasse depressions is on the main conditioned both by meridional and latitudinal fault systems; they encompass different depth of the Earth’s crust. The mentioned faults often turned out to be borderline structures of the blocks of the Earth’s crust crystalline basement; they as a whole make a mosaic-block pattern. Configuration of the blocks is determined by the mentioned faults. The analysis of lithofacies and thicknesses of sedimentary cover sometimes establishes their autonomous and inverse nature of development as well as differentiated kinematics. The research data enables to make the following conclusions: the Caucasian molasse depression (within the territory of Georgia) is divided into eastern and western subsiding zones by the Dzirula (crystalline basement) salient; they are also divided by faults into separate restricted blocks. Westwards and eastwards of the central uplift zone, along the faults is outlined a gradual “stepwise” submergence and tilting of blocks of the crystalline substrate. In the modern literature the analogous structures are known as the so called “tilt” blocks and kinematically they are related to tensile strains. Thus, in contemporary structure of the pre-Alpine crystalline basement of the South Caucasian molassic depression (along the latitudinal profile) is marked the existence of tension structure mainly in condition of stepped-inclined blocks, which subsequently turn into the so-called listric faults. The appearance of this one is bound up, on the one hand, with uplift of the mantle masses in some parts of the region and on the other hand, with advance of the Arabian plate to the north and connected with them lateral squeezing out of masses both to the west and to the east especially at the late-orogenic (collision) stage of development.
4.B3.5. Clastic dikes in Khrami crystalline massif. /O.Dudauri, G.Vashakidze, M.Togonidze/. A.Janelidze Institute of Geology, Collection of Papers. – 2008. – pp.226-231. – Rus. (res. Rus., Geo., Eng.)
The paper deals with the description and origin of clastic dikes discovered in the Khrami crystalline massif. They are superficial Neptunic clastic dikes formed on land.
4.B3.6. Pliocene volcanic centre on the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus within the limits of Upper Racha. /M.Togonidze, O.Dudauri/. A.Janelidze Institute of Geology, Collection of Papers. – 2008. – p. 232-237. – Rus. (res. Rus., Geo., Eng.)
On the crest of the Main Range of the Greater Caucasus, between the Laboda and Geze summits, we have revealed and investigated a dacitic volcanic center represented with a stock-like subvolcanic body – an incurrent volcanic vent (neck) and with a volcanic breccia filling a parasitic vent of the volcano. The effusive activity was accompanied by forming of two systems of dacitic dykes - sublatitudinal and submeridional. At that, the last ones intersect the first system of dykes. On the Southern Slope of the Greater Caucasus dacitic bodies are known on the Karobi ridge and near the glacier of Kirtisho and a hypabyssal granite porphyric intrusion in the upper reaches of the Tskhenistskali (Tsurungal). K-Aã age of these bodies is proved to be Pliocene - 4-4.5Ma. The age of Zopkhito dacites by petrographic and petrochemical similarity to Karobi dacites can also be considered as Pliocene. The set of indicated hypabyssal and volcanic formation is a volcanic-plutonic association.
4.B3.7. Some aspects of the formation of the Javakheti Plateau (southern Georgia). /G.Vashakidze, R.Akhvlediani, O.Dudauri, M.Togonidze, V.Lebedev/. A.Janelidze Institute of Geology, Collection of Papers. – 2008. – pp. 238-248. – Rus. (res. Rus., Geo., Eng.)
The study of the petrochemical data for the young volcanics of the Javakheti Plateau has allowed, first of all, due to the mineral thermo-barometry to define concrete Ð-Ò conditions of forming of the studied rocks. Statistical treatment of the petrochemical characteristics of the rocks that were formed at various stages and phases of the region’s neogene-Quaternary magmatism has enabled to be traced, to a certain extent, a pattern of successive change of the formation mode of the young volcanics for the Javakheti Plateau as a whole.
4.B3.8. New data on the age of magmatic rocks of the Kutaisi district (Western Georgia). /V.Lebedev, G.Vashakidzå, A.Chugaev, Î.Dudauri, M.Togonidze/. A.Janelidze Institute of Geology, Collection of Papers. – 2008. – pp. 268-273. – Rus. (res. Rus., Geo., Eng.)
We have obtained new K-Ar dating for the magmatic rocks of the Kutaisi district of the Western Georgia. It is shown that the igneous rocks of this region were formed during the three pulses of the Mesozoic magmatism - Bajocian, Kimmeridgian-Tithonian and Turonian-Santonian. The teschenitic and qartz-dioritic intrusions that were referred earlier to the Neogene, are plutonic analogues of the Upper Cretaceous suite Mtavari and as for the basalt bodies fixed in the Bathonian sediments - they are of the Tithonian - Kimmeridgian age. The isotope-geochronological data testify to the absence of the display of Neogene - Quaternary volcanism within the limits of the Kutaisi district; in this connection we think it incorrect to include this region into the bounds of the Central Georgian neovolcanic area.
4.B3.9. Mapping according to potassium ratio in Eocene volcanogenic rocks of Achara-Trialeti. /G.Nasidze/. A.Janelidze Institute of Geology, Collection of Papers. – 2008. – pp. 279-282. – Rus. (res. Rus., Geo., Eng.)
Statistical processing of data on K-Na ratio in volcanogenic rocks of the region has established four distribution curves of K2O/ K2O+ Na2O, respectively amounting to 21, 35, 50 and 64%. As a result, mapping of the volcanogenic rocks of the region has been carried out.
4.B3.11. Mode of occurrence and texture of jet in different sedimentary basins. /I.Akhvlediani, Z.Kilasonia/. A.Janelidze Institute of Geology, Collection of Papers. – 2008. – pp. 359-369. – Rus. (res. Rus., Geo., Eng.)
4.B3.12. The crystallogeny and age of zircon from the gabbroids of the Korsun-Novomirgorod pluton (Ukrainian shield). /T.Dovbush, L.Stepaniuk, E.Shestopalova/. A.Janelidze Institute of Geology, Collection of Papers. – 2008. – pp. 274-278. – Rus. (res. Rus., Geo., Eng.)
By the methods of optical and electronic microscopy, the anatomy of crystals and structure of the inclusions in zircons from anorthosites of two large massifs of the Korsun-Novomirgorodsky pluton have been studied. In the middle of zircon crystals, in a form of inclusions are revealed pyroxenes, feldspars, ilmenite, apatite and quartz that allows to assume the late magmatic crystallization of zircon and to interpret the digital values of the age received for zircons using the uranium-lead isotope dating, as the age of anorthosites. According to uranium-lead isotope dating of zircons it is established, that the anorthosites of the Novomirgorodsky massif are dated as 1750,2±0,9 million years, and that of the Smiljansky massif as 1752,8±6,5 million years. Based on isotope composition of strontium in apatite (87Sr/86Sr=0.7069) and presence of relict cores in zircon crystals there is drawn a conclusion about the lower crustal source of these anorthosites.
4.B3.13. Some issues of neotectonics of the Javakheti volcanic highland (Central South Georgia). /N.Sadradze, N.Tsereteli, O.Varazanashvili, A.Gventsadze/. A.Janelidze Institute of Geology, Collection of Papers. – 2008. – pp. 79-90. – Rus. (res. Rus., Geo., Eng.)
There is specified the age of intensively folded acid volcanites spread within the limits of Eastern periphery of Javakheti highland (to the west of the village Kamarlo). They are the analogues of the Upper Miocene-Lower Pliocene Goderdzi suite. Folding of these lavas is indicative of the tectonic activity of the region at the Late Neogene stage of its development. Especially, “Kamarlo” lavas are intensively folded in contact with Middle Eocene rocks. The folds are of fault-propagation type. The contact is tectonic and it verifies to the activity of the Dmanisi fault. The version that folding of these lavas is flow-induced has been rejected. Seismological and seismotectonic investigations show that the Javakheti and Dmanisi faults belong to the sub-vertical right -lateral strike-slip faults. Investigations of distribution of depth by magnitude (M≥4) have shown that earthquake depths mostly change from 8 to 15 km. The orientations of maximum horizontal stress are North-South that reflects the orientation of acting regional compression.
4.B3.14. Comparative lithology of the Early Cretaceous sedimentary formations of Georgia. /E.Varsimashvili/. A.Janelidze Institute of Geology, Collection of Papers. – 2008. – pp. 338-347. – Rus. (res. Rus., Geo., Eng.)
A detailed study of the comparative lithology of the Early Cretaceous sedimentary formations of Georgia enables to ascertain flysch sedimentation in the Eastern basin of the Marginal Sea of the Greater Caucasus and the involved processes of lithogenesis. Here are distinguished Berriasian-Early Hauterivian relatively deep-sea, Late Hauterivian-Aptian shallow sea and Albian relatively deep marine environments of sedimentation, the lithological character of the Lower Cretaceous epicontinental-marine sediments of Georgia and their matter content specifies that originated in various marine environments – from the bar-wave-cut zone of the mobile shoal to the external shelf inclusive.
4.B3.15. On the lithology of Upper Cretaceous flysch formation of the Aragvi river-gorge. /G.Chikhradze, N.Gagnidze, N.Sadradze/. A.Janelidze Institute of Geology, Collection of Papers. – 2008. – pp. 348-352. – Rus. (res. Rus., Geo., Eng.)
The Upper Cretaceous carbonate flysch formations are spread in the Aragvi river-gorge of Shovi-Pasanauri subzone of Mestia-Tianeti zone of the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus, where they are transversed by Georgian Military road. These sedimentary rocks occupy stratigraphic level from the Upper Turonian including Maastrichtian and form continuous section, represented by limestones, marls, carbonate pelitolithes – argillites and small amount of turbidites. Detailed study of carbonate formations showed that methods of their field study needs more precise definition. Almost all the section of the Senonian is represented by basin carbonate sediments, and turbidites make up 5% of the section. While studying such type of carbonate formations for the first time its necessary to describe the basin formations, their regular alternation (ABAB) with establishment of genetic types of limestones and other pelitic carbonate rocks, and then turbidites should be stated; gradational intervals of A. Bouma should be signified in turbidites. Such kind of approach gives the accurate presentation about the mechanism of turbidite formation and containing them basin formations and also about the general image of carbonate sediments accumulation environments.
4.B3.16. Quantitative content of aluminum in the Bathonian crust of weathering of West Georgia. /L.Chomakhidze/. A.Janelidze Institute of Geology, Collection of Papers. – 2008. – pp. 353-358. – Rus. (res. Rus., Geo., Eng.)
The author has investigated the Bathonian crust of weathering (CW) developed on the Bajocian volcanogenic series, which is the source rock for the crust of weathering. Here have been studied: the clay matter (<0,00 mm), a product of superficial weathering processes; it is a mechanical compound of fine-dispersed minerals of chlorite, hydromica, montmorillonite, metahalloysite, halloysite, kaolinite, gibbsite and mixed-layered hydromica-montmorillonite formation; the rocks of the crust of weathering consist of effusive rocks and their volcanoclastolites; they are modified to different extent. The extent of rock change that increases up the section has been expressed in a change of quantitative content of the clay matter and in a degree of groundmass structure integrity; parent rocks represented by effusive rocks (basaltic andesites, basalts, picrobasalts) and their volcanoclastolites. When the first ones prevail it indicates that they had already suffered hydrothermal changes, propylitization in particular. On the basis of carried out researches have been determined chemical and mineralogical composition of clay matter and also quantitative percentage of mineral content by the method of nominal value, the weight percentage of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and quantitative content of aluminum in oxide Al2O3. Presence of free alumina in a form of gibbsite Al(OH)3 makes possible to consider the studied region as a perspective ore-bearing area.
4.B3.17. Injective dislocations in the axial zone of the horst-anticlinorium of the East Caucasian Main Range. /T.Giorgobiani, D.Zakaraia/. A.Janelidze Institute of Geology, Collection of Papers. – 2008. – pp. 44-60. – Rus. (res. Rus., Geo., Eng.)
Following the detailed geological-structural researches carried out in the axial zone of the horst-anticlinorium of the Main Range of East Caucasus, in the sandstone strata of the Upper Paleozoic Stori suite, for the first time have been defined numerous manifestations of amagmatic injective dislocations of fissure type. They appear by means of injection and penetration of plastic matter into more viscous and friable, pre-fragmented rocks. At the same time has been treated a significant and at present disputable problem implying the dating of the Stori suite rocks. Proceeding from the detailed study of qualitatively new actual material and its correlation with the data on other Paleozoic units of the region, the authors propose these formations to be of Upper Carboniferous age. In the paper according to sketches and photos are briefly described morphologically completely differing injective structures. It is shown that the injective dislocations had been formed under the acute uniform stress arising in the process of the protrusive upward movement to the surface of the basement block that is built up of the Stori suite formations. In this time due to intensive horizontal lateral compression in the interstitial voids of sandstones took place injection of clay matter from the surrounding Lower Liassic clay shales. There has been inferred that the injective structures, undoubtedly being of tectonic origin, are typical collision formations that had appeared during the late orogenic stage of the Alpine cycle of development of the Greater Caucasus.
4.B3.18. Geological-structural peculiarities of the Bolnisi ore district (South-East Georgia). /T.Giorgobiani, G.Nadareishvili, D.Zakaraia, D.Gogoladze/. A.Janelidze Institute of Geology, Collection of Papers. – 2008. – pp. 91-105. – Rus. (res. Rus., Geo., Eng.)
In the paper is characterized in detail the Upper Cretaceous thick (exceeding 4 km) ore-bearing volcanogenic-sedimentary series of the Bolnisi ore district that is located within the limits of South-East Georgia. In particular, the authors give a new interpretation of peculiarities of its geological structure and tectonic pattern, as well as lithofacies, lithopetrographic and matter content of separate suites of this series. In the work are considered numerous acid and basic cross-cutting bodies that spatially link with the Upper Cretaceous volcanogenic-sedimentary series. In the lower part of the Mashavera suite, for the first time has been distinguished the Angrevani suite; there is introduced its detailed characteristics. In the paper, is represented a geological map of South-East Georgia and a generalized stratigraphic column to it; they have been produced by the authors according to the existing data. On the map, two geological-structural profiles are drawn; they intersect the studied region from south to north, pointing out to its comparatively simple, north dipping structure. Along the first profile, based on the carried out investigations, there has been featured a discordance of geophysical data with the presumable mode of occurrence of the pre-Jurassic crystalline basement; instead of, in general monoclinal plane bedding at an angle of 10-25°, has been mapped a gently sloping synclinal structure.
At the present stage of research is actual the ecology and vital activity of the eastern part of the Black Sea (Georgia). With that end in view were studied ostracodes found in modern deposits of the central sector of the Black Sea. Qualitative and quantitative distribution of each group of ostracodes will give full idea on the ecological condition of the basin. In recent sediments of the above mentioned sector of the Black Sea of Georgia, at different depth - environs of Poti (41º33, 42º15), (41º30, 42º10), village Ureki up to Qobuleti (41º40, 42º00), (41º40, 41º50), Batumi (41º40, 41º44), (41º40, 41º38) are found shells of ostracode species of various genera: Paradoxostoma, Leptocythere, Callistocythere, Hemicytherura, Semicytherura, Paracytheridea, Loxoconcha, Carinocythereis, Xestoleberis. Together with ostracodes are found foraminifers and mollusks. Ostracodes are mainly of the Mediterranean and Atlantic origin. According to ecological data of the studied ostracodes it is possible to establish, that they adapt to the salinity above 11‰ and feel well in fine- and medium-grained sandstones, argillaceous sandstones, clays deposited at a depth of 20-30m.
4.B3.20. Ostracodes from the Karangatian sediments of Guria (West Georgia). /L.Popkhadze/. A.Janelidze Institute of Geology, Collection of Papers. – 2008. – pp. 181-183. – Rus. (res. Rus., Geo., Eng.)
The Karangatian sediments of Georgia are spread in Abkhazia, on the Kolkheti plane (ascertained in bore holes), in Guria and they are dated only by mollusk fauna. At the recent stage of researches alongside with mollusk fauna study of microfauna, especially ostracodes is significant. In the paper are established ostracodes fixed in the Karangatian sediments of Guria. Along the Makharadze-Supsa road to the East of Bitumen factory, on the mountain of Tsvermagala in sands and arenaceous sandstones ostracodes of Karangatian age are fixed. These ostracodes are from the following genera: Aglaiocypris, Ilyocypris, Candona, Eucypthere, Cyprideis, Leptocythere, Callistocythere, Carinocythereis, Aurila, Heterocythereis, Laxoconcha, Semicytherura, Xestoleberis, Cytherois. The majority of ostracodes inhabiting the Karangatian basin are of the Mediterranean and Atlantic origin. The above sediments by ostracodes belong to the upper part of the Karangatian they are represented by the ostracodes characteristic of the shallow basins – sandstones, sands and lumachelle presumably deposited in the 25-30m deep basin that is justified by ecological data concerning the analogous contemporary Mediterranean and Black Sea fauna.
In the paper has been rated the validity of each Paleogene stage with the attraction of the data on the most informative stratigraphic sections of the Paleogene Mediterranean deposits and those of their adjacent regions. It is valuated with due regard for the principle that the general stratigraphic scale of the Phanerozoic systems is a conditional scheme of a sequence of sections and stages and that the main terms for its indispensable stability is to keep a rule of priority at the decision of nomenclature problems. When the degree of cognition and popularity for each stage and the data on the stratotypes of their boundaries is analazed, the following sequence is prposed: in the Paleocene – Danian, Montian and Landenian; in the Eocene - Ypresian, Lutetian, Auversian and Priabonian; in the Oligocene – Lattdorfian, Rupelian and Aquitanian.
4.B3.22. Geological-geochemical characteristics of Lower Jurassic shaly sediments of Trans-Alazani Kakheti (by the example of the Stori River-gorge). /A.Akimidze, K.Akimidze/. A.Janelidze Institute of Geology, Collection of Papers. – 2008. – pp. 249-254. – Rus. (res. Rus., Geo., Eng.)
The paper presents, in the light of the modern conception, the geological-geochemical characteristics of the Lower Jurassic sequences in the gorge of the Stori River (Trans-Alazani Kakheti) and considers the problem of gold prospects of the Stori suite.
4.B3.23. Ñomparatie analysis of archaeological gold ware and native gold ore manifestations in South-Eastern Georgia. /V.Geleishvili, N.Poporadze/. A.Janelidze Institute of Geology, Collection of Papers. – 2008. – pp. 300-306. – Rus. (res. Rus., Geo., Eng.)
A detailed micro x-ray spectral analysis of gold ware of different epochs and functionality found in various burials on the territory of ore manifestation in Bolnisi clearly shows the similarity of their chemical composition with that of native gold mined on the mentioned territory. Thus, it may be assumed that Georgian metal-workers made gold ware using native gold from South-Eastern Georgia as well.
Application of a coil-tubing drilling rig decreases time spent on downhole and uplift operations compared with an ordinary drilling rig and increases length of time just for drilling, increases mechanical drilling speed, expands flow of oil from the productive strata, and considerably increases technical-economic indices of drilling.
4.B3.25. Slurries with ceramic microspheres filled with gas. /T.Barabadze,
V.Khitarishvili, N.Jikia, N.Machavariani, T.Sarjveladze/. Georgian Oil
and Gas. – 2009. – #23. – pp. 102-109. Geo. (res. Geo.,
To prevent fluid loss and increase the quality of well casing under anomalous low formation pressures, the slurries, the composition of which includes ceramic microspheres filled with gas, have been developed. Theoretical and practical estimations and calculations of the required materials have been carried out; the costs of preparation of the present amount of the slurry are given.
4.B3.26. Investigation of face parameters of
a telemetric system through hydraulic channel while Drilling. /G.Varhalomidze,
I.Goguadze/. Georgian Oil and Gas. – 2009. – #23. – pp.
123-132. – Geo. (res. Geo.,
The article deals with the drilling process model, according to which information may be obtained by means of a telemetric system. The investigation concerns the drilling parameter volume identification through hydraulic channels by means of amplitude phase frequency parameters. Their decipher enables to control the drilling process from the surface. The results of the investigation enable to determine the data for projecting measuring and controlling devices.
A new technology for opening the productive stratum by means of a hydro-acoustic device of the drilling rig consisting of tow modules is given in the work..
4.B4.1. Actual problems of
collection and processing of regime– climatologic data. /Z.Tskvitinidze/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of
Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 19-26. –
Conditions of the regime– climatologic data processing are being analyzed for stations and posts of the Meteorological Observation Network of Georgia. Problems concerning representation and management of the regime– climatologic data base are considered.
4.B4.2. The Hydro-climatic resources
The basic functions of the
4.B4.3. On the causes of climate aridization and desertification of the Iori
Upland./Z.Djanelidze/. Transactions of
the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 51-56. – Geo. (res.
On the basis of paleogeographical, geobotanical and archeological records it became obvious that anthropogenic modification of the natural landscapes of forest, forest-steppe and steppe of the Iori Upland began as early as the Bronze age (5000-6000 years ago). Since then, the major part of the Iori Upland has been cultivated by man, whose economic activity was a principal reason for substitution of the natural landscapes of forest, forest-steppe and steppe by secondary steppes and thorny valleys, climate aridization and partial desertification of the area.
Expected changes of air temperature in
of the expected changes of air temperature in
4.B4.5. Change of the thermal field
Due to the coplexity of
4.B4.6. Revealed and predicted
climate change in
The change of
main climatic elements between the periods of 1955-1970 and 1990-2005 is
discussed for 3 regions of
anthropogenic geatures of climate change for
Practical aspects on protection of the environment and
control over anthropogenic influence on the climate change for
Empirical radar models of different convective clouds of warm season of
The data of
several years of radar observations by convective clouds in Kakheti region of
4.B4.9. Analysis of the Georgian
mountainous regions’ meteorological observation results for the last 15 years. /N.Gogishvili, Z.Tskvitinidze/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of
Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 150-158. – Geo. (res.
Observation data of selected 9 meteorological mountainous stations for last 15 years (1991-2005) was processed under a national grant-supported project. The data have been processed from paper to electronic format, critically analyzed and compiled as meteorological tables. The obtained results are indicative of an increase in temperature (warming) during the last years.
4.B4.10. Revealing atmospheric
circulatiion features for
circulation processes characteristic of
4.B4.11. Agroclimatic peculiarities of mountainous regions. /J.Tskhakaia, Z.Tskvitinidze/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 168-176. – Geo. (res. Geo., Eng., Rus).
Based on the spatial distribution of agroclimatic resources of mountainous regions, the boundaries of vertical-optimal movement of staple agricultural crops have been determined. The decisive role of of daytime temperature is underlined. Regularities of the minimum temperature distribution by territories, according to terrain and altitudes are presented.
4.B4.12. Long-term variations of air effective temperature in Tbilisi. /A.Amiranashvili, L.Kartvelishvili/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 214-219. – Geo. (res. Geo., Eng., Rus)
statistical analysis of variations of air equivalent-effective temperature
(combination of temperature, air relative humidity and wind speed) in
4.B4.13. Linear transient dynamics of perturbations in non-geostrophic flows with a constant vertical shear. /J.Lominadze, G.Chagelishvili, V.Avsarkisov/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 335-348. – Geo. (res. Geo., Eng., Rus.)
Linear dynamics of perturbations in unbounded non-geostrophic zonal inviscid flows with a constant vertical shear of velocity, when a fluid is incompressible and density is stably stratified along the vertical and meridional directions is investigated. Specific features of the dynamics are closely related to the abnormality of the linear operators governing perturbation evolution in shear flows. The roles of Coriolis parameter (earth rotation) and shear rate A in the perturbation dynamics (instability) are analyzed. These two factors lead to a new transiently unstable type of perturbation dynamics for (i.e., when the condition for the so-called symmetric instability is met). In particular, in the linear theory, shear and rotation causes the vortex mode to evolve with time. Pure vortex (aperiodic) perturbations are able to gain the basic flow energy, undergo transient amplification, and then generate waves.
4.B4.14. Resistive-viscous suppression of magnetorotational instability in an astrophysical plasma. /J.Lominadze, E.Pashitski, A.Mikhailovski, O.Kharshiladze, A.Churikov, V.Avsarkisov/. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2008. – vol. 2. -#3. – pp. 48-50. – Eng., Geo.(res. Eng.)
Resistive-viscous suppression of magnetorotational instability in astrophysical plasma is studied. A criterion of such suppression is derived.
4.B4.15. Analysis of polarimetric
observations of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. /R.Chigladze/.
Bulletin of the Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory. – 2008. – vol. 78. – pp. 205-208. – Rus. (res.
The polarization properties of the light reflected from different sides of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter are analyzed on the basis of observational material.
observations of Jupiter's satellite Ganymede. /R.Chigladze/.
Bulletin of the Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory. – 2008. – vol. 78. – pp. 209-214. – Rus. (res.
The polarization properties of Ganymede are studied based on electropolarimetric observations.
The polarization properties of the light reflected from Io’s surface are studied. These are similar to the polarization properties of a mixture of sulphur and sodium chloride particles smaller than 0.25 mm in diameter.
4.B4.18. Results of polarization
observations of Mars at favorable opposition of 2003.
/R.Chigladze/. Bulletin of the Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory. – 2008. – vol. 78. – pp. 218-221. – Rus. (res.
The polarization properties of the surface of Mars have been studied on the basis of observational data.
The polarization properties of the light reflected from different sides of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter are analyzed on the basis of observational material. The work discusses polarized properties of the light reflected from the surfaces of Jupiter's Galilean satellites in nearly opposition (in less studying of time of scientist-researchers). It is shown that when the phase angle α=00, the size of the polarization degree is P≠0. Earlier they supposed that when α=00, P=0. The work gives one acceptable version to explain this fact. The given hypothesis well explains different hemispheres of Jupiter's Galilean satellite surfaces. The polarization properties of the surface of Mars have been studied on the basis of observational data.
4.B5.1. Development of innovative SHS
technology coupled with thermal explosion for production of single-phase
nanocrystalline materials of Ti-Al system. /G.Varshalomidze,
Z.Aslamazashvili, G.Zakharov, A.Berner, G.Oniashvili/. Bulletin of the
Self-Propagated High-Temperature Synthesis (SHS), coupled with thermal explosion, is suggested for environmentally safe, energy-efficient production of nanostructured, single-phase intermetallics. Two new technologies, based on combustion and explosion, are developed for fabrication of compacted, pore-free, single-phase components. To solve this problem, a device for conduction of SHS in the mode of explosion is designed and constructed. The developed technology allows production of single-phase, nanostructured intermetallics.
4.B5.2. Antidromic identification of output
units of basal nucleus of the amygdaloid complex projected to hippocampus:
study combined with intracellular staining. /G.Todua/.
Bulletin of the
Extra and intracellular recordings were made from antidromically identified neurons of basal nucleus [BN] of the amygdaloid complex, due to ammonic subfields stimulation. For identification of antidromic responses traditional criteria were used. Most effective was CA1 subfield stimulation. 12 units were recorded intracellularly. Among them 9 units were stained with biocytin and analyzed morphologically. The somata of identified neurons were pyramidal or polygonal in shape and the mean size was 22.5 x 17.2 m. It is proposed that connections between amygdaloid complex and hippocampus may be important in the limbic memory and learning system.
4.B5.3. Influence of chronic psychogenic
stress repeated in genetically linked generations of rats on typological
peculiarities of offspring behavior; emotionality, locomotion, stress-rReactivity.
/F.Kalandarishvili, T.Orjonikidze, I.Pantsulaia, T.Mtskeradze, Z.Khanaeva/.
Bulletin of the
In 370 adult offspring of five consecutive generations of initial 8 pairs of offspring rat-parents crossbred in the state of a strong psychogenic stress (information neurosis) in the open field the indices of emotionality (defecation and motor activity level) have been studied in their initial status, i.e. before any experimental procedures as well as after a moderate stress (elaboration of two-way active avoidance). It has been established that pronounced information pathology of rat-parents induces considerable changes in offspring behavior expressed in: an enhanced emotionality with pronounced anxiety, followed by an increased locomotion and excretory function; an increased excitability and its low threshold, high stress-reactivity and large stress response unequal to an action exposure. The above-said changes progressively increase from the second to consecutive generations of continuous lines of the offspring. The first generation of direct offspring of stressed rat-parents does not show any significant changes in behavior. The results obtained are discussed from the standpoint of existing views about the character of interrelations of emotionality signs in the open field as well as in the aspect of possible ways of formation of stress-induced affective disorders and ways of their effect on the hereditary apparatus.
Tolerance induced by non-opioid analgesic microinjections into the central
nucleus of amygdala of rats. /N.Tsiklauri, I.Nozadze,
G.Gurtskaia, E.Abzianidze, M.Tsagareli/. Bulletin of the
Recent investigations have shown that in some brain areas, particularly in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) and rostral ventro-medial medulla (RVM), the microinjection of non-opioid analgesics, metamizol, and lysine-acetylsalicylate causes antinociception with some effects of tolerance. Our preliminary findings also have shown the same effects of tolerance in intraperitoneal injections of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The present study was designed to examine whether microinjection of analgine, ketorolac and xefocam into the central nucleus of amygdala (Ce) leads to the development of tolerance in rats, and to ascertain whether this nucleus is the pain-modulating pathway through PAG. Our investigation revealed that microinjection of NSAIDs into the Ce both unilaterally (the left side) and bilaterally produced antinociception as indicated by a latency increase in tail flick reflex (TF) compared to controls with saline, on the first experimental day for analgine (p<0.001), ketorolac (p<0.001), and xefocam (p<0.001) respectively. However, when these drugs microinjection subsequent testing also took place on the following days the antinociceptive effects progressively diminished so that on the fifth experimental day the TF latency was similar to that in the rats that received repeated injections of only saline. These results show that alongside with PAG and RVM the Ce is an important site of endogenous antinociceptive system, which triggers the descending pain control mechanism and thus inhibits nociceptive transmission. On the other hand, our data confirm the results of other authors that NSAIDs are in close relation with endogenous opioids and the tolerance to these non-opioid drugs probably depends on opioid tolerance.
4.C1.1. Reconstruction of power
The schemes of existing combined-cycle plants and their technical-economic characteristics are considered. The necessity of reconstruction of power units of the base power plant of high capacity in Georgia (Tbilisi HPP) by using combined-cycle technologies is grounded. Several alternatives of reconstruction in combined-cycle plants of power units #3 and #4, according to the semi dependent scheme of discharge type (with an ordinary boiler), combined scheme and binary type (with boiler-utilizer) are studied. According to the estimation, it is determined that the most effective will be establishing of binary combined-cycle plants by using modern gas turbine plants. In this case a capacity of each power unit will increase up to 425 megawatt, coefficient of efficiency – up to 54%. This alternative of reconstruction is the best, though it will need large investments. The cheapest alternative of reconstruction of the above-mentioned units in combined-cycle plants will be a semi-dependent scheme. In this case, the capacity of each power unit will increase up to 228 megawatt, coefficient of efficiency – up to 37%. According to the power efficiency, combined-cycled plants of discharge and combined type take intermediate position, their coefficient of efficiency will be the same (40%), though the capacity of combined-cycle plants of combined scheme (228 megawatt) will be 6% more than the combined-cycle plants of discharge scheme. The final decision on which type of combined-cycle plants, the existing power units of Tbilisi HPP must be reconstructed should be made on the basis of a detailed technical-economic study subject to attracting possible investments. In any case, the reconstruction of Tbilisi HPP power units on the basis of combined-cycle technologies has no alternative. It will be profitable from the economic and ecological point of view, as well as from the point of view of increasing power efficiency and capacity of the station.
4.C1.3. Choice of necessary power
for power transformers and traction substations. /D.Laoshvili,
G.Kokhreidze, N.Goginashvili, A.Sikharilidze/. Energy. -2008. – #4(48). – pp. 24-28. - Geo. (res.
Methods of choosing necessary nominal power for power transformers and traction substations taking into account heat the correlation of energy spent on burning and traction for different periods of year are developed. The limits of normal power are determined. An annual schedule of loading by length is taken into consideration. An impact of the consumer-power ratio on the power of electrical installation and means of its increasing are examined. The reactive power value Qc is obtained. It is created by a C capacity battery. Its value is Qc = 2πfCU210-3, where f is frequency of current, Hz; C is total power of a capacitor of the battery, mkF; U is linear voltage on binders of the battery, kilovolt. This formula indicates that the capacitor battery, connected from the side of high voltage, generates a higher reactive (inductive) voltage of the electrical installation. In case of switching low-voltage capacitors, the reactive voltage of the power receivers as well as of transformers will be compensated.
Last decades have witness qualitative changes in the world hydropower conditioned by the economic, political and technological reasons. According to UNESCO, about 2 milliard people in the world are deprived of electricity, water supply and sewerage. Unlike other kinds of generation, the large hydropower is capable of solving several problems of raising the standard of living set by the United Nations, in particular the electrification and water supply problems. Up to this day, at the national regulation level of many countries, local nature protection limitations prevail over global priorities. Under such conditions, many new large hydroprojects comprising environmental risk factors fail to be implemented (especially in developed countries). A change of the status of global ecological requirements (in particular, the follow-up ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by the countries) would facilitate implementation of large hydropower projects.
Water discharge from water storage reservoir of Zhinvali HPP is carried out by surface and bottom (subsurface) spillways. In accordance with the project study and research results carried out at Moscow Water Conservation Institute (including experiments on hydraulic model) ordered by TBILHYDROPROJECT, water discharge shall be carried out under the whole range of charges, including at its maximum value of 1425 m3/s. According to the re-examination results, caused by several changes in the design statements, some project conditions have been found groundless. In fact, under conditions of high costs, free-flow was found to take place only in the area beyond the gates, in the inclined part of the diversion tunnel. As for the end part of the tunnel, a pressure flow is noted their already at the level of costs of 400 m3/sec (or 260 m3/sec given aeration). Only under maximum discharge costs, the flow will be in the pressure regime along the whole channel. A method of estimation of real discharge capacity is suggested. Particularly, until a free-flow beyond the gates is preserved, five (5) formulas stated in this article should be used, and in the case of a higher pressure, the discharge capacity can be calculated from the expression received by equating the formulas (5) and (8). The above-mentioned division of the estimated methods on two bays is conditioned by a difference between the existing pressures. The real maximum discharge shall be taken as 900 m3/sec rather than the project-determined1425 m3/sec. To ensure the maximally costly discharge, the most cost-effective measure would be to increase the outflow characteristics of the surface spillway by reconstruction of its structures.
The article deals with handling of an important problem occurred in the body of Enguri arch dam under operation as a result of the known anomalous phenomenon. When the reasons of its occurrence are not known, the searching of ways and means of solving the above-mentioned problem is essentially complicated. An original approach by using a method of imposition of fictitious, orthotropic systems is suggested. As additional sought quantities values (other than those presented in the method of imposition of fictitious, orthotropic systems) modules of deformation of the base of Enguri arch dam presented in the form of double mathematical lines have been introduced. For the purpose of determining unknown coefficients in desire quantities, additional equations are introduced that reflect the results obtained by carrying out full-scale observations in the base of Enguri arch dam.
concerning modeling of optimization problems of a fuel-energy complex are
considered. The development of a fuel-energy complex shall become the decisive
factor in determination of the energy policy of
existing in the Georgian electric power sector is analyzed. In spite of the
In the near
future, a problem of transmission of power from
Under specific conditions of static operation of concrete underground structures, an indirect method for a correct one. The latter fails to completely and accurately take into consideration some factors, connected with the operation of concrete and ferroconcrete structures. To determine the operating stresses in a tunnel lining, a ‘dynamometric cut” method of bench testing of some objects has been introduced at the Yerevan Laboratory of Tunnels. Method of bench test of a traverse-type dynamometer is given. Tests are carried out on two types of patterns in eight concrete specimens sized 75x75x12 cm. The ready patterns of the device are mounted in vertical position under the press, with about 20 t-loading. The holes are drilled in the plates. As a results of drilling, loading on the dynamometer increases. The maximum value of loading measured by the dynamometers was obtained under completing H-type cut and the stress value made 0.74 on the average. The obtained results confirmed reliability of measurement by means of a dynamometrical cut
The authors of
this monograph have collected and given factual material, which contains
complete information about all works related to the service of main oil and gas
pipelines and underground gas storages. The connection of contemporary state of
exploitation of equipment in the current geological, hydrogeological and
ecological conditions with energy security both in
For reducing transformer losses preference is given to power transformers in which amorphous materials are used. Such transformers have considerably smaller dimensions and weight against power transformers mounted on stations and substations of Georgian grid. The transformers made from amorphous materials are predominantly used in developed countries. Based on the above, replacement of the relevant equipment operating in the Georgian grid by modern transformers, made from amorphous materials becomes advisable. Prospects of using amorphous magnetic materials for manufacture of electric transformers are considered. Basically, a design of amorphous magnetic cores for transformers is covered. These are: magnetic properties, dimensions, capacity, standard curves, size of transmission capacity, magnetic losses, vibration frequency, etc. Features of cores made from nano- crystalline materials are studied.
4.C3.1. Influence of faults of railway
automatic and telecontrol devices on railway
operating characteristics. /M.Gotsadze, N.Khuchua/. Transport
Influence of faults of railway automatic and telecontrol devices on railway exploitation indexes is researched (fault of automatic section blocking equipment and fault of electric power interlocking devices on intermediate stations) are studied; relationship of a double-track line capacity loses to automatic interlocking signal equipment faults is viewed; shipment expenditures caused by faults of interval control equipment are calculated are calculated; it is shown that eradication of track circuits’ faults importantly increases operating characteristics of the railway.
4.C4.1. Prospects of ecologically
justified processing of Madneuli copper concentrate in
A scheme of virtually wasteless industrial complex development for copper concentrate processing is considered, where a technological and ecological barriers for separate plants turn into mutually beneficial links, in particular: sulfurous anhydride recovery from non-ferrous metallurgy effluent gas by effective ammoniac process lets to produce sulfurous anhydride as a marketable product that is used for nitrogen-15 stable isotope production. Finally, ammonium sulfate fertilizer is produced; the objectives of recycling waste acids and nitrous gases are fulfilled; and the capability for copper vitriol production is provided.
4.C4.2. Co-Mn catalysts on aluminum-calcium carrier for carbon conversion of methane. /V.Mosidze, V.Bakhtadze, R.Janjgava, M.Pajishvili, N.Kharabadze/. Proceedings of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences, Chemical series. – 2008. – vol. 34. – #2. – pp. 210-213. – Rus. (res. Geo., Eng.)
It has been shown that at volume rate of methane – 4000 h-1, at ratio CH4:CO2=1 ¸ 1,5 and in the temperature range of 750-9000C, at carbon conversion of methane on Co-Mn catalysts on aluminum-calcium carrier, the converted gas of the following composition is produced, in vol. %: H2 – 43,0- 44,0; CO – 44,5-45,0; CH4 – 0,0; CO2 – 11,0-12,0. The 50-hour experiment duration does not show a carbon trace on the catalyst surface.
4.C4.3. Ways of raising resource of truck pipelines. /I.Berdzenishvili/. Proceedings of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences, Chemical series. – 2008. – vol. 34. - #2. – pp. 214-217. – Rus. (res. Geo., Eng.)
The efficiency of enamel protection of pipelines is shown. On the basis of manganese containing carbonate ore new highly effective protective enamel coatings for pipelines are synthesized. The technology of induction enameling of pipes is estimated.
4.C4.4. Polymer composition of orthopedic sole material. /M.Shalamberidze, Z.Kopadze, N.Lomtadze/. Proceedings of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences, Chemical series. – 2008. – vol. 34. - #2. – pp. 218-220. – Rus. (res. Geo., Eng.)
Physical and mechanical properties of butadiene-styrene polymer compositions on the basis of latent hardener (ËÎ-3) and sulfur vulcanization agent have been studied. It is proved that the use of the latent hardener (ËÎ-3) in butadiene-styrene rubber gives more flexible and soft sole material than in the case of sulfur vulcanizers of corresponding rubbers.
4.C4.5. Role of carbonic materials used during direct reduction of iron ore to metallic iron. /N.Loladze, M.Tserodze, T.Pkhaladze, R.Tabidze/. Proceedings of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences, Chemical series. – 2008. – vol. 34. – #2. – pp. 225-228. – Rus. (res. Geo., Eng.)
The work is dedicated to the issues of direct reduction of iron ore to metallic iron using a solid carbonic reducing agent. The data on the possibility of applying the electro-contact method of heating the initial reaction charge are presented. Experimental data on the substantial influence of the structure and nature of the solid carbonic reducing agent on the efficiency of the reduction process are obtained. Optimal concentrations of various carbonic materials in the initial reaction charge in case of the application of electro-contact method of heating is identified.
4.C5.1. Ultrasound instrument for
determining a module of elasticity of concrete directly in a structure.
/P.Tchitchagua, T.Jojua, T.Turmanidze, G.Putkaradze/. Energy. – 2008. – #4(48). – pp. 99-102. – Geo. (res.
To determine a stressed-strained state of buildings and structures, it is necessary to know a module of elasticity of concrete as the initial data. In most cases, its size is determined by testing of standard samples under laboratory conditions. Numerous tests indicate that such identification of the size of the module of elasticity of concrete is considerably different from the module of elasticity of concrete of a full-scale construction. A module of elasticity of mass concrete is advisable to be determined directly in the body of a construction, in its different zones. For this purpose, a method of ultrasound method and a corresponding device, designed by the authors, are proposed. A profile of the device and a method of measuring as well as its features are described. Recommendations for constructing the calibration curve are quite novel. Dimensions of the device are determined considering the dimensions of the course aggregates of concrete. Experimental researches carried out for testing the device have corroborated its high-performance.
Based on an analysis of requirement to blends under present conditions, effective ways of controlling technological characteristics of bentonitic suspensions and mold blends are established. The application of a polyphenolic carbonaceous reagent on the basis of activated bentonite makes it possible to produce a concentrated free-running suspension, also to increase the ‘wet’ strength and is rather effective during the ‘activation’ without adding soda.
A push-pull inverter produced as a result of realization in a moving mechanical system of inversion is presented. The basic principles of inversion are applied: transformation of a circumference into a straight line, making possible to transform the rotary motion into the rectilinear one. The inverter’s special feature is its ability to make two travels of the driving unit during one revolution.
A method of fabrication of polymeric containers is given. The container consists of a polyethylene liner and a layer armored with epoxy tar-saturated fiber. Such containers are twice lighter than steel containers. In addition, their level of safety is considerably higher. In the case of destruction the polymeric container is torn and releases the gas contained in it. As for metal containers, their destruction is accompanied by an explosion and origination of a great number of small-size fragments that is hazardous to human health.
As a result of review of major recent advances in cutting, preconditions for devising a formula for computing skip and periodic cutting of preheated metals and alloys have been established. Using the main principles of the cutting process tribology, it has been established that the actual contact surface of the active section of a cutter represents a definite small part of the nominal contact. The contact thermal resistance and the transitory process length significantly increase on this section. Devising and specification of the calculation formula of the cutting temperature for the processes is our immediate task.
4.C5.6. On the quality of processing on a grinder with pneumomechanical tracer. /T.Mchedlishvili, V.Kiria, I.Elerdashvili, I.Zedelashvili/. Transport and Machinebuilding. – 2008. – #3(11). – pp. 60-68. – Rus. (res. Geo., Eng.)
Results of a dynamic research in connection with the design of initial and approximated non-linear models are presented. Both complete and truncated linearized mathematical models are obtained for analysis of forced vibration. The present work deals with analytic dependences obtained on the basis of using the dependent model that are necessary for assessing the quality level of the machined surface. Specific design formulas referring to an efficient application of the work results in handling the problems of engineering optimization synthesis of the engineering and process parameters of the system under study are presented.
4.C5.7. On the technical and economic multi-objective optimization of design decisions. /T.Mchedlishvili, G.Tkeshelashvili, T.Mchedlishvili, B.Navrozashvili/. Transport and Machinebuilding. – 2008. – #3(11). – pp. 96-106. – Rus. (res. Geo., Eng.)
Problems of multi-objective optimization related to the design of a homer system of modern machines are considered. The known principal methodological approaches according to the given transitional processes are used as a basis of the theory to be developed; methods of giving the desirable processes being functionally connected with one or two generalized parameters are proposed for realizing mathematical procedures of the multi-objective synthesis, owing to which the problem of multi-objective, multi-parameter synthesis is reduced to one- or two-parameter problems. Together with technical characteristics also considered are the comparative economic indicators, with the analysis of their basic regularities. The functional sequence of implementation of the design-analytical procedures of the methods constituting the multi-objective synthesis of both the linearized and non-linear homer systems, which is presented as a functional structural scheme, is established
4.C5.8. Analysis of the machined surface quality
of composite-profile pieces machined on a profile grinder. /Kh.Amkoladze,
I.Elerdashvili, V.Kiria, I.Narimanashvili/. Transport and Machine-building. –
2008. – #3(11). – pp. 122-126. – Rus. (res.
Dependences necessary for transfer to profiling errors are presented. Specific studies referring to the efficient use of the work results in handling the engineering optimization synthesis problems of both the engineering and technological parameters are conducted.
4.C5.9. Research and development of an overhead cable logging
machine with two-way
traverse skidding /Z.Balamtsarashvili, G.Kokaia, R.Tkemaladze, G. Asanidze/. Transport and Machine-building. –
2008. – #3(11). – pp. 148-154. – Geo. (res.
under mountain conditions, the most laborious and hazardous phase is the log
skidding to the forest depot. It has been established that in wood-cutting
areas with down gradient up 20 degrees skidding may be carried out by tractors.
However, given hazards of operation of tractors on slopes, we propose that
overhead cable logging machines be used instead. The article deals with an
overhead cable logging machine with two-way traverse skidding designed at the
4.C5.10. Analysis of forced vibrations of a
pneumomechanical tracer. /T.Mchedlishvili, V.Kiria,
Kh.Amkoladze, N.Baidarashvili/. Transport and Machine-building. – 2008. – #3(11). – pp.
157-162. – Rus. (res.
For subsequent analysis of forced vibrations, the transfer function numerator of the system under study, constructed on the basis of the obtained approximation model and the expression of input action on the system, has been analyzed. Mathematical expressions defining forced vibrations are constructed on the basis of the known theory of successive approximations of frequency solutions for non-stationary nonlinear systems. Analytical dependences defining frequency solutions of both first and second approximation used for analyzing forced vibrations connected with future profiling errors are obtained.
4.C5.11. The ways
of improving electron-acoustic measuring devices. /E.Ter-Samvelova/.
Works - Appendix to the Newsletter of
Examples and peculiarities of up-to-date electron-acoustic measuring devices are considered; the ways of essential application widening, their functions and metrological possibilities are presented.
Research of the pulp combing process between flats and the drum of a carder is presented. The graphs of fiber-length distribution in the lap, web and tow, when working with the flats having general and narrow working width flats, were compiled. The graphs show that that when combing the cotton on the carder, definite sorting out of the fibre by length occurs: a part of long fibers increases in the lap, a part of short fibers - in the tow, the effect being intensified when working with narrow flats. Theoretical and trial graphs of changing the average length of the fiber in the tow, as the flats move to the carding workplaces, were compiled.
4.C6.2. Research of carding process on a carder. /N.Chkhaidze, G.Kuprashvili/. Proceedings of
the Georgian National Academy of Sciences, Chemical series. – 2008. – vol. 34. – #2. – pp.
232-239. – Geo. (res.
Results of theoretic and experimental research of trash detachment from the pulp fed to a carder and of conversion into the flat tow are presented. The trash detachment takes place along the whole working area of carding – the trash amount in the tow increasing from the back to forward knives. Equations for the trash amount in the tow for each workplace of the carding arc, complying with the experimental results have been generated. The most intensive trash detachment takes place in the mid-workplaces, where the separation of the pulp is almost complete.
4.C7.1. Food safety - scientific bases,
modern principles and general provisions of legal regulation. /K.Laferashvili/.
Bulletin of the Center of Strategic Research and Development of
Science-based, practical and legal aspects of modern food safety regulation and existing problems are specified and existing problems are presented.
The state of
the Georgian food market from the standpoint of adulteration is described. It
is mentioned that almost all kinds of adulterated analogues of both local and
foreign-made products are met there. Different kinds of adulteration
(assortment, qualitative, quantitive, cost, information, technological,
complex) are studied. The food adulteration results and proposals and
considerations concerning elimination of the cases of aduklteration in
The article deals with the ecological and chemical factors of lead content in some types of wine given the local ecology and consumption of grape and products made thereof; it presents the results of analysis of the content of lead in the wine made from vineyards located near the highway (50-100 m) and comparatively far away (500 m).
The green brick-tea drying process under current conditions is associated with considerable power consumption and requires a large production area. For the design and manufacture of a new modern green brick-tea drier, kinetics of the green brick-tea drying process has been studied by using a specially designed experimental device which makes it possible to control air temperature, humidity and consumption. According to the experimental results, the brick-tea drying process curves were constructed for different temperatures of the working agent and the drying process time curves were produced. A definite optimum value has been found to correspond to every temperature of the working agent. The so-called “drop-down” temperature condition has been proposed for the green brick-tea drying process.
4.C7.6. Residues of benzimidazole
fungicide in products of alcoholic fermentation. /M.Japaridze,
Z.Kuratashvili, I.Abdushelishvili, B.Tsereteli/. Proceedings of the Georgian
National Academy of Sciences, Chemical series. – 2008. – vol. 34. – #2. – pp.
206-209. – Rus. (res.
The process of benzimidazole fungicide transformation under alcoholic fermentation has been studied. Carbendazim and 2-aminobenzimidazole were identified in fermentation products. Regularities of the allocation of fungicide residues in the sediment and wine are detected and the rate of fungicide oxidation due to the CO2 formation is also identified. It is pointed out that the main part of radioactive fungicide is localized in the sediment. In protein compounds of the sediment, radioactive amino acids were not found; therefore, radioactivity of the sediment is conditioned by the interaction between fungicide and the products of its transformation with compounds of the sediment.
4.C8.1. Consideration of climatic parameters
in construction. /L.Kartvelishvili, Z.Tskvitinidze/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 132-141. – Geo. (res.
Different complex climatic parameters and their distribution patterns in time and space are discussed. The obtained data are necessarily to be taken into account when designing construction projects.
When discussions and negotiations are held “behind closed doors” sound proofing must comply with existing standards. First of all, it concerns conference rooms and directors’ offices. In this case, the most effective measure is to arrange the so-called ‘lobby’. Different sound-proof materials (plates, pastes, etc.) and deafening facilities are discussed.
4.C8.3. Processing, marking, cutting and fixing of glass-fiber-gypsum plates. /V.Javakhishvili, M.Chanturia, I.Garibashvili, R.Zhgenti/. Energy. – 2008. – #4(48). – pp. 88-91. – Geo. (res. Geo.,ng., Rus.)
Glass-fiber-gypsum plates are cut on the smooth and firm surface, following their marking, by means of a special cutter. The pre-cutting preparation process and the cutting process itself, as well as the post-cutting fixing/mounting of the cut plates are discussed.
4.C8.4. Research of the physico-mechanical
and technical characteristics of concrete on the basis of a theoretical
analysis. /V.Lomidze, T.Jojua, T.Turmanidze/. Energy. – 2008. –
#4(48). – pp. 92-98. – Geo. (res.
One of the plane problems of the elasticity theory is considered. Pursuant to the concept of the theory of finite elements, an object is presented in the form of totality of small elements. For each element dependencies of the elasticity theory are recorded. On the basis of it, the corresponding values are computed. Conditions of continuity and balance are satisfied by means of the solution of a uniform system of equation. For solving the assigned task, a method of separation is applied. Design diagrams, static and kinematic boundary conditions are presented. 2 cases are considered: first – there is an ideal constraint between the elements of separation, the second - where such a constraint is absent. By means of satisfaction of geometric and static conditions for the elements of separation, unknown coefficients are eliminated gradually until specific numerical values are obtained. A way of solution of the assigned task is shown by a specific example. For this, a concrete block located between two hard platforms, which are under load, is examined. The task is symmetrical. By using an expression for a stress function, the values of the stress and relocation of the elements of separation are obtained. The further process is the satisfaction of boundary conditions. After the last process, has been completed, the design coefficients An1 ,….., An4 assume specific numerical values.
4.C9.1. Mathematical study of soil salinity variability. /A.Surmava, N.Tugushi,
L.Shavliashvili, L.Intskirveli, S.Mdivani/. Tansactions of the Georgian Institute of
Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 322-330. – Rus. (res.
By numerical integration of the water and dissolved nitrite infiltration equations in the soil one of methods of salinity reduction in the top layer of the saline soil used in practice is numerically simulated. The numerical investigation shows that the simulated method, at the certain values of the coefficients of the infiltration and diffusion and at a triple irrigation for 90 days, can decrease the salinity in the upper 70cm-layer of soil. The dissolved from the upper layer salt is gradually washed away and into a deeper layer, leading an insignificant increase of the salinity of the ground below 70 cm.
4.C9.2. Feasibility of application of coarse mulberry leaf gathered
in late autumn as cattle fodder for, development of appropriate technologies
and economic efficacy. /G.Nikoleishvili,
B.Korokhashvili, B.Sakandelidze, S.Turmanidze, E.Choladze/. Agrarian-economic Science and Technologies. – 2009. – #1. – pp.
21-30. – Geo. (res.
According to the results of studies implemented at the Educational-Research Institute of Sericulture, coarse mulberry leaf stored in autumn can be successfully used animal husbandry as feed. In all cases, one has to study biochemical characteristics of the leaf and determine its nourishing value. The feasibility and economic efficiency of utilizing the leaf prepared in spring from various plantations of the recommended mulberry varieties, as well as the leaf stored in autumn for winter, leaf flour and other types of fodder will be studied at Kutaisi Zonal Station of Sericulture.
Given the outdated agricultural equipment as well as shortage of farm machinery and labor force, the work recommends enlargement of the existing small land plots by setting up farm cooperatives according to rural settlements, implying the setting up of one or several cooperatives within a settlement.
The main principles for defining the operating leverage efficiency are considered to be: 100% marketability of production; 100% sales revenue; evaluation of the consumed materials and performed work at current market prices. Under conditions of a market economy, farmers should be financially stable. The financial stability for farmers is the difference between the sales revenue and the profitability level. If a farmer’s sales revenue is less than the profitability level, his financial situation will worsen and a shortage of liquid assets will be created.
4.C10.1. Fresh water resources’ potential and management in
4.C10.2. Year’s beginning impact on
relationship and trend between the annual
river runoff and drift. /G.Grigolia,
D.Kereselidze, V.Trapaidze, G.Bregvadze, N.Tsintsadze/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 228-233. – Geo. (res.
Climatic changes and the relevant changes in the river drift and run-off are generally studied in annual intervals. Standard processing and publication of materials are accomplished according to calendar years (from 1/I). The work corroborates that at different beginnings of the year, the correlation coefficient of the relation and trend between the annual runoff and drifts changes, and recommends starting annual calculations in the water-management year (1/IV), when the uniformity of annual values is more preserved and the correlation between annual drifts and runoffs is the greatest.
A connective boundary problem reflecting the dynamic interaction with water of large-scale underground waters intruded at a high speed in the water area and the resulting wave processes is considered. To formulate the problem, the author-modified systems of differential equations of the two-dimensional theory of “shallow” water for the mudflow and water respectively, which are interconnected by means of the time-and-space-variable inner boundary, also the general algorithm of calculation are given.
4.C10.4. Prognosis of the effect of waves
in the tail-water originated as a result of a break of Algeti and Sioni dams. /T.Gvelesiani, G.Palavandishvili, B.Maglaperidze,
G.Berdzenashvili/. Energy. – 2008. – #4(48). – pp. 43-47. – Geo. (res.
During 2007, two projects (within the program for rehabilitation of water-engineering systems of melioration designation in Georgia) concerning the prognosis of the waves effect in the tail-water were implemented.The tentative origin of the waves is associated with a partial or complete destruction of Algeti and Sioni dams. The article describes the projects, methods used to implement them, as well as the relevant graphic material.
4.C11.1. Tourism climatic index
in Tbilisi. /A.Amiranashvili,
A.Matzarakis, L.Kartvelishvil/. Transactions of the Georgian
Institute of Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 27-30. – Eng. (res.
climatic potential assessment for
aeroionization and radiological characteristics of Tskaltubo health resort and
tourist complex. /N.Saakashvili, M.Tabidze, I.Tarkhan-Mouravi, et al./. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of
Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 31-40. – Rus. (res.
The study results of the climatic, aeroionization and radiological characteristics of Tskaltubo town as well as of Tetri Mgvime, Sataplia and Tskaltubo caves are presented.
The efficiency of using liquefied gas to fuel cars and of converting cars to autogas is analyzed. The possibility of using cars equipped with gas cylinders as well as the expediency of their running on compressed and liquefied natural gas is discussed. Large-scale use of automobiles running on autogas has been found to significantly decrease consumption of costly petrol and diesel fuels. The autogas-fuelled cars exhibit performance and operational characteristics comparable with those of their petrol and diesel competitors, while generating lower running and maintenance costs.
4.C12.2. Influence of gasoline
fumes’ characteristics on automobile ecological compatibility. /J.Iosebidze, G.Abramishvili,
T.Apakidze, A.Chkheidze, Kh.Mgebrishvili/. Transport and Machine-building. – 2008. – #3(11). – pp. 52-59. –
This article, based of literary sources and using a novel approach, analyzes the influence of gasoline fumes’ characteristics (gasoline distillation, saturated steam pressure, volatility index) on the performance of an automobile engine (easiness and reliability of cold engine start-up in cold weather, duration of warming-up, completeness of burning of the air-fuel mixture, engine power, acceleration, wear of details of the cylinder-piston group, formation of the so-called “vapour locks” in the fuel system pumps and pipelines, increase of gasoline losses during storage, transportation and consumption, fuel saving, etc.); a conceptual dependence between these characteristics and environmental safety of automobiles has been established.
4.C12.3. All-round automated
fire-prevention control systems of transport tunnels. /E.Moistsrapishvili, M.Moistsrapishvili, G.Enukidze, N.Arudashvili/.
Transport and Machine-building. – 2008. – #3(11). – pp. 69-75. – Geo. (res. Geo.,
The paper briefly discusses high risks of fire and its quick spread in transport tunnels; the examples of great fires happened abroad are considered; all-round automated fire-prevention control systems, their subsystems and a functional scheme of the control system block are analysed. The function of the equipment and the principle of operation of the active fire-prevention automated control system block are described. It is noted that the data of the system block of active fire-prevention automated control are universal and can be used in other objects as well; at the same time, it is necessary that technical regulations of fire safety be developed. The article proves the possibility of using contemporary automated systems to form a successive block diagram of fire prevention measures and to develop the operation principles of the elements of the system with consideration of construction peculiarities, as well as to create a computer system of centralized control of the fire-prevention complex.
4.C12.4. Development of a logistic system for
efficient automotive fuel consumption control under conditions of motor
transport enterprises. /O.Gelashvili, B.Kitsmarishvili,
T.Matsiashvili, T.Niauri/. Transport and
Machine-building. – 2008. – #3(11). – pp. 83-89. – Rus. (res. Geo.,
The work deals with the questions of formation of the operational automotive fuel consumption and analyzes the methods of its rationing. Methods for determining the minimal automotive fuel consumption are developed and a new approach providing the fuel consumption reduction in operation is proposed. A three-stage qualitatively novel logistic system of automotive fuel control ensuring operational detection and elimination of the reasons of fuel over-expenditure and yielding a great economic effect under conditions of motor transport enterprises has been developed.
focal changes and hemodynamic parameters in relation to the state of collateral
circulation. /F.Todua, D.Gachechiladze, M.Beraia/. Bulletin of the
The paper aims at studying the state of collateral
circulation in patients with unilateral high-grade stenosis and occlusion of
the internal carotid artery (
Clinical manifestation and long-term prognosis of viral and idiopathic dilated
cardiomyopathy. /N.Kipshidze, K.Nadaraia/. Bulletin of the
The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare a long-term prognosis and clinical courses of viral and idiopathic (two of the most widespread and heavy) forms of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In total, 144 patients (mean age 43.8±12 years, range 15-68 years, m122/f22) with DCM were enrolled in the study since 1991. Besides standard examinations, serologic tests for antibodies to cardiotropic viruses (ELISA method) were performed. The patients were divided into 2 groups (Gr.) according to the results of serologic tests and patients’ clinical and history data. In the case of lethal outcomes we used existing medical reports and/or interviewed family members to determine the cause of death. The Odds and Hazard Ratio, Kaplan-Meyer methods were used for statistical analyses of the data obtained. In 77 (53.5%) out of 144 patients with DCM, together with acute respiratory infections in anamnesis we observed positive serologic reaction to cardiotropic viruses (Gr.1). 67 (46.5%) patients with idiopathic DCM entered Gr.2. During a 5-year observation period, 69 (47.9%) patients died, and 75 (52.1%) patients survived. The life-expectancy was 4.1±2.0 and 4.9±2.8 years for Gr.1 and Gr.2 respectively. The 3-year mortality rate made 33.8% and 26.5%, the 5-year mortality rate - 53.2% and 41.8% respectively. The most common causes of DCM mortality were progressive heart failure and sudden death (in gr.1 – 43.9% vs 31.7% and in gr.2 – 35.7% vs 46.4%, respectively.) We conclude that more than half of DCM cases are of viral etiology. Viral DCM is characterized by higher severity of clinical manifestation, more rapid development of progressive heart failure and higher mortality rates than idiopathic DCM.
Theoretical and practical problems of innovation management of personnel work are discussed. They imply any organization activities, organization decision-making, procedure or personnel management method that essentially differ from the practiced ones and are used in a given organization for the first time. Special attention should be paid to the organization of the innovation potential development, revealing and realization of novelties in terms of personnel work.
The article deals with modern aspects of management structuring in a business organization that imply the grouping of activity types and personnel for achieving the objective that had been set in advance. The selection of a structure depends on the specifics of individual business subjects/companies: type of activity, activity scale, existing situations. The industrial structure of a company is determined by its profile, diversification or specialization level, quantitative and qualitative composition of products. The organizational and management structures generally coincide: management structuring and implementation of specialized functions are carried out according to the organization divisions. The management structure is determined by different factors, such, for example, as the organizational and legal status of a company, its size, departmental belonging. Classical examples of the organization structures are: hierarchical, functional and mixed. On the other hand, each of them can be subdivided. Under conditions of changeable markets and demands, special attention shall be given to the ability of maneuvering – rapid changing of the strategy and tactics. Correspondingly, any organization must be easily restructured and reformed.
UDC 91 (479.22)+632.118.3
4.D2.1. Specificity of anthropogenic pollution
of mountain biogeocenoses under conditions of global warming. /E.Salukvadze, M.Gogebashvili, N.Ivanishvili/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of
Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 90-96. – Rus. (res.
The study aims at revealing the realization of anthropogenic pollution of mountain biogeocenoses under conditions of global warming. The process may be formed as follows: the pollution factor – low vegetation growth – phytocenosis with low adaptation potential – modification of hydrological parameters of biogeocenosis – development of adverse processes in the critical highland landscapes.
4.D2.2. Influence of global warming on
changes in agroclimatic zones. /G.Meladze, M.Tutarashvili, M.Meladze/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of
Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 97-104. – Geo. (res.
As a result of analysis and processing of the meteorological observation data, a close correlation between the dates of the air temperature rise above 10°, the sum of active temperatures and altitude above sea level has been established. On the basis of the established correlations, the regression equations are made, according to which sums of active temperatures for agroclimatic zones are defined. 5 agroclimatic zones for distribution of various agricultural crops are allocated. According to the scenario, upon the temperature rise of 1°, the area of distribution of citrus, grape, tea, cereals, winter wheat and other crops has gone up to 100-150 m. above sea level, as compared with their existing distribution areas, and upon the temperature increase by 2°, - up to 200-300 m. a.s.l.
4.D2.3. Joint statistical analysis of the river runoff and
precipitation against the background of climatic change. /G.Grigolia,
M.Alaverdashvili, V.Trapaidze, et al/.
Transactions of the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 105-111. –
background of global warming of the climate, a joint evaluation of the river
runoff and its principal determining factor - changes in precipitation by
linear regression and trend (with the correlation coefficient between the
random number and its ordinal number) is extremely urgent. The trend of average
monthly and seasonal (III-V, VI-VII, IX-XI, XII-II) discharges of the
4.D2.4. A possibility of improving the
calculation of water resources based on the application of the moisture
circulation parameters against the background of climate change.
/N.Begalishvili, T.Tsintsadze, V.Tsomaia, et al/. Transactions of the Georgian
Institute of Hydrometeorology – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 112-121. – Geo. (res.
The work deals with a possibility of calculation of the characteristics of water resources (precipitation, river runoffs and glacier accumulation-ablation) based on the moisture circulation parameters, under conditions of suspended hydrometeorological observations. The calculation of river water resources’ parameters are given for warm, cold seasons and annual periods. For the non-associated and associated series, the results are positive, provision being within 80 to 98 percent.
4.D2.5. Modelling and forecast of the
Some results of modelling of the dynamic processes in the whole Black Sea and in the Georgian sector of the sea basin on the basis of the baroclinic prognostic models of the Black Sea general (spatial resolution 5 km) and regional circulations (spatial resolution 1 km) developed at M.Nodia Institute of Geophysics are considered.
4.D2.6. Transparency of atmosphere in the coastal area of
Ajara. /R.Solomonidze/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of
Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol.115. – pp. 234-241. – Geo. (res.
In 2007-2008, about 450 complex experiments have been carried to study transparency of the atmosphere in the coastal area of Ajara. The effects of temperature, humidity and wind on the atmospheric transparency were established. The influence of the sea on the transparency of atmosphere in the littoral area was studied.
4.D2.7. Dependence of concentrations of different chemical elements in the atmospheric precipitation of Kakheti region of Georgia on total mineralization. /G.Supatashvili, M.Salukvadze, L.Abesalashvili, T.Salukvadze, E.Khelaia/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. - pp. 242-245. – Rus . (res. Geo., Eng., Rus.)
Results of a research of the concentration of some chemical
elements (B, P, Br, I, Cu, Pb) in the atmospheric precipitation of Kakheti
4.D2.8. Use of satellite information for
early warning of hydrometeorological disasters in
The use of
satellite information for prevention or/and mitigation of disasters of
hydrometeorological origin on the
4.D2.9. On the meteorological
aspects of macro-transfer of atmospheric pollutants in mountain regions. /G.Gunia, Z.Tskhvitinidze,
B.Kholmatjanov, Z.Fatkhulaeva/. Transactions
of the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 261-271. – Rus.
Results of the
investigation of influence of foehn events at a level of atmospheric pollution
are observed by the examples of Kolkheti lowlands (the south-west part of
Caucasus) and Akhtangar valley (the western
4.D.2.10. Short-range numerical prediction of
extreme precipitation for
Run of local area model with boundary conditions from the global model (GFS), was implemented taking into account local Physical-Geographical and meso and micro scale parameters. These results were improved by 2-way nesting method into parent domain. In the example total surface precipitation forecast, received by mentioned method and it’s observed fields are in close agreement.
4.D2.11. Thunderstorm activity characteristics in Georgia. /A.Amiranashvili, O.Varazanashvili, A.Nodia, N.Tsereteli, I.Mkurnalidze/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 279-285. – Rus . (res. Geo., Eng., Rus.)
distribution of mean periodicity of the number of days with thunderstorms per
annum on the
4.D2.12. Assumed ecological consequences of
the forest fire in the Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park in August 2008. /A.Amiranashvili, T.Bliadze, V.Chikhladze/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of
Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 286-293. – Geo. (res.
It is assumed
that as a result of a forest fire in the
4.D2.13. The spatial atructure of hazardous meteorological phenomena over Georgian territory. /O.Varazanashvili, E.Elizbarashvili/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 294-302. – Geo. (res. Geo., Eng., Rus.)
Such hazardous meteorological phenomena as draughts, frosts, stormy winds, blanket fog and icing are discussed. The special criteria elaborated considering the intensity of phenomena and consequent expected damages are based on the images of spatial fields of those phenomena in Gis.
4.D2.14. Dependence of total mineralization
of atmospheric precipitation on the surface air temperature at constant value
of relative humidity. /T.Salukvadze, M.Salukvadze, E.Khelaia/.
Transactions of the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 331-334. – Rus. (res.
The temperature effect of the ground stratum of air on atmospheric precipitation mineralization at constant values of relative humidity is studied. Analysis of the statistically supported experimental material has found that the temperature-mineralization dependence graph for three ranges of relative humidity (30-55; 55-75 and 75-100 %%) has two maximums, which, together with decrease of the relative humidity, shift towards large temperature values.
4.D2.15. Radon distribution and lung cancer in individual regions of West Georgia. /A.Amiranashvili, T.Chelidze, K.Gvinianidze, G.Melikadze, M.Todadze, I.Trekov, D.Tsereteli/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 349-353. – Eng. (res. Geo., Eng., Rus.)
According to data
of more than 100 water samples taken in individual regions of
4.D2.16. Puter earthquake trigger factors. /M.Kachakhidze, G.Ramishvili, N.Kachackidze, R.Kiladze, V.Kukhianidze/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 354-358. – Eng . (res. Geo., Eng., Rus.)
Special distribution of planets or pairs of planets on the firmament is regarded as an earthquake trigger factor. Sectors, in which the number of earthquakes becomes maximal or minimal when planets or pairs of planets are found within them, have been identified.
4.D2.17. On the method of detecting quasi-periodic earthquake synchronising factors in the Caucasus. /O.Lursmanashvili, T.Paatashvili, L.Geondjian/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol.115. – pp. 359-368. – Rus. (res. Geo., Eng., Rus.)
A mechanism of
earthquake synchronisation by external impact is proposed. The possibility to
detect this external factor by examination of the shapes of histograms representing
the distribution of earthquakes’ occurring moments is shown. The tidal impact
with the lunar-solar synodic month period on the
4.D2.18. False periodicities in earthquakes
spectra in the
The study of possible diurnal periodicity of earthquakes on the base of the Catalogue of Caucasus Earthquakes, very distinctly reveals this phenomenon for events with, and the absence of diurnal period for stronger quakes. We reveal that the catalogue contains a set of industrial explosions, identified as natural events. The study of possible natural diurnal periodicity for the purpose of earthquake prediction needs very careful analysis of industrial activity to avoid erroneous conclusions and artifacts.
4.D2.19. Seismohydrodynamic observations on the territory of Georgia. /G.Melikadze, T.Jimsheladze, G.Kobzev, N.Kapanadze, N.Dovgal/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 375-380. – Geo. (res., Geo., Eng., Rus.)
A multitude of
anomalies have been recorded during the current regime hydrodynamic
observations on the
4.D2.20. Variation of hydro-chemical regime of underground water during preparation of seismic events. /M.Todadze, N.Kapanadze, G.Melikadze, V.Ghlonti, T.Jimsheladze/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 389-393. – Geo. (res., Geo., Eng., Rus.)
The data analysis results show the effect of seismicity on the hydro-chemical regime of the underground water. Based on the analyses carried out, major informative components for each area and for the region have been selected.
4.D2.21. Climatic extremes’ calculation results for Georgia’s mountainous regions. /N.Kutaladze, Z.Tskvitinidze/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 394-401. – Geo. (res., Geo., Eng., Rus.)
Based on the data of 21 stations of the Georgian meteorological network, extremal climatic indices were calculated, multiannual trends of their dynamics revealed and their statistical stability established. Based on the above, climatic risks were assessed and mostly vulnerable areas determined.
4.D2.22. Investigation of concentration of
solid aerosol particles in the surface air layer of
data on research of the weight concentration of solid particles of aerosol (m mg/cu m) in the
surface air of
4.D2.23. A possibility of calculation and
forecast of maximum water discharges of catastrophic floods based on the
application of the moisture circulation parameters under condition of closed-up
/G.Gachechiladze, V.Tsomaia, L.Kitiashvili, S.Gorgijanidze,
N.Begalishvili/. Transaction of the
Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 417-426. – Rus.
The work deals with a method of calculation of moisture circulation parameters and a possibility of estimating and forecasting maximum water discharges and daily precipitation, with the maximum 1-percent security. The testing of the method on the Ajarian Black Sea coastal area rivers produced positive results – error less than 4 to 5 percent.
4.D2.24. Impact of effective air temperature
and geomagnetic storms on the health of
The results of
investigation of the impact of monthly average values of the air equivalent- effective
temperature (combination of temperature, air relative humidity and wind
velocity) and monthly duration of magnetic storms on the health of the
A problem of conversion of high-pressure natural gas into electric power by using solar energy on the basis of multistage gas expansion is considered. The respective thermodynamic processes are presented. A plane solar collector is used as the solar energy converter. The most reasonable method for utilizing potential energy of high-pressure gas is the use of turbo-expanders. A solar electric power station (SES) is characterized of a high value of energy conversion factor ηef = 0.73. It is pointed that in the case of using a steam-turbine, flat-collector cycle, the factor will be ηef = 0.07-0.08 (under t = 1000C). By power density, the SES will also exceed all the known systems of solar energy conversion into electric power. In addition, it is more effective than traditional power stations. High effectiveness of SES is conditioned by using the potential energy of high-pressure natural gas. Determination of performance characteristic of the SES is the subject of future research.
4.D2.26. The influence of anthropogenic
factors on the formation of carcinogenic agents. /N.Ramazashvili,
L.Chkheidze/. Transport and Machine-building. – 2008. – #3(11) – pp. 107-114. –
Geo. (res. Geo.,
Results of an
environmental monitoring conducted on the
Pipelines are essential components of the energy supply chain and the monitoring of their integrity has become a major task of the pipeline management and control. The presented article gives some information about the best way to protect pipelines using fiber-optical technologies. We have described the ability of distributed fiber-optic sensors to control and monitor pipelines integrity. The advantage is shown and the effectiveness of sensing system based on Brillouin and Raman scattering are used to protect pipeline leakage, verify pipeline operational parameters, and prevent failure of pipelines.
The results of
a statistical analysis of precursors of about twenty earthquakes in the
4.D3.2. Statistical characteristics of the number of hail days per annum in Georgia./A.Amiranashvili, O.Varazanashvili, A.Nodia, N.Tsereteli, T.Khurodze/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 427-433. – Rus. (res. Geo., Eng., Rus.)
A map of the
distribution of mean periodicity of the number of hail days per annum on the
4.D4.1. Investigation of some climate change peculiarities in Georgia by mathematical modelling. /T.Davitashvili, Z.Khvedelidze, A.Khantadze, K.Tavartkiladze, I.Samkharadze/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 7-18, – Eng. (res. Geo., Eng., Rus.)
regional climate change peculiarities on the
4.D4.2. Zoning of the Georgian
territory on the drought intensity evaluation basis. /N.Begalishvili,
T.Tsintsadze, M.Gzirishvili, N.Arutinian, R.Mahmudov/. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology. – 2008. – vol. 115. – pp. 303-307. – Geo. (res.
atmospheric and soil drought development, also a complex evaluation of drought
intensity on the territory of Georgia are discussed on the basis of the method
developed at the Scientific-Research Institute of Agriculture of Russia. The
data of observations conducted by 15 weather stations in 1961-1986 are applied.
Schematic maps of climatic zoning of the
4.D4.3. Characteristics of floods on
the rivers of
characteristics of the flood peaks for the most important rivers of
4.D4.4. A simplified solution of the transcendental equation of
dispersion for studying standing waves on the water surface. /T.Gvelesiani,
T.Kirimlishvili-Davitashvili/. Energy. – 2008. – #4 (48). – pp. 48-50. – Geo. (res.
In different natural or artificial reservoirs, also in hydraulic trays (basins) standing waves may arise under the effect of repetitive fluctuations on these bodies. To study these waves, the transcendental equation of dispersion should be solved (i.e. the roots of this equation must be found). For this purpose, a method of selection, specifically, a computer graphic approach is to be applied. A new simplified technique of determining the above-mentioned roots on the basis of their direct estimation according to the presented formula is discussed in this work. In addition, accuracy of the obtained results is estimated by a relational error ô≤0, 7%. The figure shows the first three roots of the equation of dispersion for the case of standing waves.
4.D4.5. A principle of GIS-technology
application in track facilities. /E.Moistsrapishvili,
M.Moistsrapishvili, G. Enukidze, N. Arudashvili, I.Mchedlishvili/. Transport
and Machine-building. – 2008. – #3(11). – pp. 40-43. – Geo. (res.
The paper considers the necessity of introduction of geographic information systems (GIS) in the sphere of track facilities and the positive aspects of their application. It is noted that when designing the structural organisation of track facilities, together with the development of the control flowcharts, the problems of optimal location of sectoral enterprises and divisions should be solved. The following key problems making the basis for functioning of the GIS program upon design of the structural organisation of track facilities are formulated: creation of a sectoral GIS; creation of a geo-information base; electronic certification, re-engineering and informational support of the rail facilities; computer design (software) of structural organisation of the track facilities.
4.D4.6. Some considerations on the use of
geometric transformation in computer engineering graphics. /A.Shavgulidze, Z.Kvinikadze, G.Shengelia/. Transport and
Machinebuilding. – 2008. – #3(11). – pp. 44-51.
It is generally known that a computer program is a sequence of commands, every one of which informs the processor on what to do at the given moment. There are great many computer programs, but most of them are noted for neglecting the concept of an operation and for focusing on the final result. For example, the drawing of a tangent from the given point to the given straight line is accomplished by means of one pictogram, whereas the conceptual side of this operation requires the possession of much more information. Hence, in computer graphics, we often deal with the so-called “disemboweled operations”. The execution of an operation in this way is good only when the engineer is familiar with the full content of the operation is oriented on the result, saving time, and he comprehends adequately what he does by means of a computer. Where necessary, when the operation is to be executed sensibly, the methodology recommended in this work – supplement of the computer program using the intuitive algorithm – is quite expedient.
4.D4.7. Mathematical description of
control regime of track circuits in the existence of intertrack-rail bonds. /M.Gotsadze,
N.Khuchua/. Transport and Machine-building. – 2008. – #3(11). – pp. 142-147. – Rus. (res.:
Presented is a mathematical description of the control regime of track circuits in the existence of intertrack- rail bonds, where, in contrast to the known methods of track circuits’ study, specific resistance of mutual inductance between the respective rails of the adjacent tracks is foreseen. Finding of the common solution by the given system of differential equations obtained on the basis of the Kirchoff law is very difficult; therefore, several assumptions that do not affect the practical precision of the solution are made. Besides the grounding conductivity of rails, the design reflects ideal resistances of mutual inductance between the respective rails which enables to resolve the problem of calculating the control regime of track circuits more precisely.