B3. Geology. Geodesy
C1. Power Industry
C3. Automation & Telemetry. Computer Engineering
C6. Light Industry
C7. Food Industry
C13. Medicine. Healthcare
Comparative analysis of political and legal aspects of national safety of
National safety has an absolute priority
compared to other problems of politics. Scientifically substantiated safety
system serves for preservation and strengthening of the basic values of the
country: State sovereignty, safety, territorial integrity, culture uniqueness
and applies to the special governance by higher state organs. One of the main
reasons of the specificity of Georgian state safety problems is its
geopolitical and geoeconomical location. One of the main directions and
priority of Georgian national safety problem is integration of
The present paper discusses the issue of bank legislative system and existing problems in this sphere. The main attention is paid to the international legal resources of bank regulation. The origin of international banking law is connected with the economic and bank internationalized process, which is one of the characteristic signs of the present.
6.A1.3. The obligation to return the property
transferred on the ground of unjust enrichment. /T. Chitoshvili/.
Unjust enrichment is one of the statutory obligations. Other statutory obligations are torts (delictual obligations), management of the affair of another without mandate, obligation deriving from rights in common and obligations deriving from other grounds. Unjust enrichment is the civil relation, which arises when a person saves or increases his property without any contractual or legal ground. This may be done by transferring property to another person, by using another’s property, by performing an action of another (as own obligation), etc. The rule and the scope of the obligation to return the property received from unjust enrichment is regulated by special provisions that envisage the obligation to return the property and the profits and the fruits received from it, the obligations to compensate for the damage, the grounds, when the revendication claim shall be excluded, etc.
6.A1.4. Point at issue in contractual
relations upon air transportation of passengers (luggage) and freight under Georgian legislation. /Sh.
The work deals with peculiarities of judicial contests regulated by Georgian legislation flowing from the contractual relations concerning air transportation; grounds for such claims as a precondition of lawsuit; persons authorized for claiming; intervals allowed for claims, and rules of their consideration; a commercial act as a document evidencing amenability of the parties; grounds for lodging a claim and general commentaries of its consideration. Analyzed is the necessity of amending the Civil Code and the Air Code of Georgia, also of the drafting of a bylaw determining the procedure for drawing up a commercial act.
6.A1.5. Procedural preconditions for
analyzing the structure, dynamics and status of larceny. /M.
The criminological character of larceny is given in this research paper implicating the following procedural preconditions: status, structure and dynamics of larceny. The comparative measure as crime rate (1987-2002) applied in the research helped to define and correlate the certain number of urban population or population of certain regions to the number of appropriation of moveable estate. On this basis it was possible to see the modification of not only the status of larceny, i.e. the total number of larceny, but of its structure. It is obvious that the appropriation of moveable estate should be analyzed in a context of both the external factors and the peculiarity of the criminal identity, but also considering the character of a victim. Thus, the qualitative-quantitative characteristics of larceny are defined by the following factors: a) number of committed crime and number of convicted for larceny; b) number of registered crimes; c) structural characteristics of crime; d) crime ratio; e) latency of larceny; f) extent of damage. It is obvious that the crime rate in different regions is different, depending on the different social conditions of the population.
work shows that the demographic situation and the state of manpower employment
demographic situation in
The work deals with
the innovation process structure, main factors influencing development of the
innovation process, general structure of national innovation systems; provides
an analysis of national innovation systems of foreign countries. World
countries are ranked according to known models on innovation development as
follows: (1) “traditional” – mainly the countries of the Euro-Atlantic region (
Leasing – an effective form of assistance to small enterprises. /M.
Maghradze, K. Kutateladze, A. Burduladze/. Transactions of
paper deals with the use of leasing in
Economic transformation in the countries of Central and
is for two decades as the world has entered a phase of new economic order. It
can be said that its success significantly depends on the process of economic
transformation going in countries of the former
Innovation economy is considered as an up-to-date model of socio-economic development of highly-developed and successful countries. The main factors influencing the innovation economy development are demonstrated; the necessity of creation, propagation and targeted use of new knowledge is assessed together with the role and significance of new human thinking and the maximum and proper use of its potentialities for socio-economic development of a country.
The characteristics of a state’s innovation development and its evaluation
The cardinal changes taking place in the world economy that have created the prospects for innovation economy development are highlighted. The said changes influence all fields of social activities and are to significantly alter the mechanisms of socio-economic functioning. The preference is given to the creation of new knowledge, its propagation and reasonable use. The indicators of innovation level evaluation of a country’s economy and the main directions of its competitive capacity raising on the international arena are shown. It is noted that in future special attention will be paid to the development of hi-tech fields, the activation of scientific and engineering personnel, increase of investments in research spheres, etc.
article deals with the importance of small enterprise under conditions of a
market economy. A special importance of small enterprise under conditions of
rapid individualization and differentiation of consumer demands, acceleration
of scientific and technological progress, increase of the nomenclature of
manufactured goods and services is shown. For successful development of small
The work deals with three main ways to regulate inflation processes: the elaboration of antiinflation strategy, antiinflation tactics and the adjustment to inflation. The strategic measures of antiinflation regulation and measures necessary for their realization are analyzed. There is elucidated Keynesian and monetary policy of antiinflation regulation.
The paper deals with newly introduced bank innovations, special attention being paid to plastic cards as an effective and secure means of payment and market competitiveness growth.
paper deals with the role of the central bank in the national economy
development and analyzes the functions and problems of the central bank of
The present paper deals with the bank management system’s “environment” incorporating an aggregate of different factors (events, processes, parties, societies, priorities), upon which the state of bank management and the implementation of the set objectives is dependent. It is noted that in accordance with the principle of hierarchy, two spheres can be identified in the bank management “environment” - the internal (endogenic, intra-system) sphere that encompasses the credit system by levels, including bank supervision and regulation bodies, the consumer of bank products, and partially the stock market; and the external (exogenic, off-system) sphere, including state institutions: political and social organizations, the business environment, social environment, and partially the stock market.
The present paper deals with the question of stability of commercial banks, analyzes the necessary measures for the purpose of it strengthening. The authors note insurance of deposits as a basis providing for stability of commercial banks. The latter secures protection of depositors from the risk of losing the deposited funds and/or minimizes such a risk in case the bank goes bankrupt.
The paper states that the more objective
rating evaluation of commercial banks is possible by organizations exercising
bank supervision (central bank, ministry of finance, tax agencies, etc.). The
central bank of
Agricultural producers are guided by market demands through continuous survey of production marketing conditions, on which all their activities are based. The mechanism of pricing according to the existing market price levels is also of importance. One of the main elements for perfection of pricing is the compensatory relief. The proper pricing strategy and determination of the real price precondition the effective functioning of the agrarian sector, which will, in turn, ensure the improvement of producers’ socio-economic conditions.
The government regulation of prices is of great importance. It can be carried out by means of subsidies and/or compensation given to prime products, as well as through starting price, allowing farmers to have a guaranteed price on farm products. The government frequently resorts to subsidizing farmers for paying interest on loan taken for purchasing farm inputs. The government should regulate 20-40% of prices. This particularly concerns staple commodities: farm products, energy carriers, construction materials, metal, and transport tariffs. This will enable the State to control to a certain extent prices on other kinds of commodities. To control prices and pricing in the country, it is necessary that a special structural unit be set up at the Ministry of Finance to periodically control the existing market prices. In addition, its main function will be the drafting of price regulation recommendations and normative acts.
article identifies the following root causes of the world financial
crisis: (i) monetary policy; (ii) rise
in real estate prices; (iii) rise in raw material prices; (iv) real
estate/housing bubble; (v) financial bubble; (vi) toxic assets; (vii)
derivates. Trying to cope with the world economic problems, the leading
countries of the world started to carry out soft monetary policy to stimulate
activity in economy. For example, they reduced the bank interest to record
level (2003 - 1%), causing thus the converse effect and deepening of the
crisis. The real estate/housing bubble was caused by an increase in demand for
real estate and its prices. The subsequent decrease in real estate prices led
to reduced payback of credits on mortgages. The rise in raw material prices was
caused by devaluation of money. As a consequence, the price of crude oil
totaled in the 2008 summer $150 a barrel. A slump of raw material prices
affected many oil exporting countries, including
6.A3.16. Synthesized economic parameters of justified risk and aspect ratios. /O. Keshelashvili, M. Mechurchlishvili, E. Dzagania, N. Damenia, N. Keshelashvili/. Agrarian-economic Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #4. - pp. 6-19. – geo.; res.: eng.
Based on an analysis
of the conducted survey it has been found that the lower the risk justification
economic limit and higher the level of return, the more justified will be the
risk run taking into account different factor positions. Also determined has
been the proportional dependence between the economic limits of risk expediency
and synthesized indicators of risk return level that has revealed regularity of
the dependence and a tendency of interrelation of these two indicators. In
general, the study has made it possible to establish for the first time under
of the official statistics of the NBG clearly shows how negatively is affected
the banking sector by instability. To better show the attitude of the Georgians
toward banking institutions, 200 respondents from various districts of
Already before the known 2008 August events the Georgian bank system had been faced with essential problems. True, it managed somehow to resist the processes developed during the combat actions, but they above events have further complicated the existing problems. The August events have had a great impact on the bank system in general and the economy in particular. In August-September, the bank system assets decreased by GEL 1,026 million (13%). The conflict has actually revealed all intraeconomic, as well as bank contradictions and disproportions that existed earlier. And in September-November, the ongoing world economic crisis further deepened these disproportions that have greatly affected the medium-term development of the bank sector.
Analysis of the reasons of global changes in the bank sector is given. The raising speeds of information transfer have greatly influenced the functionality of global and local financial markets and effectiveness of bank financial operations. The application of information technologies in financial organizations and industry is a good opportunity to overcome time and space restrictions. The globalization process conditions, in turn, consolidation of banks. Under conditions of competition and expansion of markets will be absorbed in the process of bank consolidation and globalization and replaced by universal banks and narrow sectoral financial institutions that will best satisfy individual requirements of the clientele.
Post-communist capitalism and the modern world of dead economy. /V.
Papava/. Bulletin of the
the collapse of the Communist regimes and their command economies, the
countries of the former
The paper touches upon theoretical issues of co-evolution of national innovation systems and the state institutions. The central problem of the discussion is the state’s role in ensuring basic preconditions and the functioning of the innovation complex. Besides, major aspects of the state contribution to the innovation cooperation advancement are analyzed.
After the five-day Russian-Georgian war in August 2008, and in
consideration of the global financial crisis,
The banking system of
The article describes two different approaches to analyzing individual preferences: the traditional neoclassical economic theory and the heterodox economics. Coming from small amount of basic assumptions, such as selfish, self-interest, rationality, utility maximization, etc. and being aware of the high level of conventions of own human behaviour model, the orthodox preference theory is based on the assumptions of transitivity of preference-indifference relations, strict convexity, completeness, reflexivity, non-satiation, continuity and criticizes all other methods of investigations as less scientific and strict..
This article describes trends prevailing in development of the Georgian banking sector. Specifically, dynamics in bank’s credit portfolio. Growth in risky loans effected loan quality adversely. This paper discusses trends in quality of loans and changes in the structure of credit portfolios. The analysis showed that these changes increased significantly riskiness of bank’s credit portfolio. Also discussed are control issues of credit risk. Regarding this, described are the present rules of regulation and possible ways to improve them, which is based on Basel II concept and align risk-based capital with the economic risk. The issue is to find weights of loan’s risk for each type of loan. These weights are to be then used to establish minimal capital requirements.
The world experience shows that states that select the innovation model of economic development efficiently use the government innovation policy. This policy should be directed to: stirring up of innovation processes in all the spheres of economy; improvement of investment climate; creation of favourable conditions to efficiently use market mechanisms of stimulation of scientific–technical skills and innovative activity; development of an innovative infrastructure; study and efficient use of relevant skills of scientific–technical staff, etc. The government has to create a favourable environment for development of the innovation sphere: legislative, taxation, credit, patent, exchange, license, export, import, etc. It should pursue such a policy that would not only preserve the existing industrial–technical potential but ensure its maximum stirring up and transformation in accordance with the development conditions.
The existing undesirable feedback between the real and financial sectors of economy brings heavy losses for national economy of most of the countries. The financial crisis almost everywhere has dramatically reduced the value of assets, affected well-being of the population and the consumer demand. Against the background of growing uncertainty, experts believe that for the first time this year the volume of production in the countries of developed economy will be reduced by 2%. It is generally agreed that all main tendencies of the world economy are in any event connected with the agrarian sphere. Most experts believe agriculture to become in the foreseeable future the leading sector of economy and a generator that could cope with the global crisis.
The paper deals with the issues of use and management of human capital, how
In most countries, the post-communist transformation began with an economic
It is shown that to ensure increase of the rate of employment in
6.A3.31. Nobel Prize winner in economics Milton Friedmen and his views on the problem of unemployment and ways of its overcoming. /N. Davlasheridze/. Ekonomisti. - 2009. - #5 – pp. 39-41. - rus.;res.: eng.
The problem of unemployment is deemed to be one of the most urgent issues of the economic theory and the population employment and unemployment rates are used as key indicators of macroeconomics (used for assessing the efficiency and identifying main tendencies of functioning and development of market relations with regard for general situation of the national economy). This mentioned problem is the subject of many economists’ researches – beginning with Keynes and including modern scientists. According to this, the ideas of Melton Friedmåen’s (1976 Nobel Prize winner in Economics) on the unemployment problem and the ways of its overcoming are of a great interest.
Experiences of some developing and developed countries in the formation of a land market are considered together with the principles of government land regulation, regulation of farm and land plot size allocation in land-poor countries; land allocation governing laws, and opinions concerning the efficient agricultural land allocation in Georgia that are to facilitate implementation of successful experiences and improvement of government regulation of agricultural land in the country.
The article analyses the changes in the number and percentage of the middle class in total population and possibilities of its growth especially in connection with small business development. Difficulties connected with determination of the middle number because of law reliability of official statistics and lack of precise criteria is considered. The role of the middle class in the formation of conditions for sustainable economic development in Georgia and the necessity of its further strengthening are emphasized; mistakes made in the process of transition from the command to a market economy, connected with the division go population into sections, bringing to the forefront of the formation of the rich section of population, privatization shortcomings, large-scale migration of population, wrong distribution of funds.
The article analyzes the possibilities of rapid growth and development of national economy with the help of local and foreign investments. In this regard, the role of investments under globalization directed at revival of the national economy is considered; reasons which stipulated the necessity of attraction of investments for the country under transition, such as Georgia, are emphasized; also, the investment climate and its role on macro and micro levels is characterized.
The formation of a budget needs that a balance between tax and non-tax proceeds be maintained. It is ideal for a society when budget is mainly formed from non-tax proceeds which are an indicator of high purchasing capacity of population. Improvement of the investment environment should be prioritized because this should promote the realization and expansion of local production and international investment interests and it is the very source of national income and wealth. The author’s views on the above issues are presented.
computerized production that developed in the 20s in the
Stock exchange occupies the main place among market economic
infrastructures. It is one of the main guarantor of a stable market in a
country and existence of stable economy. Unfortunately, the Georgian stock
exchange is in initial stage of its development for a number of reasons. The
article investigates the world experience and the problems of formation of a
stock exchange in
correlation of processes of globalization and regionalization in the
An impact of the global financial crisis of 2008-2009 on the
publication covers some basic aspects of the harmful impact of the world
financial crisis of 2007-2008 on the development of the
From the second half of the 20th century the issues of gender statistics have become more and more significant in the system of sustainable development conception. The article deals with quantitative and qualitative aspects of gender equality, characterizes socio-psychological differences in gender aspect, the influence of social and biological factors on the formation of gender psychology, and also exposed is their influence on the employment balance. On the basis of formal statistical data a done gender analysis of employment is carried out.
The article deals with various aspects of management art and practice, such as how select personnel, how to motivate workers to improve their skills and to earn more and get pleasure from work. The role of a skillful manager in achieving the above goals is emphasized.
present, audit in
article deals with general sociological aspects of socio-economic formations,
historical peculiarities of their origin and development, the necessity of
modernizing old “law and order” to form a national state. The author justifies
the necessity of formation of a Georgian model of market relations and
considers that the existence of approved forms of economy in
6.A3.44. Legal ways and mechanisms of handling problems of a socially oriented market economy under conditions of a pluralistic society. /A. Kuratashvili/. Ekonomisti. - 2010. - #1 – pp. 59-62. - rus.;res.: eng.
A special attention in the work is given to the necessity of using the legal ways and mechanisms proposed by the author that are aimed at promoting effective functioning of a socially oriented market economy.
6.A3.45. The socio-economic policy of the state and its significance under conditions of formation of civilized market relations. /N. Kuratashvili/. Ekonomisti. - 2010. - #1 – pp. 63-66. - geo.;res.: eng.
According to the author, the socio-economic policy of the state in a truly human society represents a complex social and economic approach. As an aggregate considered are: social – as the purpose, and economic – as a means to implement the social purpose.
In business, as well as in other spheres of economy, no correct managerial decisions can be made without reliable information. When developing businessmen behavior tactics and strategy, attention should be given not only to personal intuition but also to available quantitative methods, meaning, in itself, the application of such methods as: influence diagrams, decision alternatives, statistical data and probable calculations, discounts, etc. All the above are applicable under availability of the correct and reliable information for businessmen and managers. The information reliability analysis and improvement of its quality are directly related to the effectiveness of managerial decisions to be made.
For the successful solution of an inter-subject relation between mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and other disciplines, a considerable increase in the scientific level of the instruction of mathematics at schools is the prerequisite. When students at the lesson of mathematics become acquainted with the arithmetic mean, geometric mean and median, also with the average speed during the linear uniform motion, they may be offered to solve such a physical problem, where the said mathematical concepts should be applied. The article offers several versions of the specific problem solution for calculation of the average speed, by standard physical formulas and their specific mathematical interpretation.
The article gives a number of concrete examples of applications being examined in the course of mathematics. It is shown that in the course professionalism attention is to be given to applications that are professionally directed. The formulation of each application must be brief with the use of mathematical conclusions and based on the concepts known to students. It is indicated that the number of applications on each topic has to be strictly regulated so that the course would not become a collection of applied problems. Te course of mathematics for engineering students is noted to have a distinct professional directivity that gives a visual idea about the role of mathematical methods in their engineering training. The professional directivity of teaching is shown to be the most important mean of an increase in the interest of students in the study of mathematics and as a means of an improvement in their mathematical preparation.
This article is concerned with the concept of teaching contemporary mathematics and demonstrates the necessity of inclusion into the teaching process with a higher dose and intensity of the material from set theory, mathematical logic and discrete mathematics. It establishes basic principles and approaches, the implementation of which will contribute to both better mastering of the teaching material and effective use of the received knowledge by students. The article considers some typical examples illustrating significance of the aforementioned principles and approaches for the mathematics study process.
The exercises solution methods under the theme “Linear Differential Equations with Constant Rates” are described. Based on the proved rules, it is shown that the problem of partial differentiation is reduced to the finding of a fundamental system. In case the degree of equations is low and the type of a partial solution is comparatively simple, the undetermined coefficient method with direct embedding into initial equation is used. If the partial solution is complicated and the degree of equations is high, the method of reducing to a simplified equation is used. It is mentioned that the method of variation of any constants will make it possible to easily find a partial solution of an undetermined equation, although it is not always reasonable. True, in all the cases when it is possible to easily find a partial solution of undetermined equation, the general solution of the undetermined equation can be easily obtained. For this purpose, the cases when the practical finding of a partial solution of undetermined equation is possible have been studied. The given method of the lecture and practical training course makes it possible to restore the polynomial root order properties as well as complex number operations when considering properties of the polynomial and its derivations.
The concept of electronic learning (e-learning) was created in the 90s of the 20th century, together with the development of information and communications technologies. It was a great demand for remote learning that conditioned the intensive development of electronic learning. The first stage of electronic learning was identified with technically “improved” form of remote learning, and electronic learning was considered as a technological support to remote learning (multimedia learning). The next stage of electronic learning was conditioned by an increased demand for corporate learning that was connected with great financial expenses, for it implied the on-spot training of the staff of companies and corporations. At that stage, not only numerous learning materials and electronic educational courses but also various electronic learning management models were developed. The third stage of electronic learning is connected with the elaboration of software systems and complex solution of electronic learning problems. These systems include: teaching and methodological materials management systems, testing systems, learning management systems, etc.
A new method for cryptographic systems design has been elaborated. The nonlinear element being used therein is almost devoid of any linearity sign. In applying the system, its linearity degree reduces down to 0, 0003%, which is absolutely neglected within further rounds of processing. This, in turn, highly increases the system’s stability against all known cryptographic attacks. The system has adopted all major advantages of the American standards DES and RIJNDAEL. The system’s ciphering and deciphering process is identical and includes no symmetry to additions, which significantly reduces the work spent on deciphering.
Representation of orthogonal functions as uninterrupted signals. /T.
Giorkhelidze/. Transactions of
Issues of generation of the orthogonal functions (polynomial functions) in the form of uninterrupted signals are often raised when solving various scientific research tasks, particularly those of mathematical physics. Orthogonal polynomial functions are topical and widely applied in the case of approximation of signals represented in various analogous and discrete forms. Laguerre, Legendre, Hermite, Chebyshev and other orthogonal polynomials are widely applied in practice. Our objective is to elaborate simple and relatively precise methods of simultaneous generation of orthogonal polynomials as uninterrupted signals. This is discussed in detail on the example of the Hermite polynomials. The obtained result allows constructing a simpler and more precise scheme on integrating operational amplifier, different from the existing ones. This scheme requires application of only a single operational amplifier to generate the next orthogonal polynomial.
The realization of contemporary democratic transit depends on the transformation of political culture. The elements of political culture are formed over a long historical period. They represent a traditionally formed way of life and include stereotypes. Their changing requires certain time. The cultural-value transit is a change of epochal importance, which implies substantial changes in mentality, thinking and behavior. The goal of the cultural-political transformation is to realize political changes, the task of which consists in the strengthening of the democratic political culture.
The purpose of this article is to define the role and function of a language in intercultural communication, where the interaction of language and culture is clearly outlined. As already known, common cultural values facilitate communication, while the uncommon ones complicate it. This is especially evident during communication between people of different cultural background, being known as intercultural communication. The role of language in intercultural communication is understood as a tool realizing forms of lingual activity through which information is being communicated to the native or foreign language. Recent researches tend to frequently use the notion of ‘mentality’ instead that of ‘national character’, which definition in the German language differs from the Georgian equivalent. Thought, sensation and wish are the tree components that define the meaning of this word. The present article briefly describes such terms as ‘lacuna’, ‘egsotism’, ‘ethnographism’, which symbolize a foreign culture, whereas the ‘lexical background’ is treated as a peculiar ambit between language and culture.
6.B1.1. On one algorithm of transformation of qualitative parameter values into quantitative values in the pattern recognition problems. /N. Tkemaladze, G. Mamulashvili/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.4-7. – geo., res.: eng., rus.
The algorithm of transformation of qualitative parameter values into quantitative values is proposed. Four characteristics of qualitative parameter (feature) values are determined. The measures of self-descriptiveness of these features and consequently parameter quantitative values are determined on the basis of these characteristics. Importance of this transformation in the pattern recognition problems is indicated.
6.B1.2. Study of natural phenomenon of Zurab Bedia as a basis of study of future high technologies. /T. Tsivtsivadze, V. Chavchanidze, N. Chigogidze, R. Kldiashvili, R. Skhiladze, G. Sulakvelidze, L. Kadagishvili/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.8-12. – geo., res.: eng., rus.
The article is dedicated to the theoretical and applied aspects of research of the natural phenomenon of people like Zurab Bedia. Earlier attempts to study bioelectrical fields of live systems are considered. Studied are the mechanisms of generation of these fields and their characteristics and parameters that are of great scientific and practical importance. The obtained results can be used to design a portable device - the analyzer of external fields of live organisms, so-called biometer. The making of such a device will be of invaluable assistance in medical forecasting of pathologies of a particular organism.
Study of distribution of an electric field in a rotary ionizer. /G.
Tskhomelidze/. Transactions of
The distribution of an electric field of high intensity in a rotary ionizer is considered. The effect of the applied voltage values and of polarity on the critical electric field voltage is studied. It is shown that distribution of a field in the given ionizer is distinctly not uniform and required further research, the expediency of which is outlined and corroborated in the articles.
of the maximum hook speed of hoisting gear. /M. Tsereteli,
The work deals with the determination of the maximum hook speed of hoisting gear. Based on technological processes, a method enabling to determine the length of hoisting cycle, the most suitable weight of the cargo to be hoisted, the speed multiplier value and the optimal maximum speed of the cargo movement has been given according to the preliminary known yearly performance and the hoisting height.
Based on fundamental formulas of classical physics, proposed is the solution of the well-known formula of relativistic mass – mass of a moving body, as a function of velocity, earlier introduced into the theory of relativity by theoretical reasons. It is shown that any mass, independently of its origin, should change according to this formula. This formula has been found to become the basis of the theory, according to which the mass of a body depends on its velocity. In contrast to Faynman formula, the authors’ derivation of the formula is based on deep physical content.
Methods of calculation of axisymmetric vibrations of plates. /Z.
Bichiashvili, J. Bichiashvili, G. Sichinava/. Transactions of
This work is dedicated to the development of methods of calculation of round and circular plates for axisymmetric vibrations. Discussed is the problem of calculation of own axisymmetric harmonious vibrations of plates located on both free and Winkler elastic bases, taking into account the movement along the symmetry axis of a plate, gyrating mass inertia, tensile, (compressive deformation), shear and bend strains, also the longitudinal strain effect. The methods are based on the Kirchhoff's hypothesis with the difference that the straight-line elements of a plate may, after the plate’s deformation, no longer be normally deformed in respect of the intermediate surface. The plate’s material is elastic and obeys the Hooke’s law. The plate deformation being insignificant, the approximate expressions for the curvature can be used. The methods are designated for computer-aided application.
6.B1.7. The conflict of basic laws of thermodynamics in isolated systems and kinetic energy of relative motion. /A. Aptsiauri/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #3. – pp. 7-13. - rus.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.
By an analysis of processes taking place in isolated systems with real physical properties it is shown that the known principle of steady growth of entropy and disorder owing to internal dissipation processes leads infringement of the law of energy conservation and, conversely, the meeting of the requirements of the First Law runs contrary to the Second Law that reveals itself in a reduction of entropy in certain processes. It is shown that explanation of such strange phenomena requires that the kinetic energy of relative motion, which plays the role of energy accumulator, be taken into account in the first and second laws.
Based on an analysis of direct and reversible cycles of thermal installations, it is shown that if the body cooling process in a thermal pump cycle is associated with temperature and the taken off heat accumulates in the intermediate body at a temperature exceeding the average temperature according to gas entropy in the course of cooling, then, together with the thermal engine cycle, the possibility of taking of thermal or mechanical energy from the environment is created. Practical implementation of the said processes in accordance with the given man-made assumption requires that the thermal and mechanical resistance of physical bodies be overcome, which is quite realizable.
The work discusses photometric results of the ionosphere glow at a line λ=5577 Å occurred at the moment of the electron beam injection from the rocket into the earth ionosphere. The gradual increase of the glow intensity during impulses was conditioned due to accumulation of the energy of excited states of N2(A3Σ+u), O2(C'Σ−u) and O('S) during their lifetime. The large disturbed zone in the near-rocket environment (size≥500m) is connected via the interaction of ions accelerated in the rocket potential field with ionospheric components. The glow intensity modulation is observed at a height of ~ 98,9km during the beam-plasma discharge (BPD). The height profile of the glow intensity revealed two maxima of heights of ~103 km and ~115 km.
6.B1.10. Calibration of building materials’ humidity and density meter and two-frequency method error estimation. /A. Khurtsilava, K. Tukhareli, M. Maisashvili/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #1. – pp. 33-37. - rus.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.
The work deals with an experimental design method for calibrating a humidity and density meter and the attempt of error estimation of two-frequency method while determining humidity and density of building materials. The method is shown to provide for reducing the calibration labor-intensiveness and obtaining a generalized dependence for a specific material, independently from the humidity meter and its transducer. It is established that in order to increase accuracy, measurement is to be limited to two channels with frequency division of the channels into optimum frequencies and compensation for the material’s through conductivity.
Questions related to problems of physical simulation of high-frequency power transmission lines are discussed. A circle of tasks, the solution of which is possible on such class models, is considered. An equivalent circuit of the model, in which by certain parameter (GRC – radiation conductivity) the radiating ability of the model provided for and the circuit is considered fit for calculating the processes taking place in the model, has been developed. The radiation conductivity expressions are deduced for the most complex (difficult) in terms of radiation idle mode. To obtain analogous parameters under load conditions, it is necessary that the expressions of radiant power for load conditions rather than those of the idle mode be taken into consideration. The proposed equivalent circuit s universal and allows calculating steady-state conditions of high-frequency lines adjusted for radiation
The article deals with the basic works in which authors try to prove groundlessness of Maxwell’s well- known idea on sorting fast and slow molecules of gas without physical energy consumption and about the possible thermodynamic imbalance in of violation the Second Law of Thermodynamics. It is shown that the opposing views of the above are incorrect. Moreover, the elementary model of a thermal heat converter is referred to as an example that contradicts the Second Law in support of Maxwell’s Demon.
6.B1.13. On dynamic solutions of boundary-value problems of the generalized theory of couple-stress thermodiffusion solved in quadratures. /M. Chumburidze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #2. – pp. 46-49. - eng.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.
The work considers the basic dynamic homogeneous system of partial differential equations of generalized Green-Lindsay couple-stress thermo-diffusion on the plane for homogeneous, isotropic elastic media with the centre of symmetry. Effective solutions of boundary problems for a half plane when on border are given: the component of normal displacement vector, the touching component of vector of tension, rotations, flow of heat and flow of diffusion
6.B1.14. Boundedness criterion
for the Cauchy singular integral operator and maximal functions in weighted
grand Lebesgue spaces. /V. Kokilashvili/.
The necessary and sufficient condition for the Cauchy singular integral and Hardy-Littlewood maximal function defined on the Carleson curves to be bounded in weighted Grand Lebesgue Spaces are presented.
The solution of the general version of Lewis Carroll’s probability problem No. 72 for any number of black or white counters initially in the bag, and any number of non-random black or white counters that could be put into the bag in addition are given. The result for the general version is given as formula (4).
6.B1.16. On the almost
everywhere convergence and partial sum’s majorant of series with respect to
block-orthonormal systems. /G. Nadibaidze/.
In the present paper the behaviour of partial sum’s majorant of series with respect to blockorthonormal systems is considered and the estimates for partial sum’s majorant are established.
By means of a sequence φ⋅=(φn )nªN of square-integrable functions, not necessarily orthonormal, on a positive measure space (Ω ,v ) a notion of a φ⋅ -summing operator can be defined. We show that the class Πφ. ( X, Y) of all φ⋅ -summing operators acting between Banach spaces X, Y is non-trivial iff φ⋅ is a 2- dominated sequence. It is shown also that if φ⋅ is a 2-dominated sequence, then every 2-summing operator is φ. *-summing.
6.B1.18. On the investigation
of one-dimensional models for thermoelastic beams. /G. Avalishvili, M. Avalishvili/.
In the present paper an initial-boundary value problem for thermoelastic beam is considered. Three-dimensional dynamical problem for beam with clamped upper butt end and surface forces given along the remaining part of the boundary is reduced to a hierarchy of one-dimensional problems. The obtained problems are investigated in suitable function spaces, the convergence of the sequence of vector-functions of three space variables, restored from the solutions of one-dimensional problems, to the solution of the original three-dimensional problem is proved and the rate of approximation is estimated.
6.B1.19. On one mathematical
model of the linear oscillator. /G.
Gabrichidze, D. Giorgadze, G. Kapanadze/.
One mathematical model of the oscillator analysis is given in the paper, which is based on the assumption that under the pulse force (impulse) action on the oscillator, excitation of the reaction force in the spring (linkage) occurs with an insignificant delay in time. The oscillator motion is represented by differential equations with delayed argument. It is established that the oscillator motion is complex mechanical vibration with damping feature.
The theoretically predicted and experimentally determined regularity of change of the equivalent rigidity of nonlinear elements, when connected in series in static and dynamic systems is studied.
6.B1.21. Magnetic field
dependence of A → B phase transition
temperature in superfluid 3He. /G. Baramidze, G. Kharadze/.
The magnetic field dependence of the A→B transition temperature TAB in superfluid 3He is considered in order to take into account the linear-in-field contribution. In the high field region, where the quadratic-in-field contribution prevails, the well-known answer is restored. On the other hand, it is pointed out that the Fermi liquid effects shift the observability of the linear-in-field region to rather low magnetic fields.
6.B1.22. Determination of the
laws and mechanisms of degradation of thermoelectric properties of
silicon-germanium alloys during irradiation in reactor. /G. Bokuchava, A. Guldamashvili, V. Gverdtsiteli, G. Darsavelidze, T.
Nebieridze, A. Sichinava/.
Experimental results of relative growth of specific electric resistance and of thermo-emf coefficient in highly phosphorus- and boron-doped silicon-germanium alloys during their irradiation in a reactor were analyzed and generalized. The mechanism and generalized description of the laws of thermoelectric parameters degradation in reactor-irradiated n- and p-Si0.7Ge0.3 alloys are offered. The study is conducted within the bounds of the model of various damaging irradiation doses and changes in the target composition, and thus within the framework of various damage abilities and degradation of the alloy parameters.
dependence of hydrogen mobility in ordering rare-earth dihydrides. /I. Ratishvilii,
The rare-earth ordering dihydrides are considered. The influence of ordering processes on the mobility of interstitial H-atoms is investigated. It is shown that those H-H interactions which induce formation of ordered superstructures in the hydrogen sublattice, provide as well the increment of the dwell time of the moving particles. The latter effect can be interpreted as a “weighting” of mobile H-atoms. The influence of the “particle-weighting effect” on the temperature dependence of the dipole-dipole interaction induced nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time is examined. It is shown that although the corresponding changes in the T1d(T) curve are remarkable, their influence on the total T1(T) dependence, determined as well by interactions of nuclear spins with conduction electrons, is negligibly small.
A physico-mathematical model of the process of evacuation by means of a cryosorption pump CSP-0.25D is developed. It includes modelling of exchange processes in heat removing elements and adsorption space, mass-exchange processes in the grains of the adsorbent and molecular flows in the canals of the pump.
We present several observations about the critical points of the signed area function on configuration spaces (module spaces) of planar quadrilateral linkages. An effective method of counting critical points in question is described which yields comprehensive results for generic quadrilaterals and reveals a number of curious phenomena. In particular, it turns out that critical points of area are typically provided by the so-called circular (cyclic) configurations of quadrilaterals. Our approach permits to effectively calculate the number of circular configurations of a given quadrilateral linkage as well.
6.B1.26. Nonequlibrium treatment of ZnO layers implanted by N. /T. Butkhuzi, M. Sharvashidze, T. Khulordava, E. Kekelidze, N. Gapishvili, L. Aptsiauri, N. Bukhsianidze, L. Trapaidze, R. Melkadze, Sh. Mirianashvili, T. Qamishadze, L. Gapishvili, M. Tigishvili/. Nano Studies. – 2010. - #1. – pp.5‑9. – eng., abs. eng.
In order to obtain the p‑type impurity conduction, ZnO layers were implanted by N+ ions with concentration 1019 cm−3 at energy 110 keV, implantation dose 1015 cm−2, and current density 15 mA / cm2. Healing of the radiation defects created in implanted ZnO crystals was carried out by radical beam quasi-epitaxy (RBQE) in the atmosphere of active oxygen radicals (oC, h, cm−3). As a result we obtained ZnO:N epitaxial layers. According to the measurements with van der Pauw method the holes mobility, their concentration, and layers’ resistivity were found as 23 cm2 / V × s, 5 × 1016 cm−3 and 5.4 W × cm, respectively. In photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnO:N, the maxima were observed at 371.5, 381.2, and 387.4 nm. Analysis shows that 371.5 nm links to acceptor-bound exciton (AoX) related to the nitrogen acceptor, 381.2 and 387.4 nm link to NO and donor–acceptor pear (DAP) emissions, respectively.
6.B1.27. Regulation of defect creation in ZnO p‑type films by RBQE method. /T. Butkhuzi, M. Sharvashidze, T. Khulordava, E. Kekelidze, N. Gapishvili, L. Aptsiauri, N. Bukhsianidze, L. Trapaidze, R. Melkadze, L. Gapishvili, M. Tigishvili, Sh. Mirianashvili, T. Qamushadze/. Nano Studies. – 2010. - #1. – pp.11-18. – eng., abs. eng.
We have investigated ZnO layers obtained by the radical beam quasi-epitaxy (RBQE) method. By the RBQE technological method p‑type ZnO epitaxial layers were obtained at ºC. Hall measurements performed at T=77 and 300 K. Resistivity was measured as 5 × 10−2 and 3.1 × 10−3 Ω × cm at 77 and 300 K, respectively. At 77 K, the holes concentration and mobility was 5 × 1018 cm−3 and 22 cm2 / V × s becoming 8 × 1018 cm−3 and 250 cm2 / V × s at 300 K. In the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of p‑type ZnO layers at λ=369.1, 374.5, 383.5, 392.5 and 401 nm, bands are observed and identified (at 70 K). Here we show that the RBQE technology gives to control electrical and optical properties of ZnO samples.
6.B1.28. Originality of technological processes of RBQE method. /T. Butkhuzi, T. Khulordava, M. Sharvashidze, E. Kekelidze, N. Gapishvili, L. Trapaidze, L. Aptsiauri/. Nano Studies. – 2010. - #1. – pp.19-25. – eng., abs. eng.
Original method, which enable us to create new quasiepitaxial layers on the surface of binary compound like that on the basic crystal have been elaborated. This method was called radical beam quasi-epitaxy (RBQE). In our case RBQE method enables us to obtain single crystalline layers of ZnO on the basic crystal of ZnSe. But generally it might be use for other binary compounds. For the confirmation of mechanism of defects creation under RBQE we carried out following experiment. We have obtained new layers of ZnO on the ZnSe basic crystal preliminary implanted by oxygen under RBQE (300-800oC). Then, we studied electrical and optical properties of new quasiepitaxial ZnO layers and of ZnSe basic crystals. New quasiepitaxial layers of ZnO are characterized by n‑type, stoichiometric, or p‑type conductivity, which depends on the treatment’s temperature. According to thermo-EMF measurements of ZnSe basic crystal, pre-surface layers always have p-type conductivity after RBQE treatment. In the PL spectra of implanted and nonimplanted ZnSe basic crystals it was observed identical bands, with one difference: in the PL spectrum of implanted ZnSe additionally λ=580 nm bands were observed, which must be connected to the existence of oxygen in the ZnSe.
6.B1.29. Characters of native defects in p‑type ZnO. /T. Butkhuzi, M. Sharvashidze, T. Khulordava, N. Gapishvili, E. Kekelidze, Kh. Gelovani, L. Aptsiauri, N. Bukhsianidze, Sh. Mirianashvili, T. Qamushadze L. Trapaidze, R. Melkadze, L. Gapishvili, M. Tigishvili/. Nano Studies. – 2010. - #1. – pp.27-33. – eng., abs. eng.
This paper reports on a new original method of radical beam quasi-epitaxy (RBQE), which enables us to obtain purest monocrystalline ZnO with p‑type conductivity. We investigated electrical and optical properties of the p‑type ZnO crystals obtained with the RBQE method. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of p‑type basic sample of ZnO contains exciton area (367 – A‑exciton, 369 – bound exciton, 374 nm – phonon replicas of A‑exciton); 385 and 395 nm lines; and a non-structural line with maximum on 510 nm. In the PL spectra of new grown layers of ZnO was observed the peaks at 395 and 460 nm, while intensity of 510 nm lines was significantly reduced. Van der Pauw method was used for investigation of electrical properties of p‑type ZnO layers. The basic p‑type ZnO had holes concentration of 1012 cm−3, mobility 3.4 cm2 / V × s and resistivity 1.8 × 106 W × cm. The new p‑type ZnO layers had parameters 1015 cm−3, 14 cm2 / V × s and 4.5 × 102 W × cm, respectively.
6.B1.30. Investigation of ZnS and ZnO compounds implanted by S ions. /T. Butkhuzi, M. Sharvashidze, T. Khulordava, N. Gapishvili, E. Kekelidze, Kh. Gelovani, L. Aptsiauri, N. Bukhsianidze, Sh. Mirianashvili, T. Qamushadze, L. Trapaidze, R. Melkadze, L. Gapishvili, M. Tigishvili/. Nano Studies. – 2010. - #1. – pp.35-41. – eng., abs. eng.
The obtaining of p‑type conductivity in ZnS and ZnO semiconductors depends on the critical temperature Tct. By treatment above this temperature it is impossible to obtain p‑type conductivity. The doping of ZnS and ZnO samples was carried out with S+ ions. Unfortunately, the temperature of annealing the radiation defects exceeds Tct, due to which the effect can not be obtained (in ZnO). In our experiment we took into account factor of Tct. Both Ar+ inert gas and S+ ions were implanted in ZnS and ZnO n‑type samples (ρ=102-103 W × cm) at energy 150 keV and dose of implantation from 1014 to 1016 cm−2. The range of current density was from 0.3 to 5 mA / cm2. The subsequent heat treatment of doped samples was carried out over the temperature range from 300 to 500 ºC in vacuum and saturated S2 vapor. The p‑type ZnS samples were obtained by implantation of Ar+ and S+ ions (current density (0.3 − 5) mA / cm2) under subsequent heat treatment at (420 − 460) °C in S2 saturated vapor. When ZnO was implanted with Ar+ and S+ ions (with heat treatment in O2 atmosphere at temperature from 300 to 350 °C) n‑type samples were obtained with resistivity (109 − 1010) and (1010 − 1011) W × cm, respectively.
The technology for preparation of Ho5Sb3 thin films was developed. The samples were prepared by vacuum thermal evaporation from two independent sources of Ho and Sb. Films had a hexagonal lattice with parameters a=8.85 and 6.24 Å. Temperature dependence of the specific resistivity, Hall constant and thermo-EMF coefficient of these samples were measured in the temperature interval from 100 to 700 K. Based on these measurements the basic electro-physical parameters carriers mobility and concentration were determined in the one-band approximation. Obtained results reveal that Nd5Sb3 is a semi-metallic compound.
Here we suggest novel conceptions argued both theoretically and experimentally those are possible to give us an explanation of any experimental fact obtained in solids. In present work based on above mentioned conceptions there are explained mechanism of changes in size-dependent lattice constant, Debye and melting temperatures, mechanical properties, diffusion coefficient, heat capacity and heat conductivity of nano-particles.
The aim of this study was to gain insight into the effect of irradiation with 25 MeV protons on the Hall mobility of electrons in n‑Si crystals. Irradiated crystals with an initial electron concentration 6 × 1013 cm−3 were studied using the Hall method in the range of temperatures (77 − 300) K. The studies showed that, in crystals irradiated with the proton dose Φ=8.1·1012 cm−2, the effective mobility of conduction electrons μeff increases drastically. This effect is direct evidence that nanoscale inclusions with relatively high conductivity and with nonrectifying junction at interfaces with semiconductor matrix are predominantly formed in n‑Si crystals under these conditions. Agglomerations of interstitial atoms or their associations can represent such nanoscale inclusions.
6.B1.34. Atoms constituting nanosystems: Quasi-classical parameterization for binding energy and electronic structure calculations. /L. Chkhartishvili, T. Berberashvili/. Nano Studies. – 2010. - #1. – pp.103-144. – eng., abs. eng.
Within the semiclassical approach, intra-atomic electric-charge-densities and electric-field-potentials are parameterized and tabulated in form of radial step-like functions. In binding energy and electronic structure calculations performed for nanosystems, their superpositions serve as good initial approximations of the inner charge-density and potential distributions.
Recently, new quantum features have been observed and studied in the area of ridged quantum wells (RQWs). Periodic ridges on the surface of the quantum well layer impose additional boundary conditions on electron wave function and reduce the quantum state density. As a result, the chemical potential of RQW increases and becomes ridge height dependent. Here, we propose a system composed of RQW and an additional layer on the top of the ridges forming periodic series of p+−n+ junctions (or metal−n+ junctions). In such systems, charge depletion region develops inside the ridges and effective ridge height reduces, becoming a rather strong function of temperature T. Consequently, T‑dependence of chemical potential magnifies and Seebek coefficient S increases. We investigate S in the system of semiconductor RQW having abrupt p+−n+ junctions or metal−n+ junctions on the top of the ridges. Analysis made on the basis of Boltzmann transport equations shows dramatic increase in S for both the cases. At the same time, other transport coefficients remain unaffected by the junctions. Calculations show one order of magnitude increase in thermoelectric figure of merit ZT relative to the bulk material.
6.B1.36. Observation of new quantum interference effect in solids. /A. Tavkhelidze, A. Bibilashvili, L. Jangidze, A. Shimkunas, Ph. Mauger, G.F. Rempfer, L. Almaraz, T. Dixon, M.E. Kordesch, N. Katan, H. Walitzki/. Nano Studies. – 2010. - #1. – pp.155-160. – eng., abs. eng
In order to achieve
quantum interference of free electrons inside a solid, we have modified the
geometry of the solid so that de Broglie waves interfere destructively
inside the solid. Quantum interference of de Broglie waves leads to a
reduction in the density of possible quantum states of electrons inside the
solid and increases the Fermi energy level. This effect was studied
theoretically within the limit of the quantum theory of free electrons inside
the metal. It has been shown that if a metal surface is modified with patterned
indents, the Fermi energy level will increase and consequently the electron
work function will decrease. This effect was studied experimentally in both Au
and SiO2 thin films of special geometry and structure. Work function
This paper presents a theoretical model of low temperature melting of a crystal at pulse laser annealing as the electronic mechanism of attenuation and isotropization of chemical bonds between its atoms. The formula is derived for critical concentration of anti-bonding quasi-particles – electrons in the conduction band and holes in the valence band, under the increase of which a low temperature melting of the semiconductor on the electronic mechanism must be occurred.
In this paper the effect of ion implantation on the exciton absorption in n‑Ge thin layers was studied. It is shown that the observed decrease in the absorption coefficient, broadening of the exciton peak, and its shift toward higher energies are caused by the electric and compression fields generated by the radiation-induced defects.
6.B1.39. Analysis and synthesis of vibrational processes in machines with many degrees of freedom with allowance for nonlinearity of elastic properties of nonlinear friction links and forces. /R. Adamia, B. Bandzeladze, Z. Nadiradze/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 11-20. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.
Problems of analysis and optimization synthesis of vibration transients in twisters with many degrees of freedom with allowance for nonlinearity of elastic linkages of machines and nonlinear friction forces are given and handled. For analysis and solution of non-linear differential equations depicting the movement of mechanical systems, asymptotic methods of the theory of nonlinear vibrations are employed. As a result of the solution of the first approximation of systems of nonlinear differential equations, criteria determining stability regions of self-oscillating modes are obtained. The obtained results allow several stationary solutions: 1) a trivial solution when the vibrational amplitude is of minimum value and there are no self-excited oscillations; 2) one-frequency self-oscillating modes and conditions of their onset; 3) double-frequency oscillatory modes and expressions to determine their onset.
In the technological processes and generally in any scientific sphere there are known several types of field tests and besides some of them can be conducted under the artificial conditions wherein we can control the factors being investigated. There is presented in a given article on a concrete example the mathematical vision of testing conducted under the field conditions. In particular, the task has been set as follows: “it is necessary to determine the distribution of plants over the specific area in compliance with their heights”. The method of solution of indicated problem was developed analytically relying on concrete data. In particular, number of tested plants was classified in compliance with their heights, determines their medium height and number of them in each class, mean deviation and the method of solution of the problem indicated was developed analytically, relying on concrete given. In particular, a quantity of tested plants was distributed to the classes on their increase, was determined their medium height and quantity according to the class, standard and quadratic deviation. Using the well-known formulas we have performed mathematical data processing. Accordingly, there was determined the constant of variation V% and testing accuracy m%. By means of such calculations we have determined the optimum possibility of distributing the plants over the specific area and concluded that it can be carried to the area of any size.
On general solutions of first-order nonlinear matrix and scalar ordinary
differential equations. /G. Kharatishvili/. Bulletin of the
This article contains the formulae of general solutions for particular classes of first-order nonlinear matrix and scalar ordinary differential equations.
6.B1.42. On some goodness-of-fit tests based
on kernel type wolverton-wagner estimates. /E. Nadaraia, P.
Babilua, G. Sokhadze/. Bulletin of the
A goodness-of-fit test is constructed by using a Wolverton-Wagner distribution density estimate.
The question as to its consistency is studied. The power asymptotics of the constructed goodness-of-fit test is also studied for certain types of close alternatives.
6.B1.43. Cyclic configurations of spherical quadrilaterals. /G. Giorgadze, G. Khimshiashvili/.Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. – 2009. – vol.3. - # 2. – pp. 19-22. – eng.; res.: eng., geo.
We investigate cyclic configurations and moduli spaces of spherical quadrilaterals. For nondegenerate quadrilateral linkage, we establish that cyclic configurations are critical points of the signed area function on moduli space and their number is determined by the topology of moduli space. We also find the maximal value of the signed area on moduli space.
Constructive method for the recognition of patterns. /Z.
Kipshidze, A. Chaduneli, G. Ananiashvili, G. Ghlonti/. Bulletin of the
On the basis of Coding theory universal methods for recognition of patterns and clustering are elaborated, providing an adoption of realization of patterns to the set of target class, i.e. recognition of patterns and division of the set of realization into clusters.
Analysis of priority queuing system for replacements and renewals. /R.
Khurodze, R. Kakubava, D. Gulua/. Bulletin of the
The article considers a closed queuing system for service of replacement and renewal operations. Replacement has absolute priority regarding renewal. Replacement time and renewal time are exponential random variables. Graphic system is constructed for two-dimensional random processes, hence the linear system of algebraic equation expressing the final state of the system is written directly. With the help of the proposed graphic scheme the calculation formulas of final probabilities of system states are received in explicit form.
On one iteration algorithm of investigation of the nonlinear problem of
oscillation of a system of constrained particles under strong dynamic load. /G.
Gabrichidze/. Bulletin of the
The solution of the problem mentioned in the title demands that the formation of a defining system of algebraic equations and its solution be repeated at each discrete time interval. The paper proposes a special iteration algorithm by which the formulated equation can be solved by a simple operation of multiplication of matrices and vectors. The conditions for the iteration process convergence are formulated. The proposed iteration algorithm can be considered as the description of the process of motion of a system of particles in a medium in which the position and motion of particles obey non-stationary geometrical conditions, in particular with time delay.
new express monitoring method and diagnostic device for determining the
efficiency of an automotive brake system. /R. Chabukiani, T.
Dvalishvili/. Bulletin of the
The paper deals with a new express monitoring method and a respective diagnostic device
designed for efficient performance of an automotive brake system which ensures in a short period of time, 20-25 seconds, determination of the serviceability of the brake system. The method and the device make it possible to establish and exercise regular monitoring of the brake system and exclude the putting in operation of an automobile with a faulty brake.
Study of the absorption signal in the flame of the burner with ring-shaped slot
for atomic-absorption spectrometry. /A. Rcheulishvili, Z.
Rostomashvili, K. Tsakadze/. Bulletin of the
In this article, the original structure of a burner with ring-shaped slot for atomic-absorption spectrometer (AAS) is considered. This burner forms the lateral cylindrical flame with the length limited by the screen and the air stream. The beam from the light source to the monochromator passes through the ringshaped slot and coincides with the symmetry axis of the cylinder, formed by the flame. We offer the method of calculation of the absorption signal (the number of studied atoms in the absorption zone) at raying of the flame parallel to the velocity of air flame, when the process is stationary and the transverse shift of the absorbing atoms in the flame takes place only due to diffusion. The absorption signal dependence on such parameters as ring-shaped slot radius, flame length, the flame air velocity and the distance between the light beam and the center of the ring-shaped slot was studied. It is shown that absorption signal increases with increase of the flame length, decrease of the ring-shaped slot radius and the flame air velocity. From the obtained results, we may conclude that the design offered by us allows effective concentration of absorbing atoms in the absorption zone. The absorption signal (sensitivity) sharply increases compared with common slot burners in the same conditions. The device has reserves for further increase of the absorption signal. The burner also allows increase of the absorption signal, when it is used as a “pulsed vaporizer-flame” type atomizer. At this, it is possible to detect hardly atomized elements as there is no need of application of nickel or quartz tube, which is successfully replaced by cylindrical flame.
Electrical prospecting in Dmanisi settlement area of the oldest Eurasian
Chelidze, M. Jakhutashvili, G. Kutelia, G. Tabaghua/. Bulletin of the
purpose of the study was to establish the efficiency of electrical prospecting
methods on the
Mathematic models of appropriate linear and non-linear programming are applied in performing construction activity, repair work, production manufacturing, metallurgic and chemical industry, solving transport problems and in other cases, which may be performed graphically by using the derive of function and Lagrangian method of multipliers.
6.B2.1. Quantum-chemical research of electron structure,
complex-formation ability of paradimethylaminobenzaldehyde’s
paranitrobenzoylhydrazine. /M.Tsintsadze, M. Mamiseishvili,
D. Lochosvili, N. Gegeshidze,
By means of quantum-chemical semi-empirical method AM1 the bond lengths, valence angles, electron density of atomic orbitals of paradimethylaminobenzaldehyde’s paranitrobenzoylhydrazine and effective charges on the atoms of this molecule have been calculated. Potential donor atoms – oxygen atom O(14) of carboxylic group and nitrogen atom N(12) of hydrazide group are ascertained.
6.B2.2. S isonicotinoilhydrazones (painh) molecule study of propionicaldehyd electronic structure and ability of complex-formation by quantum-chemical semiempirical AM1 method. /M. Tsintsadze, D. Lochoshvili, N. Kilasonia, T. Tsintsadze, I. Sharia, M. Chanturia, G. Manvelidze, J. Kereselidze/. Georgia Chemical Journal. – 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 303-305 . – geo.;res.: geo.,eng.
Effect of study of propionicaldehyd's isonicotinoilhydrazones molecule electronic structure and ability of complex-formation is offered in the article. Valency angles, interatomic distances, setting of electrons and effective charges on the atomic orbital are rendered an account. Potential donor atoms (atoms of heterocycle and hydrazin nitrogen N(1) and N(9), and carbonyle group oxygen atom O(13)) have been revealed.
6.B2.3. Research of complex-formation of zirconium (IV) in mixed-ligand systems with the purpose of application in analytical chemistry. /G. Tsintsadze, R. Aliyeva, A. Abdallah, F. Chiraghov, M. Tsintsadze, T. Tusiashvili/. Georgia Chemical Journal. – 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 308-311. – geo.;res.: geo.,eng.
Complex-formation of zirconium (IV) with 2,2',3,4-tetrahydroxy-3'-sulpho-5'-nitroazobenzene in the presence of diantipyrilmethane (DAM) and its homologues has been investigated and the conditions of for-mation of mixed-ligand complexes are found. By the method of curves crossing stochiometry and constants of stability of mixed-ligand complexes have been determined. It is established, that in the presence of the DAM and its homologues molar factor of light-absorbance raises and the selectivity of reaction is considerably increased. Developed technique of photometric definition zirconium (IV) as mixed-ligand complex of zirconium (IV)-R-DAM is applied for its determination in alloys on a copper basis.
6.B2.4. Sinthesis of some derivatives of indolobenzo[b]tiofen and study
of their bioactivity. /M. Maisuradze,
The derivatives of indolobenzotiophen have been synthezed. Substitute position towards the sulphur atom, atomic composition and influence of disposition on products biological activity have been studied.
6.B2.5. Hydrosilylation N-allyllactams with methyldichlorsilane. /L. Janiashvili, G. Andronikashvili,
The α- and β-addition products of hydrosilylation of N-allyllactams with methyldichlorsilanes have been obtained. The hydrolytic condensation of -addition products has been carried out.a
It is shown that for the analysis of kinetic constants of classical Michaelis-Menten equation several methods can be used. In the paper, based on two graphic methods Lineweaver-Burk and Eadie-Hofstee and statistically independent method it possible to identife important kinetic terms of enzymatic reactions. These KM and Vmax constants received upon three ways match good.
6.B2.7. Calculation of standard molar enthalpies of olivine group minerals formation. /E. Matsaberidze, A. Sarukhanishvili, M. Mshvildadze, M. Kapanadze/. Georgia Chemical Journal. – 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 324-328. – geo.;res.: geo.,eng.
In the article there is offered the method for calculation method of standard molar enthalpies of olivine crystallo-chemical group minerals by means of application of only their thermodynamical data and taking into account the structural properties of island silicates. The deviation of calculation results in comparison with known values does not exceed 1%.
In the article scientific works of Professor I.N.Tavartkiladze, devoted to mathematical modeling and identification of chain reactions and phase transition processes kinetics are considered. Professor Tavartkiladze on the basis of the physical and mathematical analysis chemical reaction and processes of phase transformations deduced the fundamental kinetics equation for evolutionary development (FKE ED) of structure which differs from the physical kinetics of the basic equation. On the basis of analytical solutions of FKE ED in essence new methods of mathematical modeling, identification and the analysis of chemical reactions and processes of phase transitions kinetics and dynamics are offered. These elaborated methods can be considered as a new direction in development of theoretical basic analysis of chemical reactions and the processes of phase transitions.
The main correlation equations (Brönsted’s, Hammet’s, Tapt’s, etc.) and the areas of their application are considered.
6.B2.10. Hammet’s correlation equation and pseudo-ANB-matrices method. /M. Gverdstiteli, M. Êarchkhadze,
Within the scope of pseudo-ANB-matrices method the parameter of Hammet’s correlation equation (the relative velocity constant of hydrogen chloride elimination reaction) has been calculated.
6.B2.11. Examining of dry volcano muds from the viewpoint of applicability in medical-prophylactic purposes. /N. Bokuchava, L. Ebanoidze, D. Jincharadze/. Georgia Chemical Journal. – 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 336-338. – geo.;res.: geo.,eng.
Comparative study of physical-chemical indices of dry and liquid volcano muds of Akhtala has been accomplished for the first time, which reveals their practical identity and possibility to apply dry volcano muds for medical-prophylactic purposes. As a result, their application will increase the mud resource, transporting, packaging, storing and delivery up to end user in case of home usage will be simplified.
The questions of stabilization of foams by special additives are discussed. The classification of stabilizers on their hardening action is given. It is shown that the efficiency of the use of the stabilizer of a group depends on the direction of usage of the final product.
6.B2.13. Membrane technology and installation for wine final sterile filtration. /G.Bibileishvili, V.Bibileishvili, N.Mumladze/. Georgia Chemical Journal. – 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 341-344. – geo.;res.: geo.,eng.
Unique possibilities of tangential microfiltration, possibilities of their usage during purification and cold sterilization of wine are discussed in the article. The issues of practical application of microfiltration technology for final sterile filtration of wine are also discussed. On the basis of experimental studies micro-filtration technology is developed and the relevant two-stage membrane installation for final sterile filtration of wine has been created ensuring the receipt of ecologically clean, absolutely transparent stable product.
6.B2.14. Technology of reception of hydrogen from water with help of solar energy. /V.Shvelidze, R. Gakhokidze, L. Tabatadze/. Georgia Chemical Journal. – 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 345-346 . – geo.;res.: geo.,eng.
The purpose of the work is in search of economically and ecological solar power engineering installation and systems of new generation, working out, research and designing of power installation for thermal reception of hydrogen by the method of water splitting.
Îriginal technology of preparation of high-efficiency light-absorber which plays considerable important role in creation of solar power engineering devices hàs been developed.
6.B2.16. Metallic plastic – the new type of hybrid composition material. /M. Kezherashvili,
Cross-linking of polyethylene with peroxide, siliceous and radiation methods are discussed. Cross-linked polyethylene of siliceous technology and presumptive mechanism with this chemical reaction have been studied. The structure of polyethylene cross-linked with peroxide, siliceous and radiation technology is established. On the basis of cross-linked polyethylene, the hybrid composition materials of new type – metallic-plastic pipes have been obtained. By testing methods the basic physical-mechanical and technical characteristic of metallic-plastics pipes were determined.
6.B2.17. Solar thermal collector of a new generation and perspectives of its large-scale implantation. /V.Shvelidze, R.Gakhokidze, L.Tabatadze/. Georgia Chemical Journal. – 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 355-357. – geo.;res.: geo.,eng.
This work is devoted to the perspectives of large scale development of solar power engineering. There are considered problems of designing and large production technologies of solar thermal collectors of new generation. Great attention is paid to the construction simplicity, cost of used materials and the manufacturing details and blocks by not power consuming, ecologic acceptable technologies and also to the cost of obtained thermal energy there are considered concrete ways of overcoming of above-mentioned problems. Parallelly there was investigated solar annual activity in the region, are also considered application perspectives of a solar collector in the analogous sunny regions.
6.B2.18. On the mineralogical composition of open-hearth slags of
Experimental verification of theoretically assumed possibility of
6.B2.19. Use of secondary raw materials for purification of acid quarry waters of madneuli ore mining and processing enterprise. /Sh. Andguladze, V. Gaphrindashvili, À. Ñhankotadze, T. Kvinikadze, B. Manning/. Georgia Chemical Journal. – 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 362-364. – geo.;res.: geo.,eng.
The use of elaborated technology enables to use low-graded barite ore by processing of which there are obtained an independent product blanfix and sodium sulfide used as a reagent of non-solvent for deep purification of acid quarry waters from ions of heavy metals leading to formation of sulfide copper containing compounds fully useful for subsequent application.
6.B2.20. Project on regulation of ecological problems for Madneuli deposit. /A. Tsilosani, Z. Okrostsvaridze, T. Tsilosani/. Georgia Chemical Journal. – 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 365-369 . – geo.;res.: geo.,eng.
The goal of the project is to remove heavy toxic metals flown down from Madneuli (Georgia) ore of non-ferrous metals, created during the process of development and enrichment of ore, which is an acute ecological problem. The situation has been complicated by group leaching of gold quartzite ore by means of cyanide solvent and receiving of Dore alloy and during at the same time by the heavy toxic metals is polluted not only Bolnisi region, but the territories in vicinity as well. The Project offers the possibility of purification of polluted soil and waters, the method of removing of toxic elements from water solvents have been selected.
6.B2.21. Simulation of man-caused contamination of natural environment
by products of methane combustion and prognosis by means of thermodynamic
computer analysis. /A. Gogishvili, D.
A great series of computer experiments have been carried out to determine the composition of combustion products in methane-oxygen systeme at various ratios of fuel and oxidizer. The process of combus-tion of natural gas is led to thermodynamic study of "C-H-N-O" system, which is based on the Gibbs energy minimization method within temperature interval 1000-3000K. On the basis of obtained results the tem-perature cut diagrams have been constructed, which are close to temperatures of the processes going on in industry. We also offer the data of main components of the exhaust gas as a result of natural gas burn-ing obtained by theoretical computation on the computer, when α=2, and experimentally. Due to the fact that theoretical and experimental results differ insignificantly and don't contradict each other, we conclude that the offered method enables us to study combustion processes for any type of natural fuel.
6.B2.22. Gamma-radiation background of the environìent and generàl beta-radioactivity of plants in Shida Kartli region. /K. Goginashvili, Z. Chankseliani/. Georgia Chemical Journal. – 2009. - V.9.- #4. – pp. 374-376 . – geo.;res.: geo.,eng.
According to the results of the researches carried out the size of the
background of gamma-radiation in Shida Kartli (
Superficial waters in Shida Kartli (
The paper discusses circulation of some element organogens: carbohydrate, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur in the nature; the substantial influence of practical activities of men on self-operating processes of organogens; adaptability of plant and animal organisms as a result of long-lasting evolution with certain amount of chemical organisms that are involved in the biological circulation. Continuous circulation of the organogenes takes place in the nature.
6.B2.25. Biological role of S elements of the periodic system in the
vitality process of the organisms. /E. Kipiani,
The paper presents the biological role of S elements of Ia and IIa groups. Discussed is the participation of these elements in forming buffer systems of the living organisms and providing osmotic pressure and membrane potential. Sodium and potassium participate in the transmission of nerve impulses, while magnesium and calcium take part in corresponding structural formations.
The letter deals with the historical development od pharmacy and gives a detailed account of the famous pharmacist and chemists and of their contribution to the development of the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.
The article deals with the phenomena taking place in the process of growth and development of the live organism. The system live organism-environment is considered, in the live part of which increment of free energy and decrement of the entropy take place. The high order characteristic of live organisms is achieved by the absorption of energy. The entire energetic machine of live organisms is essentially driven excited electrons.
Microflora of saprophytic bacteria of salty soils of
6.B2.29. Results of introduction and
adaptation of North-American arborous plants in
The growth and development of 40 species of the arborous
plants - the North-American flora representatives introduced in
6.B2.30. Pathology of harmful entomofauna of pine trees in the suburbs of
The work deals with the manifestations of latent
diseases of the harmful entomofauna of pine trees in the suburbs of
6.B2.31. New interpretation of Michelson’s experiment and restoration of the ather’s hypothesis. /G. Togonidze,V. Shvelidze/. Georgia Chemical Journal. – 2009. – v. 9. - #6. – pp. 598-602. – eng.; res.: eng., geo., rus.
The article concerns
the error made almost 120 years ago during the interpretation of Michelson’s
experiment which caused the great damage to the development of theoretical
physics because the aether’s hypothesis was denied. As the Michelson’s
experiment took into the consideration the alternation of the light’s velocity C,
its mathematical interpretation was accordingly projected. But the experiment
didn’t show the alternation of C. So the formula and , doesn’t correspond to the elementary laws of physics:
Because of this error the electrodynamics’ law opposites the
6.B2.32. Novel corotinoid concentrates from
subtropical plants. /D. Chikovani,
M. Kobakhidze/. Proceedings of the
Chemical composition of pressed mandarin (Citrus Laus unshiu mau) fruits and fallen leaves of the Caucasian persimmon (Diospyrus kaki L.) were determined. The carotenoid concentrates were obtained from these raw materials. These concentrates may be used in food industry as yellow food colorants as well as food additives for vitaminization of products.
Comparison of screening methods for reliable detection of genetically modified
organisms. /N. Datukishvili, T. Kutateladze , M. Karseladze,
Three PCR primer pairs suitable for common regulatory elements of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) were compared for selection of the most effective screening method for GMO. Two of the primer pairs 35S1/35S2 and 35S-cf3/35S-cr4 are specific to 35S promoter from Cauliflower Mosaic virus and NOS1/NOS2 is specific to the NOS terminator from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The Roundup Ready soybean was used as GM material. The comparison of the primer pairs was carried out in two different PCR conditions PCR1 and PCR2. The results obtained exhibited 35S promoter specific primer pair 35S-cf3/35S-cr4 as the most specific, sensitive and efficient tool for GMO screening in the both PCR conditions applied.
Natural food red colorant with radioprotective properties. /N.
Mchedlishvili, M. Nikolaishvili,
The chemical composition, antioxidant activity and radioprotective properties of a natural red colorant obtained from green tea and pokeberry were investigated. The colorant was found to consist of phenolic compounds (15.8%), pectin substances (18.0%), free aminoacids (16.3%), reducing sugars (27.0%), organic acids (7.8%), minerals (8.0%). It contains small amounts of radionuclides and toxic elements. The natural colorant revealed high antioxidant activity and showed only about 4 times less antioxidant potential than ascorbic acid. The factor of doze changing was found to be equal to 1.25 indicating the high radioprotective activity of the natural food red colorant. It was shown that the natural red colorant from pokeberry and green tea may be successfully used in food industry.
New records of Geastrum persoon (gasteromycetes) for
paper presents diversity of the genus Geastrum in
6.B2.36. Effect of seed stratification on embryo growth dynamics and dormancy break in taxus baccata L. /N. Shakarishvili/. Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Biological Series B. - 2009. - #3-4. – pp. 18-23. – eng.;res.: geo.,eng.
Seeds of English yew (Taxus baccata L.) germinate in the second or even the third year after ripening due to shift to dormant stage soon after maturation. In order to break dormancy, seeds were warm (25° C, 90 days) and cold (5° C, 90 d.) stratified under moist conditions. At the end of cold stratification, the embryo size increased 3 times; the embryo reached the full length of the seed; the seed coat spitted along the ridges; soon after sowing, the embryo became green and the early germination phase occurred. Over 60% of the stratified seeds had a pregermination potential. The data obtained make it possible to suggest that the most practical and simple method of yew seeds germination is to stop their dormancy as a result of warm and cold stratification under damp conditions. The adoption of this technique might be useful for yew conservation strategies.
Dynamics and species composition of phyto- and zooplankton of the
multifunctional water reservoirs in the vicinity of
Antagonistic activity in the natural populations of Ajara (Western Georgia) and
antagonistic activity of wine yeast strains isolated from natural populations
of ecologically distinct regions of
Association between seropositivity for cytomegalovirus (Cmv) and Cd4+ cytotoxic
T cells expansions in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocyte leukaemia (B-Cll)
and healthy controls. /N. Kulikova, T. Tsertsvadze, P.
Tsagareishvili, L. Sereda, M. Tevzadze , L. Kardava, N. Gachechiladze, M.
Lukhumaidze, M. Ghirdaladze, N. Amaglobeli, N. Porakishvili/. Proceedings of
B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) is characterized by the clonal expansion of CD5+CD19+CD23+ B cells. During the course of B-CLL, the expansion of neoplastic clone is accompanied by a disbalance between CD4+/CD8+ T cells and by deficiency of T cell function. We have previously shown an expansion of CD4+ perforin (PF)+ cytotoxic T cells (cytT) with undefined specificity in patients with B–CLL. It has been demonstrated by others that the expansion of CD4+PF+ T cells in control individuals is often associated with chronic viral infections. Taking into consideration that B-CLL patients are immunocompromised, with frequent viral infections, we investigated the role of CD4+PF+ cytotoxic T cells in immune responses to one of the most common chronic viral infections – human cytomegalovirus (hCMV). We studied an association of cytT cell frequencies with the chronic CMV infection in 32 B-CLL patients and 18 age-matched healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were immunostained with anti-CD4~PerCP monoclonal antibodies (mAb), fixed, permeabilised and immunostained with anti-PF~FITC mAb. Cells were fixed and analyzed by flow cytometry. Serum samples were routinely tested for anti-IgG antibodies to CMV. Here we show that CD4+PF+ T cell expansions appeared to be strongly associated with CMV seropositivity in healthy individuals, and, particularly, in B-CLL patients. The immunocompromised status of the majority of B-CLL patients may facilitate expansion of this unusual population of cytotoxic cells to combat reactivation of a chronic CMV infection.
Crown gall disease of grapevine in
of the thick stand of vineyards caused by diseases, and particularly by crown
gall, is one of the considerable potentials for increasing the vineyard
capacity. During long term investigations, it was established that crown gall
is widespread in the main vine growing regions of
Creation and study of antimicrobial-antifungal composite against mixed
infection using biodegradable polymer as a matrix. /M. Goderdzishvili,
Z.Alavidze, A. Meiphariani, I. Chkonia, L.
Dzidzishvili, N. Kvatadze, D. Zhghenti, S. Rigvava, T. Dvalidze, I.
Kusradze, N. Karumidze, N. Nadirashvili, R. Katsarava/. Proceedings of
Application of bacteriophages in complex with antifungal preparations for treatment of associated bacterial and fungal infections is being considered as a novel approach to deal with this problem. A biocomposite film was created by using the biodegradable polymer containing new bacteriophage combination (Pyobacteriophage+Klebsiella, Enterococcus, Acinetobacter bacteriophages), Pimafucin and Trypsin. Among the antifungal substances pimafucin was chosen, because it is less toxic in comparison with other antifungal remedies and it does not cause phage inactivation. At a certain stage trypsin contributes to the wound healing process and does not decrease phage activity significantly in laboratory conditions. Therefore this enzyme was chosen for incorporation into the complex. The biocomposite film is characterized by high activity towards bacterial and fungal flora and appeared to work according to the controllable phage release principle provided by the enzyme used in its composition.
Quantitative and qualitative content of microscopical fungi in Kumisi alkaline
qualitative and quantitative content of microscopical fungi in alkaline soils
The study of DNA synthesis in functionally distinct flight muscles of locust. /G.
Papidze, Ts. Sumbadze,
DNA synthesis in functionally different monofunctional (MOF) and bifunctional (BIF) flight muscles (dorsal longitudinal 112, tergosternal 113, tergocoxal 119,120) of the locust in the process of imago development (one-day and mature locust) has been investigated. Using H3-timidin as a marker it has been determined that the intensity of DNA synthesis in the locust functionally different MOF and BIF flight muscles of one-day imago (the wings are not functioning yet) is 2-4 times higher than that of mature locust. It indicates that up to this period of development the process of formation of flight apparatus is not finished yet. In MOF muscle 112 of one-day imago as well as in the case of mature locust the level of DNA synthesis was low. The differences among DNA synthesis in other muscles (113,119,120) were not observed.
Preliminary results of effect of different water volumes on conidial mass
production of beauveria bassiana. /M.Burjanadze/.
Proceedings of the
Mass production of entomopathogenic fungi is an important component of successful microbial insecticide program. The objective of this study was to evaluate the conidia production of strain Beauveria bassiana (CA-603) on millet growing media at different water volumes (substrate : water 1:0.25; 1:0.5; 1:0.75 and 1:1). The results showed that there were significant differences in conidia production at the water volume of cooking. Conidia production of B. bassiana was significantly higher (3.4 x107 /g millet) at 1:1 water ration and spore viability achieved 90.3%. Although, higher (94.7%) spore viability was observed too in the variant 1:0.25.
Villafranchian vertebrate fauna of
paper deals with Villafranchian vertebrate fauna of
Effect of coniothyrium minitans conidial suspension concentrations on mortality
of sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia under controlled conditions. /.N.Bitsadze/. Proceedings of the
Coniothyrium minitans is a biological control agent of white mould causing plant fungal disease sclerotinios. Different concentrations of C. minitans were tested against sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotium. Increasing of the concentration of the mycoparasite caused increasing of sclerotia mortality. Very low concentration of C. minitans was enough to kill sclerotia, but for killing them in a shorter time it was more effective to use higher concentrations (107-108 sp/ml).
Reproductive potential of entomopathogenic nematode steinernema feltiae on
different hosts (galleria mellonella, hyphantria cunea and leptinotarsa
decemlineata). /N.Mikaia/. Proceedings of the
The study deals with the efficiency of comparative reproduction of entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae larvae in the following insects: the wax moth - Galleria mellonella, the fall webworm - Hyphantria cunea and Colorado potato beetle imago - Leptinotarsa decemlineata. An emphasis is placed on the control of parasitic insects number by means of entomopathogenic nematode S. Feltiae. New nutrient media for cultivation of nematode S. Feltiae have been revealed. High indices of S. Feltiae reproduction occur at the 7th day from the invasion on larvae H. cunea - 94.5 %, on L. decemlineata - 98.4 %, on G. Mellonella - 91.8 %. The obtained data make it possible to cultivate S. Feltiae against pests of agricultural crops.
Study of biodiversity of Svaneti (Georgia) nematodes. /E.
Tskitishvili, M. Kuchava, T. Tskitishvili/. Proceedings of the
order to study nematode inhabitants of Svaneti region several natural
ecosystems were investigated. 45 forms of nematodes were recorded. Among them
Mesodorylaimus paetzoldi Altherr, 1965 is new for the fauna of
New lichen species for
paper presents descriptions of 3 species new to the lichen flora of
Some notes on fungus stigmina obtecta (petrak & esfandiari) M.B. ellis
associated with dead twigs of cultivated and wild woody plants in
The paper deals with nomenclature and host range of Stigmina obtecta associated with dead stems and twigs of different woody plants including mulberry and fig trees.
6.B2.51. Alkaloids of Georgian endemic plant of buxus colchica pojark. and the anatomy of vegetative bodies of overground parts. /N. Vachnadze, J. Aneli, E. Jakeli, V. Vachnadze, D. Tsakadze/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 7-11. – rus.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.
Investigation of Georgian biologically active compounds of plant and mineral origin dring phytochemical investigations Buxus ñolchica Pojark. 8 individual compounds were isolated and structurally identified, two alkaloids appeared to be new and the next structures were offered: 3b - dimetylamin- 20a -methylamin- 4b, 4a,14a - trimethyl - 9b,19a - cycloprotobuxin-C and (-)N-3-O-16-hydroxi-3a,20a-monomethylamino-4-methylen,14a-methyl-9b19cyclopseudobuxin-D. Jointly with the Department of Pharmacobotany for the first time is described the anatomy of vegetative bodies of Buxus overground parts, which is necessary for identification of raw material and obligatory for reference documentation.
6.B2.52. Alkaloids of Galanthus latifolius Rupr., grown in
Rupr. grown in
6.B2.53. Alkaloids of the growing in Georgia Veratrum lobelianum Bernh. /T.Suladze/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 16-21. – geo.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.
During phytochemical investigations of Veratrum lobelianum Bernh., 10 individual compounds were isolated, 9 alkaloids were structurally identified, 8 of which - iervin, veralozin, veralozinin, veralozidin, veratroilzigadenin, psevdoiervin, veralodin – were found in the plant for first time, whereas O–acetil iervin and 12α,13β- digidroiervin for the first time are described.
6.B2.54. Preliminary researches of the growing
Research of separate parts of owo species of the genus
Research of separate parts of the growing in
It is found that flavonoids accumulate basically in the leaves and flowers, less in stalks, and are absent in the roots. A significant content of cycloartans is observed in stalks and roots.
6.B2.56. Triterpene glycosides from the roots and leaves of Phytolacca americana L. /M. Getia, M. Gabelaia, V. Mshvildadze, B. Tabidze, N. Tabatadze, G. Dekanosidze/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 30-36. – rus.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.
of the roots and leaves of the American pokeweed Phytolacca
6.B2.57. Lipids of Medicago sativa growing in
The chemical composition of neutral lipids of the seeds of Medicago sativa are studied The class and fatty acidal composition of them are determined and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of phospholipids is carried out.
6.B2.58. Annual wormwood Artemisia annua L. growing in
It is established that the annual wormwood Artemisia annual L. cultivated at I.
Kutateladze Institute of
Pharmacochemistry’s experimental station for medicinal plants (
6.B2.59. Preliminary investigation of some plants
A preliminary phytochemical investigation of glycosides, flavonoids and
saponines of 52 plants growing in
6.B2.60. Preliminary investigation of leaves of some higher plants introduced in Georgia for the content of biologically active compounds. /T.Sagareishvili, M.Alania, K, Shalashvili/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 58-65. – rus.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.
phytochemical analysis of leaves of some higher plants introduced in
6.B2.61. Development of a standardization
method for a new dosage form of the drug colchicine. /P.Iavich,
Investigations of a new dosage form of the drug colchicin - gastric soluble capsules - have been carried out. A new method of standardization has been developed. The quantitative analysis precision has been proved by validated characteristics. The capsules’ content of colchicin makes 0,00085-0,00115 g and 0,00051-0,00069 g.
6.B2.62. Obtaining of
pure tannin. /M.Mghebrishvili, A. Sarabunovich, L. Churadze, P. Iavich,
The method of purification of the pharmacopeial tannin from the low molecular mass compounds is described. As model systems: tannin, galic acid, rutin, arbutin, hydroquinone, qvercetin. The ionchange purification on ÊÓ-2, (H+form), ÝÄÝ-10Ï (OH-form), ÈÀ-2 (CL- form) has been found to the most advisable technique. As a result, tannin being practically free from low-molecular admixtures is obtained .
6.B2.63. Technological and biopharmaceutical
aspects of development on the cacao oil base of suppositories with piophages. /M.
Orjonikidze, G. Tsagareishvili,
The biological phenomenon of bacteriophage represents an alternative of antiboticotherapy. The objective of the study is to investigate the compatibility of phages with cacao oil and the possibility of development of suppositories with bacteriophages for the treatment of paraproctitis, vaginitis, cervical erosion, the treatment of which is very complicated due to the antibiotic resistance of claimers. On the basis of complex physico-chemical, technological and biopharmaceutical studies, the possibility of development of suppositories with piophages has been determined, the technology and composition of suppositories with piophages developed, and the physico-chemical and structural-mechanical parameters of quality studied; it is determined that they are in compliance with the standard documentations on suppositories. A method of analysis of specific activity for 5 components of piophage has been developed. It is determined that piophage is released fully from the base and the cacao oil does not affect its specific activity.
6.B2.64. Technical characteristics and method
of standardization of a potential radio protective dosage form and substance. /P. Iavich,
Different technological characteristics (breakup, volume weight, residual humidity, friction slope) of a potential radio protective form based on plant extracts and organic acids have been investigated. A relationship between these parameters is found. Based on the State Pharmacopoeia requirements, different tests of the substance and packet dosage forms have been performed. A method of standardization for both the substance and the granulated dosage form has been developed.
6.B2.65. Study of the liberation of biologically active compounds from dosage forms containing radioprotective ingredients. /P. Iavich, Z. Chankseliani, T. Rukhadze, N. Gagua, V. Khositashvili, L. Khositashvili/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 91-95. – rus.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.
New dosage forms of the drugs tkis nobati and menjuni as well as of the of a radio protective drug IF-stomach soluble capsules and suppositories have been developed. Investigated are their characteristics, which determine assimilation of biologically active compounds by the organism. These data make it possible to suppose a rather high pharmacological activity of the drug.
6.B2.66. Development of common oak bark and wood extraction technology. /V. Khositashvili, D. Abzianidze, L. Khositashvili, M. Sutiashvili/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 96-100. – rus.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.
In studying the chemical composition of common oak bark and wood, the content of the tanning matter, lignin’s, grass acids, and iron in the plant was determined. The extraction process sheets have been developed.
6.B2.67. Chemical modification of a complex
of papaya enzymes by polymeric ligands. /G. Erkomaishvili, L.
Nadirashvili, D. Chanturia, L. Vadachkoria,
A complex of papaya protease (CPP) obtained from the latex of unripe fruits of papaya (Carica papaya), possessing high proteolytic, antipyretic and necrolitic properties, is rather effective in the treatment of many diseases that are related to the degenerative changes in the tissues; however, its application is comparatively limited due to its allergenic action. For the purpose of elimination of these undesirable properties, the strengthening of thermostability in the solutions, the chemical modification of the CPP by polyamide ligands with the molecular weight from 30 to 88 kDa, representing by-products of polycondensation of lysine with the adipic or sebacic acid (4- Lys and 8- Lys, respectively), was carried out. The modified preparations preserved 80-95% of the initial proteolytic activity of the CPP, with a sharp increase in the stability in solutions at 500Ñ.
6.B2.68. Apparatus and method for in vitro study of iontophoretic permeation of proteolytic enzymes in animals skin. /G. Erkomaishvili, L. Vadachkoria, L. Nadirashvili, D. Chanturia/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 107-114. – geo.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.
The simple apparatus and method for in vitro study of electrophoresis regulations of proteolytic enzymes through the membranes of animal skin have been developed. It has been shown that papaya proteases fail to penetrate into the frozen chicken skin rather than overcome this barrier without electric current. During electromigration, a certain part of papaya proteases accumulates in the skin structure. By the experiments on the frozen chicken skin and “alive” rat skin it has been shown that dimethylsulfoxide (2-3 drops by 10 ml of anodic solution) strengthens the permeability of papaya proteases up to 12-14%. The negative influence of the “parasitic” ions of physiological solution on the electrophoresis of papaya proteases has been confirmed, which prejudices the application of the solution in the procedures of electrophoretic treatment with karipazim.
6.B2.69. Method of determination of the proteolitic activity of karipazim. / G. Erkomaishvili, L. Vadachkoria, L. Nadirashvili, D. Chanturia /. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 115-122. – geo.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.
A method for
determining the proteolytic activity of karipazim - the medicine containing the complex of papaya
proteases, has been developed taking into account the requirements of
6.B2.70. Development of suppository base
containing ticha-ascanae. /M. Orjonikidze,
The studies for the development of a new suppository base containing specially processed bentonite clay - ticha-ascanae, and cacao butter have been carried out. It is established that the introduction of up to 3% of ticha-ascanae in the cacao butter improves the structural-mechanical, rheological and physical-chemical properties of the cacao- butter as the suppository base. The stability of the proposed suppository base in the course of long-term storage (1 year – observation term) under conditions of room temperature and at +3-5ºC has been determined.
6.B2.71. On the development of an ointment
containing Akhtala mud. /T. Rukhadze,
Osmotic and colloid characteristics of an ointment containing 10-20% of Akhtala curative mud have been investigated. Different emulsifiers have been used. It has been shown that the best result is achieved when a wax emulgator and 10-20% Akhtala mud are applied. The optimal formula of the oinment has been developed.
6.B2.72. Herbarium of Iovel Kutateladze Institute of Pharmacochemistry. /M. Churadze, J. Aneli, L. Takidze/. I. Kutateladze Pharmacochemistry Institute. Collected Scientific Works. - 2009. - #1 (17). – pp. 131-136. – rus.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.
The 77-year history of the establishment and development of the herbarium of Iovel Kutateladze Institute of Pharmacochemistry is considered. The role of collaborators in the formation of the herbarium is mentioned. Since 2007, the herbarium has been registered in a Global Directory of Public Herbaria and Associated Staff - Index Herbariorum, 9th volume under the acronym TBPH.
analysis of rare and endemic calcifilous plants of
The calcefilous cariogeography of the
Determination of the content of microelements in some Georgian mineral waters. /B.
Gogichaishvili, R. Kavzinadze,
It is shown that among the chemical elements found in mineral waters in small quantity, worthy of notice are microelements of definite biological activity, such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, and Mn. By using a preliminarily developed chromatography concentration method, the above elements have been fixed in some of the Georgian mineral waters, including those of Tskaltubo. For the first time, the content of these elements in mineral waters has been determined
6.B2.75. Hydrogen bonds in crystal structures of some phseudohydroacetates. /G. Tsintsadze, N. Endeladze, B. Gogichaishvil, A. Chubinidze, R. Kavzinadze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #2. – pp. 15-18. - rus.;res.: geo.,eng., rus
In the work the hydrogen bonds in crystal structures of phseudohydroacetates are studied. The structures of hydroacetates of alkali and alkali earth metals are analyzed and shown that at transition from compounds of metals with small ion radius to the compounds of larger-size cations changes occur in yjr structure which is related to isolation of infinite columns and layers from exygenic polyhedrons of atoms of metals. The analysis of geometric characteristics of hydrogen bonds in structures revealed that formations of dimmers and trimmers are carried out by strong hydrogen bonds when the distance O.... O is less than 2,5Å
6.B2.76. Reduction of albumin loss upon ultrafiltrative concentration with application of the pulsative flow of solutions of biologically active substances. /R. Lomaia, Sh. Rukhadze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #2. – pp. 39-41. - rus.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.
The reasons of albumin loss upon ultrafiltrative concentration are shown. For reducing albumin loss, the optimum type of the membrane UPM-100 according to selectivity is chosen. The advantage of pulsative mode of divided solution and optimum mode parameters of the division process in the view of the optimal constructive parameter, the height of the channel of division are experimentally established. For ultrafiltrative concentration the flow pulsative mode of divided solution is chosen which is more effective than turbulent mode. The optimum frequency of pulsation (1.1 pulses per second) and the height of channel of division (1,5 mm) are established. It is proved that with application of the abovementioned parameters upona ultrafiltrative concentration the loss of albumin decreases in 5-6 times.
The results of quantitative description of 11 5(1) y Nocardiopsis dassonvillei cells phospholipids exposed to different doses of UV irradiation are presented. Spectral methods are applied to measure the amount of total, amino and choline comprising phospholipids. Additionally, stability of 11 5(1) y Nocardiopsis dassonvillei cells irradiated with the same doses was examined. Different pattern of quantitative changes of amino and choline comprising phospholipids was detected. Functional relationship between phospholipid composition and cell stability is discussed.
The article presents
the description of some perennial herbs from the Asteraceae family,
mainly Achillea filipendulina
Lam. cv Parke`s variety, Leucanthemum maximum (Ramond) DC. cv '
Jujube is the best
medicinal plant for cultivating under conditions of
For determining the microelement composition of a BAA, a desktop energy-dispersive X-ray-fluorescence (EDXPF) analyzer ElvaX Spectrometer was used. On the basis of the analysis carried out, it has been established that the BAA is rich in all the microelements necessary for the human organism, especially in the “protective” (Se, Zn, I) and essential (important for the life) K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, Fe, Co and other minerals, which makes it especially promising for use in the normalization of various vital processes, as well as in the treatment and prevention of diseases and enhancing the natural immunity to different environmental artifacts.
Phenol-formaldehyde type polymers on the basis of bisphenols. /N. Gelashvili,
G. Papava, M. Gurgenishvili,
Methylol derivative on the basis of adamantane type bisphenols was obtained. Some kinetic regularities of reaction of interaction of polycyclic bisphenols and formaldehyde were studied. Bisphenol III is taken as an example.
The regularities of electrolytic dissociation of phthalic acid. /E.
Kvaratskhelia, R. Kvaratskhelia, R.
Kurtanidze/. Bulletin of the
An analysis of the regularities of the dissociation of phthalic (benzenedicarboxylic) acid was carried out with the aid of a method previously described by the authors. The values of the degrees of dissociation for both steps, and the concentrations of various ionized and non-ionized forms of this acid were determined. Empirical equations are also suggested for easy approximate calculation of the degrees of dissociation and pH values of dilute solutions of phthalic acid.
Amplitude dependence of internal friction and shear modulus of tin-doped
monocrystalline silicon. /G. Darsavelidze, I. Kurashvili, G.
Bokuchava, T. Mkheidze,
Internal friction and shear modulus amplitude dependences of tin-doped monocrystalline silicon were investigated. Values of critical strain amplitudes of dislocation segments breakaway, absolute shear modulus and elastic limit were determined. Internal friction, shear modulus and elastic limit are measured. Internal friction and shear modulus hysteretic type variations mechanism were analyzed.
Characteristics of the frequency distribution of some immunogenic markers in
the population of the mountain region (Khulo) of Ajara. /M.
Nagervadze, R. Khukhunaishvili, A. Diasamidze, M. Koridze, G. Dumbadze, L.
Akhvlediani/. Bulletin of the
blood group antigens represent a genetically stably determined trait, being of
many-sided biological and clinical significance. The indigenous Ajarian
population (105 subjects) was investigated for ABO, Rh-Hr,
methods of the static and dynamic breakdown of rocks. /.G.Baliashvili,
F.Bezhanov, L.Gurchumelia, N.Sarjveladze, T.Rukhadze/. Transactions of
Samples of marble, sandstone and tuff broken down by the action of static and dynamic forces are given when tested in the dried, water saturated, SAS saturated state in the air, water and SAS environment. The mechanism of rocks breakdown, causes of the variation of the value of specific work, and the optimal methods are given.
The geological policy of the country and rational use of the mineral resources.
optimal use of the country’s mineral resources raises the level of the state
The results of gold prospecting carried out since the second part of the last century and up to now are discussed. Three comparative information groups are picked out and the necessary criteria for prospecting gold deposits in the 21st century are considered.
Iron mineralogy in the volcanogenic sedimentary silico-manganese formation and its spread regularities are considered. The formation is shown to contain a low percentage of iron and to create small accumulations thereof. Iron in the formation is mainly met in the form of glauconite and iron-montmorollonite. Rarely iron hydro-oxides, oxides and carbon compounds are met.
6.B3.5. Facies analysis of the
volcano-sedimentary host rocks of the Cretaceous Madneuli massive sulphide
The Cretaceous Madneuli barite-gold-copper-pollymetallic deposit is a major deposit of the
Georgian Bolnisi mining district, located in the Artvin-Bolnisi zone. This contribution presents a detailed lithofacies analysis of volcanic host rocks of the Madneuli deposit, including detailed mapping of six outcrop sections, hand samples studies and thin section observations. The rhyolitic volcanoclastic host rocks can be divided into three groups: (1) massive breccias interpreted as massive breccia flows, (2) stratified tuff and lapilli tuff (including ignimbrites, rhyolite and rhyodacite pyroclastic flows), and (3) turbiditic tuff. On the northern level of the deposit two ignimbrite horizons were singled out. One of them (columnar jointed ignimbrite) was first seen and described by the authors. The same should be said about the association of ignimbrite with rhyolitic pyroclastic lava flows and dacitic hyaloclastic rocks.
Zonal dissection of Aalenian deposits by ammonites of the
The author, on the ground of his own materials on the characteristic complexes of ammonites from various geological sections of the Caucasus, together with all available data on the present-day biostratigraphy, has worked out a detailed scheme of zonal dissection of the Aalenian deposits of the Caucasus which is correlated with the standard zone scale of Western Europe.
Taking into account the greenhouse effect and contemporary surface temperature of Venus, the value 352°C is taken as the ancient Earth’s surface temperature. A model of the atmosphere is beuilt; its principal components are CO2 and H2O. The obtained results radically change the traditional notions on the climatic conditions dominating on the Earth in the epoch of the origin of life on it. The above fact should be taken into consideration when investigating the problem of the origin of life on the planet.
Thermal balance of the Earth and global warming. /M. Jibladze, A.
Mikaberidze, Z. Razmadze/. Bulletin of the
By calculations of the thermal balance of the Earth it is shown that about half of the solar energy falling on the terrestrial surface is spent on evaporation of water from the surfaces of oceans, seas and the land. Part of it is absorbed by green plants, but thermal energy emitted because of human activity is by four orders less than the energy received by the Earth from the Sun. It is also noted that an increase in the concentration of CO2, which is considered to be the principal cause of the greenhouse effect, has a very poor influence on the average-annual temperature of the Earth, and the infrared radiation of the terrestrial surface absorbed by molecules of CO2 cannot evoke the greenhouse effect.
The article deals with the first Georgian space object, its orbiting and successful experiment. This event is referred to in astronautics encyclopedia as a beginning of new technologies and the date of its implementation is recorded in the chronicles of the outstanding events in world astronautics.
6.C1.1.The questions of rational using of Georgian water resources from the standpoint of sustainable economic development. /G. Gobechia, K. Makharadze, R. Phirtskhalava/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.46-49. geo., res.: eng., rus.
The questions of rational nature management, in
particular using of water resources in
of energy of
6.C1.3. Simplified calculating models of controlled power transmission lines. /O. Zivzivadze, L. Zivzivadze, Sh. Pkhakadze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #2. – pp. 42-45. - rus.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.,
The article is devoted to application problems of new methods of electric energy transmission to long distances, in particular the development of calculating model for controlled transmission lines. Controlled lines are lines of a new generation which can change equivalent parameters depending on a mode. In terms of design, a controlled line is a system structured with homonymous phase wires of two chain lines arranged in pairs in which lines are approached to each other on minimal admitted distance, creating maximal electromagnetic interaction between circuits of the line. Due to such design of a line, the equivalent inductive resistance significantly decreases, increasing throughput of the line. In the article calculating method of a controlled line is developed. It is shown that each circuit of such line can be considered as a four-terminal network, transmission constant of which, together with wave parameters, are depended on the angle of shift between voltages of circuits. In contrast to the circuits that are not dependant on the shift angle, particular equivalent circuits are relatively simple. They facilitate calculations and analysis of controlled power transmission lines for the established modes.
The significant feature of today’s telecommunication is the trend to create packet based multi service networks. The base of transport infrastructure link layer for them is the Ethernet. Therefore, the main task for transport in mentioned networks is transmission of Ethernet traffic, providing all requests concerning to transport layer. In the article there is shown the evolution from TDM to packet switching oriented systems, and briefly considering different transport technologies (SDH, DWDM, MPLS, T-MPLS, PBT) and is suggested opinion, for implementing “perfect” NGN, it is necessary to create full optical transport infrastructure.
6.C2.2. Analysis of the process of
The analysis of operation of welding transformers in a consecutive mode during welding has allowed to reveal welding defects by measurement of secondary currents and comparison of their rating values.
Increase of reliability of electrothermal ore alloy furnaces with application
of composite materials. /K. Bakuradze, E. Buadze,
In the work the question of replacement of copper pipes serving for cooling electro-contact «jaw» of ore alloy furnaces is considered for the purpose of increasing reliability and duration of their work. An alternative method of preparation the «jaw» with application of composite materials by use of a metal-textile composition is offered. The technology of preparation of a composite pipe is given and the tests for its reliability are carried out. Testing of a composite pipe formed by the offered method has shown that the electro-contact “jaw” and its cooling channel completely meet the requirements to the ore alloy furnace. Moisture existing in the composite pipe and the combustible gases are intensively and forced out from the form. The produced «jaw» is of a uniform structure and the performance increases 2-2.5 times. The application of the composite pipe in the electro-contact unit – “jaw” - has decreased their weight by 65kg
6.C2.4. The simplified calculation of power interaction of conducting bodies in pulsed magnetic field. /B. Mamikonyan, Kh. Mamikonyan/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 32-39. – rus., res.: geo., rus., eng.
A laboratory model of bobbin-type electromagnetic accelerator is studied. The research aim is the experimental specification of the simplified principles of research processes occurring in the device. The simplified theory of the results of the device’s experimental research on alternative and direct currents is given and the coincidence accuracy of theoretical and experimental curves of the dependence of short-circuited ring kickback height from the pressure stimulation enclosed to the bobbin is assessed.
Development of silicomanganese smelting technologies, studies and industrial
development by using high iron-content low-quality manganese ores in the charge
at the ferroalloys miniplant “Meteks” Ltd. /Z. Simongulashvili,
T. Sharashidze, M. Tsirdava, B. Maisuradze, S. Nebieridze/. Transactions of
The possibilities of developing new techniques and technologies under conditions of the Ferroalloys Miniplant “Meteks” LTD, the plant’s flexibility to change the technology and the segment of the produced production in the shortest period of time, taking into consideration market demands, have been discussed. The advantages of such miniplants over large plants have been analyzed. The new technology of producing silicomanganese in the charge using high iron-content low-quality manganese ores has been developed for the first time.
A new design of the gear for replacement of mandrels of automatic mill providing for the operation of the automatic mill of tube-rolling installation “140’’ work with two mandrels is proposed. The gear is so designed as to exclude idling and provide for the conservation of high rate of rolling on the automatic mill of installation “140’’. The introduction of the gear in industry will ensure the mechanization of mandrels replacement, improvement of quality of the manufactured products, especially upon rolling of light-wall tubing, expansion of the range of manufactured products, safe working conditions of the service staff.
6.C4.3. Preparation of activated manganese dioxide. /J. Shengelia, T. Agladze, L. Kapanadze, J. Gvelesiani,
The optimal conditions for preparation of the activated manganese dioxide by treatment of the Chiatura second-grade peroxide and first-grade metallurgical concentrates were studied. It was shown that the electrochemical activity of the peroxide concentrate is close to the correspondent activity of the electrolytic manganese dioxide, while the electrochemical activity of the material produced by treatment of the metallurgical grade concentrate is about 87% of the activity of the electrolytic manganese dioxide.
Peculiarities of the copper-phosphorous solder fusion control and management are considered. Advantages of the thermophysical technique in the process diagnostics are grounded. By interpolation of the thermograms and copper-phosphorous constitution diagrams, a mathematical expression of the fusion diagnostics, in particular, for analytical phosphorus testing in the melt is obtained.
6.C4.5. Adhesion strength of secondary dispersion-reinforced thermoplastics at different testing temperatures. /N. Kheladze, D. Kiria/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 138-143. – rus., res.: geo., rus., eng.
The adhesion strength of secondary polyolefin compositions against the filler in the binder-fiber model system has been studied. Measurements were carried out from the liquid nitrogen temperature (-1950) up to +1200. It is determined that, close to the vitrification temperature and above, the adhesion strength in the polymeric material-fiber system does not practically depend on the specimen size, both in respect of the primary and secondary thermoplastics. The temperature dependence of the adhesion strength of different systems has an extreme character, its maximum being observed in the polyolefin vitrification temperature range. An increase in temperature leads to a gradual decrease in the adhesive strength, being especially notable in the polymer softening temperature section, verging to zero. Other examples of adhesion strength changes are given.
Study of the outcomes of the permanent effect of copper ions on natural
populations of wine yeast. /A. Shatirishvili,
Resistance of natural populations of Anaga (Kakheti) and Surebi (Guria) wine yeast to copper ions has been studied. 250 strains of each population have been investigated. Both populations have been found polymorphic to the investigated trait. The Anaga population, in contrast to the Surebi population, has been subjected to the effect of copper ions for decades. As a result of natural selection, a great number of resistant strains have been accumulated in the Anaga population. A genetic analysis has established that out of 10 strains of the Anaga population 6 contain two resistance determining SMF1 and SMF2 dominant genes. The studied strains of the Surebi population have only one active locus.
Construction of surfaces using first-order tangent transformations. /N.Abuladze,
M.Chelidze, T.Shukakidze/. Transactions of
Surfaces are constructed on the basis of the first-order tangent transformations by means of a direction vector equation. Here the surfaces, which are supposed to be variety of the tangential elements, are chosen as a prototype and basic figures. The device allows us to construct surfaces according to specified positional and differential – geometric conditions, which are the prerequisite for machining parts of an irregular shape on a machine–tool.
6.C5.2. Kinematics of an improved brake rigging of electric
train’s motor car. /G. Sharashenidze,
The ideal kinematical parameters of the given brake rigging are determined. The respective formulas necessary for analytical study of kinematics of any brake rigging are obtained.
Research of the influence of backlashes on dynamic parameters of the main drive
of machine units. /R. Adamia,
The general method of calculation of dynamic characteristics of the rolling mills on different stages of machine starting, taking into account the co-existence of gaps in the drive transmissions is proposed. The analytic dependence between the values of gaps and additional forces (of impact character) influenced by tem is established.
The work deals with the issues of analysis, design and modernization of washing machine drums, gives the methods of determination of the main technological parameters of the running drums. The necessity of rational analysis and calculation of the technological parameters of the drums and their science-based planning is experimentally justified and grounded.
This article considers the issues of terminal (final) ballistics of some types of bullets designated for smoothbore weapons with the application of a mockup target, being an effective substitution of soft tissue of a biological object in terms of its physical-technical characteristics; the issues of the theory of interactions of physical processes are considered.
6.C5.6. Design of alternative combustion chambers for a multijet sprayer. /V. Gvetadze, G. Purtskhvanidze, D. Chogovadze, L. Gogisvanidze/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 228-231. – rus., res.: geo., rus., eng.
In designing a combustion chamber for a multijet sprayer, the basic attention is given to expanded chambers. They can be classified by several chief features. The first essential feature shall be the combustion chamber’s ability to intensify carburetion at the expense of the toroidal vortex displacement. Another essential feature is the shape of the forming lateral wall of the combustion chamber. Out of the existing combustion chambers, 4 principal types are considered: open, closed and combined.
Among the mechanical properties of leather, lengthening is of a special importance. On the basis of the carried out research, it is established that the boxcalf leather lengthening standard upon 10 MPa load should be replaced with the standard upon rupture or constant load (10 kn/m) according to the width. The determination of such lengthening should be organized at all leather dressing enterprises during a year, one of the indicators be fixed on the basis of the obtained data, and standards be recommended. Similarly, the uniformity factor for leather lengthening in all directions should be fixed.
Directions of computer software development in the clothing manufacture are shown and their disadvantages are defined. Classification of computer software directions in computer design is developed. The objective and principles of computer design are formulated. The achievement of this objective is shown by examples.
6.C6.3. Development of basic criteria of sex and age related classification system formation of footwear. /M. Grdzelidze, A. Katamadze, M. Shalamberidze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #3. – pp. 22-26. - rus.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.
The importance of standardization of the differentiation of the juvenile population according to the foot size is shown. From this point of view: current situation and existing sex and age related classification system have been analyzed. Anthropometric research of 10-17 year old teenagers have been carried out; as a result of the obtained information, the basic statistical parameters and regulations of size differentiation have been revealed; the base and basic criteria for formation sex and age related classification system by the new method have been developed.
6.C6.4. New methods of sex-age specific classification formation to provide juveniles with convenient footwear. /M. Grdzelidze, A. Katamadze, M. Shalamberidze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #3. – pp. 26-29. - rus.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.
importance of standardization of the differentiation of juveniles in
The structural-logical model of the footwear assortment formation is given. As a result of the carried out research, the structural-logical model of the range of footwear made of leather and other materials is designed, for manufacture of which enterprises are being specialized based on a complex analysis of the portfolio of the subjects of monopolistic competitive market. The assortment so analyzed requires further detailing, taking into account the stochastic environmental factors that influence the demand for the enterprise’s products. A follow-up study for perfecting the assortment formation methods should take into account other factors, such as seasonality and uncertainty, as well as additive components on the basis of the models of dispersive and covariance analyses. The major stages of the company trade portfolio formation process are determined. On the basis of a complex portfolio analysis, a logical model of the assortment formation is offered.
6.C6.6. Research of a possibility of technological parameters improvement for flat knitting machines. /Z. Vadachkoria/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #3. – pp. 38-40. - rus.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.
The possibility of technological parameters’ improvement for flat knitting machines is discussed. A stretching device of set loops for flat knitting machines of the type ÏÂÊÌ and ÏÂÐÊ is developed, which exceeds by its technical parameters the existing ones. It enables improving the loop setting process and quality of the produced knitted garments. The device does not complicate the machine’s design and service or affect its technological possibilities; on the contrary, using of a supplementary feeder, enhances the patterning possibilities of the machine.
The materials for development of technical textile, in particular technical stockinet are given. An analysis of the existing woven filters with their positive and negative aspects is made. The requirements to the technical filters are shown. An analysis of knitted loops is made and the knitted loop which best meets the set requirements are chosen. The advantages of using stockinet against the existing woven filters are given and the corresponding conclusions are made.
6.C6.8. Research of operation of a filling thread compensator of a pneumatic rapier weaving machine ÀÒÏÐ-120 upon lapping of rotor spinning cotton yarn ÁÄ-200. /O. Purtskhvanidze, M. Gurgenidze, T. Uriadmkopeli/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #3. – pp. 43-46. - rus.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.
The principle of operation of the filling thread compensator of the loom ÀÒÏÐ -120 upon one shaft revolution is analyzed. The thread movement speed through the eye of the compensator, angles of bending, loop length, tension of the lapped filling thread at various distances are formulated. It is established that the angles of bending of lapping yarn reach the maximum value in the lowermost position of the compensator that gradually reaches the minimum value upon initial lapping of the filling thread through the mouth. It is shown that the loop length in the compensator’s eye is also maximal in the lowermost position and minimal upon meeting of the right and left rapiers. The maximum lapping speed of the filling thread corresponds to the movement of the left rapier through the mouth.
It is shown that quality improvement of textile materials depends on many factors and first of all requires the knowledge of textile material properties, their correct and accurate estimation, objective appreciation and control of their quality parameters, the influence of deteriorative factors on the product quality. As it is known, textile materials tend to change a linear dimension which is conditioned by a number of factors. First of all, it is swelling, relaxation and friction between fibers and threads. All these factors are interconnected, which enables additional study of their impacts on the shrinkage. 22 samples of clothes and fabrics are chosen for studying. They are grouped according to the fibrous structure in the following order: cotton - 33.3%, wool – 22.2%, flax – 11%, silk – 28.5%. The shrinkage of surface fabrics is determined by a new technique developed by the authors. The dependence of the set of wrap and the set of weft on shrinkage and air permeability is determined. The comparison of the obtained result demonstrated that the shrinkage studied by our technique decreased in the samples 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 15, 16, 18, 19, 22 and increased in the samples 1, 4, 5, 8, 10, 11. However, such differences cannot be considered as deterioration of properties, as the difference is not big and it does not depend only on conditions of operation. For the purpose of establishing a regulation between the above-mentioned parameters, the obtained results are processed by methods of mathematical statistics, using two-factor and multifactor analyses. The coefficients of correlation and regression equations are calculated, and the regression equations are constructed for both the normalized and natural variables.
The peculiarities of measurement of specific humidity of fibrous materials by means of electrical method are shown. It is indicated that fibrous materials have both the active and reactive conductance and are characterized of the polarization current at the dc voltage, which is associated with the measurement error. For measuring humidity at the alternating voltage, the capacity method is recommended. An analysis of the design of condensers is given, on the basis of which it is established that capacitor transducers cannot provide input and removal of materials in the gauge and cannot ensure accuracy upon non-uniform distribution of moisture in the materials. For reducing the measurement error caused by non-uniform distribution of humidity in the material and density changes and for preserving the transducer operation condition, it is recommended that the capacitor transducer be designed as a plane-arranged electrode condenser.
The forces affecting the human foot and hence the peculiarities of a rational design of diabetic footwear are discussed. The causes of the foot and the whole organism pathologies are analyzed and the flat-foot causing symptoms are shown. The importance of diabetic footwear in the prevention of diabetes mellitus is given. Proposed are five characteristics developed as a result of the study that should be taken into consideration when choosing and wearing diabetic footwear, especially orthotics. The importance of collaboration of podiatrists, endocrinologists and diabetic footwear makers for manufacturing such therapeutic footwear is underlined.
Device and technique of string friction coefficient at movement on thread guide
Gogoladze, A. Badzgaradze,
The dependence of the constant of friction on the thread speed and pressure on the thread guide surface, in particular in the yarn removal device of a pheumomechanical spinning machine is established. It is shown that an increase in the yarn tension upon increase of the radius of funnel inlet hole occurs at the expense of pressure reduction and, consequently, upon increase in the constant of friction. It is established that the application of a spiral leads to an increase in the yarn tension, of the yarn speed and, consequently, of the constant of friction.
6.C6.13. Importance of special footwear for diabetics. /A. Katamadze, M. Grtzelidze, L. Schalamberidze, L. Chubinidze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #4. – pp. 17-20. - rus.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.
information survey of the state of diabetic people, whose number has
dramatically increased all over the world, is given. A similar situation is observed
Influence of the electrostatic charge in clothes on children’s health. /N.
The value of electrostatic charge is determined on the device HB 3-2 offered by the authors. The electrostatic charge value is measured in the textile materials used in children’s clothes. The recommendation of the materials to be used in the manufacture of baby clothes is given. The existence of human being in any environment is connected with the influence of electromagnetic fields. In the case of motionless electrical charges we deal with electrostatic fields. Together with natural static electrical fields under condition of technosphere and in life, people are subjected to the effects of artificial electrostatic charges. They affect the nervous and cardiovascular systems. According to the charge value, the studied samples have been grouped in the following order: cotton yarn, silk thread, viscose thread, viscose staple fiber yarn, acetate staple fiber yarn, wool yarn, Capron staple yarn, Capron complex thread. The most undesirable in manufacturing children’s clothing is the Capron complex thread.
The question of dummy surface development by means of an arch notch method is discussed. The process of breadboarding obtained by the existing method has shown complete discrepancy of development details to the form and sizes of the dummy. For elimination of the mentioned discrepancy, a special dummy surface investigation device has been developed (making it possible to determine a distance between two points on both the dummy and any curved surface), as well as a technique of a dummy surface construction. The surface development obtained by means of the developed technique is characterized by high accuracy and completely corresponds with the surface of the object under study.
The questions of research of the exterior of a human body, body frame and construction are discussed. The issues of the exterior form research of a human body deserve special attention in the improvement of military uniform design methods. On the basis of the research analysis, a new type of gadget is developed for researching the human body build. On the basis of a comparative analysis of the human body build carried out by the existing and developed methods, the degree indicators of the angle between the straight spots in the upper parts of the backbone are established; recommendations on establishment of the type of body build of military personnel are developed on the basis of the carried out research.
6.C6.17. Distribution of appendages on
different parts of clothing depending on the item’s shape and the material
When designing clothes, attention should be paid to appendages, the sizes of which should be in line with the shapes, patterns, materials, outfit, and design of clothes, the person’s body build features, etc., so that a rational clothing design is obtained.
Determining the thread form and tension in the feeder of a spinning and
twisting device. /M. Gogoladze, I. Khurtsilava,
Analytic dependences determining the form of a cylinder and thread tension in the feeder of a rotary spinning and twisting device upon manufacture of twisted core-spun yarn are obtained. A substantial growth of the twisted thread tension in the feeder and the cylinder shape of the fed thread are established.
6.C6.19. Study of the structure of a thickener modified with bentonites. /E. Buadze, M. Sharabidze, R. Bochorishvili/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #1. – pp. 37-43. - eng.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.
The aim of the present work was to study the structure of a thickening agent having been modified with bentonites by means of X-ray phase analysis. According to the outcome of X-ray phase analysis, the following conclusion is made: manutex and bentonites form a polymeric system, in which montmorollonite is set on the polymeric structure of manutex that causes its chemical modification. It is determined that after printing, the thickener-contained bentonite remains on the amorphous parts of the fibroin (manutex being completely washed). Being a perfect sorbent, the remained bentonite absorbs additional amount of dye, as a consequence of which the coloring power increases
Weaving looms with flexible foil and their use for producing decorative fabrics
for furniture. /N. Abesadze,
The work gives characteristics of weaving looms with flexible foil and kinematic scheme of its preparation. We have researched the driving peculiarities of high density weft yarn, including fashion yarn, also conditions of convolutions of the fashion yarn from two different types of weft bobbins. Recommendations for using “rocket” shaped bobbins for weaving is given.
The possibility of obtaining knitted fabric for technical purposes on the loom with a shutdown press is discussed. Six variants of knitted fabrics have been developed which differ from one another in thread laying and applied raw materials. The pieces of knitted fabric have been studied for the following parameters: longitudinal and transverse breaking tension, durability, hygroscopic property, air permeability. The cotton-yarn knitted samples are characterized of high hygienic properties – high hygroscopic property and air permeability, but have very law durability. But the stretch-thread knitted samples are characterized of high physical and mechanical properties and low hygienic parameters. The cotton-yarn knitted variants combined with stretch thread have been found to possess the best properties of both raw materials. It is shown that for knitting fabric for technical purposes is expedient to use combination of cotton yarn and stretch thread.
6.C6.22. Research of the process of yarn winding on ÁÄ-200 and ÏÊ-100 spinning machines. /O. Purtskhvanidze, T. Uriadmkopeli, M. Gurgenidze/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 120-123. – rus., res.: geo., rus., eng.
The article deals which research of a mathematical model of the yarn winding process with the help of first-order differential equation of drawing of a uniform and perfectly elastic product. The formula, worked out as a result of the research, defines the product drawing on the machine; the process of yarn winding is followed by the first-order drawing.
6.C6.23. Research of balloon parameters during the winding of twist yarn from cylindrical bobbins of the PK-100 machine. /O. Purtskhvanidze, T. Uriadmkopeli, M. Gurgenidze/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 124-128. – rus., res.: geo., rus., eng.
The article deals with variation of the balloon parameters during rewinding of yarn from the cylindrical bobbin of the PK-100 spinning and twisting machine. Cotton yarn of 15, 4 text×2, 178, 5 text×2 and 37 text×2 has been used in the full-scale experiment. Four types of variable winding speed have been selected for each yarn: 10; 13,3; 16,6 and 20 m/second. Strain-gage recording, study of the balloon shape variations across the different diameters of the bobbin, and other processes were carried out during the experiment. As a result, the balloon parameters during winding of the twist cotton yarn on the PK-100 machine have been experimentally determined. The theoretical and experimental dependences of the thread tension have been compared.
6.C6.24. Research of an analytical method of conditions of manufacture of an accidental bed of rotor yarn in the course of twisting. /M. Gogoladze, Z. Maglaferidze/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 129-133. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.
For reducing a share of blanket fibers of a rotor yarn, it is necessary that the yarn rigidity during twisting be increased. Although, it not so efficient and insignificantly influences the yarn durability.
The paraffining of the pneumomechanical yearn leads to a reduction of durability parameters, with the concurrent reduction of the yarn hairiness. In order to increase the number of fibers in the cross section and preserve elasticity, fibers of low linear density are used. This has a positive effect on the yarn quality, increasing its durability and reducing irregularity along the linear density.
article deals with food safety problems and the current state of the agricultural
products market functioning in
The optimal values of parameters of dry tea selective breaking are experimentally grounded. A roller tea breaking machine has been designed as a laboratory device, which makes it possible to change the operating factors in the given intervals. The criterion determining technological efficiency of separation of a two-component blend in two fractions is accepted as a criterion for estimating the experiments, the extreme value of which is being found by using the simplex method. As a result, it is concluded that the highly effective selective breaking of dry tea is achieved under conditions of the minimum values of the rollers’ diameter of the breaking machine and low solidity of its elastic surface.
The utilization of wine production waste in the rum-making technology is a rather important subject and presents a technology novelty. A new strain of yeast and was used and the sugar-cane raw material was fermented with wine production waste, in particular the grape seeds and skins. Hence it means that the endogenic alcoholic yeasts have been substituted with natural yeasts of the endogenic wine. The wine aroma and flavor can easily be perceived in the drink so made.
Concentration of extracts by reverse osmosis in the production of non-alcoholic
Rukhadze, R. Lomaia, A. Aptsiauri,
The work deals with the possibility of concentration of vegetable extracts (eleuterococcus, St.-John's wort, and liquorice) by means of a reverse osmosis. Technological processes of the preparation of extractive and flavor components of the non-alcohol drink are described. The osmotic pressures of vegetable extracts and regime parameters of the processes of concentration by reverse osmosis are determined.
6.C7.5. Technology of a new kind of vegetable aromatizer remedy and bioproduct from the feijoa fruit (Feijoa sellowiana Berg). /G.Ghvaladze/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 90-95. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.
The feijoa fruits are rich in essential oil, iodine microelements and pectin. The feijoa fruits are characterized by high flavouring qualities, taste of exotic banana and pineapple aroma. Proceeding from this, the technology of production of a new aromatizer by using the feijoa fruits, known as “feijoa” and “feialcol” has been worked out. The aromatizer is used in the production of various products, including alcoholic drinks, new kinds of liqueur, fruit drinks, wines, etc. In addition, the feijoa fruits were used to make a new biopreparation, which contains iodine microelements and can treat the thyroid gland dysfunctions and the concomitant pathologies. The proposed product has good prospects for introduction in the food and pharmaceutical industry with the resulting social and economic effect.
The work considers the convective and microvawe drying of the grape processing waste – husks of various white grapes. The microvawe drying has been found to considerably increase the drying speed and reduce its duration by 3-4 times.
6.C7.7. A new range of cookies using the
secondary grape processing products. /G. Khetsuriani, E.
The main tendency of contemporary confectionary industry is wide application of natural ingredients and orientation to the concept of healthy diet. A dry white powder is produced from the blend of squeezed skins of various white sorts of grapes to be added to the reference formulas of ship’s biscuit and cracker in the amount of 5, 10, and 15% of the flour weight. The reference samples are made in compliance with the traditional technology. An analysis of the half-finished and finished products has shown that the optimum quantity of the added powder is 10%. The obtained product is in full compliance with the relevant standards.
6.C7.8. Storage of finished tea under conditions of reduced atmospheric pressure in the presence of inert gas. /K. Kintsurashvili, R. Melkadze/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 241-245. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.
The storage of finished black tea under conditions of the reduced atmospheric pressure and in the presence of an inert gas (nitrogen) is investigated. It is shown that during 12 months, the quality indicators of the test tea remain unchanged, whereas under ordinary storage conditions the tea quality worsens by 1-2 categories. The obtained results allow considering of the proposed method of tea storage as an effective and secure means of preserving the initial chemical and quality indicators of the product.
of optimum parameters of three-rod truss. /B. Gvasalia, D.
Jankarashvili, T. Sherazadishvili/. Transactions of
A mathematical model of a three-rod truss is determined. A problem of optimal selection and design of sections of a three-rod truss is set to minimize the truss weight and to comply with the requirements to rod durability, hardness and stability the truss. A set of applied programs using the random search algorithm for searching for the global extremum has been developed.
Testing of a reinforced concrete construction element for bending, vibration
and identification of its initial rigidity. /I. Kvaraia,
The development of modem computer technologies allows controlling the constructions in an uninterrupted automatic regime. This requires that the information on test results is to be obtained through the existing converters and transformed in a form that is easy to process. Therefore, during any test, it is necessary that, first of all, the test parameters be identified and the methodology for their identification selected. In order to identify the parameters in their entirety, which are important at any stage of the strained deformed state of bending reinforced concrete constructions, a simple methodology has been developed. In addition, the initial dynamic and static rigidities have been established and compared with the theoretical value of the rigidity.
Deformation of light concrete at cyclic pressing tension.
Questions of formation of the architectural environment and interior of family
hotels in high mountainous
The role of tourism as one of the leading directions in terms of socio-economic development in the 21st century world economy is considered. Tourism is an important source of economic wellbeing and the creation of a competitive network of family hotels in the resort areas of Georgian is a priority task. Pshav-Khevsureti – the most scenic and original region, located on a complex mountainous natural landscape and rich in architectural and historical monuments, represents the most promising region for the purpose. The article deals with the urgency, objectives, problems, the ways of their handling, as well as the outcomes of familiarization with and analysis of the tourist–recreational resources of the region and their implementation for developing specific planning proposals and recommendations on the construction in the region of appropriate family hotels and adapt the available housing for the purpose.
6.C8.5. Determination of factors influencing operation regimes of machines and their importance for fracturing asphalt-concrete pavements. /M. Baratashvili/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #4. – pp. 57-62. - rus.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.
The necessity of determination of effective methods and specific operation regimes for machines designated for asphalt-concrete pavements regeneration is substantiated. The results of theoretical and experimental investigations of asphalt-concrete pavement cutting processes are considered and analyzed. The nature of basic factors influencing the cutting process of paving materials is defined The substantiation of specific geometrical properties of the cutting elements and values of indices, such as warming-up optimal temperature and speed of cutting of asphalt-concrete pavements, obtained on the base of analysis of the concrete experimental investigations, are given. The specific mathematical dependences for determination of operation regimes of machines repairing the road pavements are given. The dependence of stress value calculation directed to the cutting element of the machine’s operating unit is given together with the specific values of basic calculating parameters conditioning the loads on the machine’s operating units.
The New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) is widely used in construction of underground structures. The article considers in detail the advantages of this method and the examples of its application in many countries of the world.
conditions of modern market economy, the creation of the investment environment
and its provision with labor and material resources in the construction sector are
managed by qualified staff having obtained the knowledge in the spheres of
construction economy, marketing and management. The local building and
developing companies lack qualified personnel in this respect, which greatly
affects their financial standing and goodwill. The authors think it necessary
6.C8.8. Peculiarities of foundation, computer
simulation and design of drinking water
reservoirs in Salibauri. /J. Gigineishvili,
The article deals with the results of a comprehensive study carried out by means of the up-to-date hardware and software facilities necessary for reliable foundation and construction of buildings and structures under conditions of complicated geological and hydrogeological conditions, given the static and seismic loads. To analyze the mode of deformation and stability of the slopes and the reservoir, different software has been applied, including the software complex LIRA 9.4.
A new approach to the analysis of continuous beams by force method is given, which consists in the application of image patterns in determining coefficients of canonical equations set and free terms of the method.
6.C8.10. Preparation of inexpensive concrete using ground limestone. /G. Baliashvili, L. Gurgenidze, N. Gureshidze, A. Meburishvili, R. Samadashvili/. Building. – 2010. - #1. - pp. 30-35. – geo.; res.: geo., rus., eng.
The efficiency of using ground limestone in the preparation of concrete is discussed. By adding ground dolomitic limestone (from Tskaltubo), the strength of concrete increases by 40%. The use of the same material instead of quartz sand increases the strength of concrete by 50%, reducing the cost of 1 cu m of concrete decrease by GEL 8-10.
The article deals
with the necessity of the conduct of reconstruction and planning work in the
General tendencies of generation and development of Georgian orthodox, religious cross-domelike architectural monuments from the 4th to the 13th century inclusive are reviewed in the article. The main stages of Georgian architecture development, beginning from the architectural construction art of the early Christian period and ending with the Middle Ages monuments are presented. Also presented are the creative regularities worked out in the architecture by the use of which the composite structure of Georgian national monuments was formulated. The accumulated creative experience was transferred from generation to generation serving as the basis for the Georgian-national architectural-artistic unity and for creating diversity in this unity.
The possibilities of using the zeolitic tuff located in Kaspi district as a building material are investigated. The tuff has been found to posses perfect heat-insolating properties.
6.C8.14. Specification of probable zones of damaging factors for the purpose of ensuring the security of oil terminals. /M. Tsikarishvili, G. Eragia/. Building. – 2010. - #1. - pp. 69-74. – geo.; res.: geo., rus., eng.
The emergencies having taken place in oil terminals within the last decades are reviewed and analyzed with the specification of the probable zones of damaging factors.
During many years,
the night-time illumination has assumed an important function, given that urban
life remains to be active in the evening and night hours as well. The
full-value night-illumination of the city requires the creation of
comprehensive and many-sided systems. The constituent elements of these systems
have of a special influence on the people and hence the study of this sphere
acquires a special importance in the formation of the city’ artistic appearance.
The issues of nigh-illumination history of the City of
6.C9.1. Genetic peculiarities of splitting of separate signs of the tea plant depending on the action of anthropogenic factors. /D. Baratashvili/. Khandzta. – #2(7). – pp. 118-121. – geo.;res.: eng., rus.
The genetic peculiarities of splitting some signs of the tea plant natural mutant forms in M2, depending on the pollution of the ecological zone by the ionizing radiation and heavy metals are considered. It is shown that the inheritance of the tea plant separate mutant signs depends on the ecological zone of cultivation.
The problems of promotion on the part of the state of the production of hazelnut crop in West Georgia, one of the most priority directions in the country’s agriculture, as well as the species composition of the crop are considered.
6.C9.3. The tea leaf P factor activity depending on the leaf age and sort of sprouts. /M. Imnaishvili, A. Kipiani, N. Oragvelidze/. Khandzta. – #2(7). – pp. 131-133. – geo.;res.: eng., rus.
The tea leaf phenol compounds are studied as a quantitative indicator of the vitaminous activity change, depending on the leaf age, sort and softness of the sprouts. It is shown that the high vitaminous activity is observed in the beginning and middle of the season, especially in the green tea made from the upper 1-2 leaf soft sprouts.
Silk is a natural fiber characterized by the best consumer properties. In spite of this, the silk has failed to hold its worthy place in knitting industry. The goal of this work is to define the reasons that hinder the application of silk in the manufacture of knitwork. For this purpose, the sericulture development and cocoon processing history is surveyed.
On the basis of experiments and observations conducted in Batumi Botanical Garden, the agro-ecological rules and norms (place selection, planting, soil fertilization, scraping, etc.), which are necessary for shaping rose bushes and cutting roses for rose bouquets have been developed.
The organizational structure of the forest management before and after its reforming is considered. Both positive and negative aspects of the new management structure are discussed. It is pointed out that the new organizational structure of the Georgian forestry management does not meet the requirements to forest sector under the present market economy conditions.
The beech begins good seed production at the age of 50-60 years and produces seeds once in 3-5 years periodically. The beech seed production sharply differs in even-aged and all-aged stands. In an even-aged stand, according to the Kraft’s classification, only trees of a high class produce seeds. Unlike the even-aged stand, in an all-aged stand, the trees of the first- and second-age generations produce seeds, while the trees of the third-age generation do not participate in the process. Both in the first and in the second case, thanks to selective cutting of crowns and the creation of favorable conditions of illumination, according to the Kraft, the trees of the third-fourth class of the even-aged stand, and the trees of the third generation - in the all-aged stand start to produce seeds. According to the Kraft’s classification, the best seed production is characteristic of the trees of the second class and the second-age generation.
dates back to the 6th B.C. Some regions of
6.C9.9. The effect of precursors and varietal
origin on winter wheat grain quality. /G. Bolgashvili/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of
The varietal origin and precursors are very important to secure the winter wheat grain quality. In the scientific-production experimental stations of the Georgian Farming Institute (Magharo, Ulianovka, Shiraki), the effects of the varietal origin and precursors on the winter wheat grain quality were studied.
6.C9.10. To sow
annual and perennial grasses. /V. Rukhadze, K. Popkhadze, K.
grasses are very important during crop-rotation. They are able to restore soil
productivity and improve its physical and chemical properties. We can restore
soil structure by sowing a mixture of perennial legume and cereal grasses. Therefore,
the right selection of perennial grasses is very important under diverse
natural conditions of
soil productivity by modern agrobiological technologies. /N.
Bendianishvili, V. Rukhadze, K. Popkhadze, K. Koranashvili, E. Razmadze, J.
Saralidze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of
The restoration of soil productivity is possible only by using a mixture of perennial legumes and cereal grasses with filamentous roots and rare bushes. The ratio of components and soil cultivation technologies must be chosen correctly.
6.C9.12. Study of the
production of high yield of green and seed material of alfalfa by a simplified
technique under irrigated conditions of Shida Kartli. /Q.
Popkhadze, T. Akhaladze, N. Bendianisvili,
At present, alfalfa is cultivated using deep and repeated tillage before sowing, which is connected with high expenses. The authors have set a goal to work out a simplified technique for producing alfalfa hay and seeds under irrigated conditions of Shida Kartli. Based on the three-year study results, its has been found that a high yield of alfalfa can be achieved without the pre-sowing cultivation through direct sowing in the disk-tilled or rotary tilled soil.
6.C9.13. Alfalfa-ryegrass mixture cultivation technology with minimum tillage under dryland conditions of Shua (Inner) Kartli. /K. Popkhadze, T. Akhaladze A. Devidze, N. Bendianashvil/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 28 -31. – geo., res.: rus., eng.
The experiment was carried out in 2001-2005 on non-irrigated meadow-cinnamon soils of the research institute’s experimental station. The early spring sowing of an alfalfa-ryegrass mixture on the said soils with minimal tillage produced a full-value sprouting and high crop of green material. The preceding crops were wheat, kidney beans and maize. As a result of two mowing a year on the minimally tilled beans stubble field, 13.3 t\ha of green material was produced. The method is rather cost-effective.
6.C9.14. The effect of
mineral fertilizers on the productivity of winter wheat variety “Koper” on
meadow brown soils in long-term experiments. /K. Koranashvili, B.
Rukhadze, Q. Fofkhadze, N. Devdariani, N. Bendianishvili/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of
long-term trials, given the right crop rotation system and optimal fertilizer rates,
the application of
coefficient of utilization of primary nutrient elements by haricot bean, maize
and winter wheat from the soil and applied fertilizers. /K.
Koranashvili, V. Rukhadze, K. Popkhadze,
N. Bendianishvili. N. Modzgvrishvili/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of
The coefficient of utilization of nutrient elements by haricot bean, maize and winter wheat from the soil and applied fertilizer on the meadow brown soils rich in potassium after application of the potash fertilizer has grouped as follows: N>P>K; N>P. With an increase in the fertilizer rate, the coefficient of utilization of nutrient elements (nitrogen and phosphorus) from the soil and the applied fertilizer decreases; the potassium utilization coefficient from the ground equals 5.9% for maize, 2.2% for winter wheat, and 1.4% for haricot bean.
oat-mixed vetch and pure-sown vetch in grass arable rotation and under
conditions of sowing in succession in the
In order to perfect the cultivation of an intermediary oat-mixed vetch and pure-sown vetch, experiments were held and are being at the Ajameti experimental station. The intermediary oat-mixed vetch and pure-sown vetch may be cultivated in the late autumn, when the crop area is comparatively vacant. The role of intermediary crops in intensive farming is very important and is a source of extra harvest during the year.
6.C9.17. The yield
capacity of haricot bean varieties and their suitability as a winter wheat
precursor in the wheat-growing regions of
The work deals with the results of a study carried out at the Kakheti-based experimental station of the Georgian Farming Institute to investigate the yield capacity of haricot bean varieties and the possibility of their use as a winter wheat precursor. Presented are the high-yielding haricot bean varieties and the amount of organic remains in the soil together with nutrient elements according to the varieties, as well as the study results concerning the early-ripening varieties that ensure the accumulation of soil moisture and high yield of the winter wheat harvest.
variety-dependent symbiotic activity of haricot bean in the cereals-groeing
The work deals with the 2007-2008 study results concerning the symbiotic activity of haricot bean varieties species carried out at the Kakheti-based experimental station. The symbiotic activity variation is presented according to the haricot bean varieties and the phases of their growth and development. The best haricot bean varieties (Jvari, Porumbitsa, Mukhranela, etc.) and the phases of their growth and development are identified and other. On display there are also those growing periods (flowering, fill of grain) that under conditions of the zone provide for the highly active symbiotic potential and intensive accumulation of molecular nitrogen in the soil.
cultivation under conditions of Gare (Outer) Kakheti. /D.
Kusikashvili, G. Bolgashvili/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of
The experiments conducted at the Magharo-based experimental station in 1993-1996 have demonstrated that a relatively higher yield of buckwheat (by 1.0 and 1.7 c/ha, respectively) is achieved in case the inter-row sowing, with the recommended sowing density of 2-3 million seeds/ha when the inter-row space makes 45 cm, and 3 million seeds/ha, when the inter-row space is 30 cm. The study results can be introduced in Sighnaghi, Dedoplistskaro, Sagarejo, Gurjaani and other Georgian districts with similar soil and climatic conditions.
6.C9.20. Production of ecologically safe tomatoes by green manuring under conditions of Mukhrani-Saguramo plain. /A. Saralidze, L. Nozadze, Ts. Bichiashvili, N. Chobadze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 59- 61. – geo., res.: rus., eng.
Against the background of application of an organic fertilizer and green manuring, the plowing down of vetch into soil significantly increases the quantity of hydrolysable nitrogen, labile phosphorus and exchangeable potassium. The high yield of tomatoes in the trial variants 1, 2, 8 and 9 sharply increased the taking up of nutrient elements and their washout from the soil. In the case of green manuring, the amount of nitrate nitrogen in tomatoes decreases, making about 36.0-104.0 mg/kg according to the trial variants.
6.C9.21. Production of virus free seed potato in the Georgian lowland. /L. Nozadze, Ts. Bichiashvili, T. Tavadze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 61- 63. – geo., res.: rus., eng.
to the conducted research, preference is given to the virus free seed material
of the Felicitas potato variety. The variety is early ripening; tubers sprout in
two weeks and can produce two harvests during one vegetation period. The harvest is almost virus free. The production
technique can be introduced almost on the whole irrigated lowland area of
Georgia up to 400-
6.C9.22. Perfection and specification of cultivation of dill (Anethum graveolens) in Imereti lowland. /N. Chaganava, N. Nishnianidze, N. Chkhobadze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 64- 66. – geo., res.: rus., eng.
The work deals with the results of an experiment on the perfection and specification of dill cultivation carried out at the Tskaltubo-based experimental station. The experiment was conducted on clay alluvial soils, where the maternal rock was sandstone. To produce seed material, the sowing is recommended to be made in the early spring – before the first of April. A double-row band sowing is preferable. The distances shall be: 60 cm between strips, 30 cm between rows, and 10-15 cm between plants.
6.C9.23. The role of mineral fertilizers in white head cabbage productivity raising. /N. Chaganava, N. Nishnianidze, N. Chkhobadze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 67- 69. – geo., res.: rus., eng.
The experiments held at the Tskaltubo-based experimental station have demonstrated the following: (1) the obtaining of a high yield of white head cabbage on average-yielding alluvial soils of Imereti lowland requires the application of the NPK mineral fertilizers; (2) the optimum mineral fertilizer rates for the early-season white heed cabbage variety “Kharisgula” are N120P120K60 kg/ha; (3) the optimal mineral fertilizer rates for the mid-ripening “Braunschweig Goruli” variety of the white cabbage are N150P120K60 kg/ha; (4) in the case of both varieties, the full rate of phosphorous and potash fertilizers must be applied during the main soil cultivation, whereas nitrogenous fertilizers should be applied fractionally: 1/3 - before planting, 1/3 - at the first feeding the second feeding.
6.C9.24. Study of the effect of intercropping on the yield capacity of tomatoes. /N. Nishnianidze, N. Chaganava, N. Chkhobadze/.Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 70-73. – geo., res.: rus., eng.
Taking into account the current deficiency of organic fertilizers in the country, the study’s aim was to apply local organic fertilizers, or green manure, together with mineral fertilizers to obtain a high yield of tomatoes under the lowland Imereti conditions. The best results are obtained in the trial variant where the green material of the oat-mixed vetch experiment is plowed under as a green manure. The average yield of tomatoes in the given variant totaled 238 c/ha, outyielding the check variant by 68.9 c/ha, or 40%.
biological, economic and biochemical indicators of F2 generation eggplant. /Z.
Sapatov. E. Motiashvili, Z. Liparteliani/.
Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of
It is experimentally shown that earlier hybrids are mostly obtained in the hybrid combinations, where early parental forms participate in breeding. If one parent in the combination is early and another one mid-early, most hybrids will be earlier than their parents. The high-yielding hybrids are obtained from that combination where the mother form outperforms the father form in yielding.
chickpea sowing dates and their effect on chickpea grain yield. /P.
Vacheishvili, L. Kirikashvili/. Scientific Works of
I. Lomouri Farming Institute of
The article considers the 2006-2007 results of a study of chickpea sowing dates. According to the results, the best sowing date for 10 varieties can be considered the pre-winter sowing, from the second half of November to the first half of March.
presents the results of a study concerning edible mushrooms and attempts of
artificial cultivation of the introduced and local mushrooms in
6.C9.28. The effect of the bacterial-organic-mineral fertilizer BOMS upon the kernel yield and quality of the maize variety “Kartuli Krugi” and soil fertility under irrigation conditions of Samgori Plain. /L. Sakhvadze, G. Jamburia, A. Tkeshelashvili, L. Chachava, N. Devdariani, T. Ghlonti/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of Georgia. – 2009. – XXXXVI – pp. 82-84. – geo., res.: rus., eng.
The effect of the bacterial-organic-mineral fertilizer BOMS on the maize variety “Kartuli Krugi” is discussed. The economic indicators concerning the advantages of the BOMS against mineral fertilizers are given.
6.C9.29. New germplasm
obtained by crossing a mutant form of the wheat variety “Lagodekhi
Long-stalked” with “Makha”. /P. Naskhidashvili, G. Ckhutiashvili, M.
Chokheli, G. Khutsishvili,
The hybrid forms produced by crossing mutant forms of the variety “Lagodekhis Long-stalked” with the old Georgian variety “Makha” represent valuable germplasm and are kept in the institute’s gene bank. The germplasm can be used in breeding new crop-intensive wheat varieties.
6.C9.30. The results
of genetic and selection study of Georgian maize varieties. /O.
Liparteliani, G. Jamburia, A. Tavadze, F. Begoidze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of
deals with the results of a long-term genetic and selection study of 246
varieties and populations in all the wheat regions of
6.C9.31. Breeding of
high-yielding hybrids of barley. /Z. Saralidze, L. Kirikashvili, N. Lominadze, N. Sokhashvili/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of
The correlation of productivity elements in the barley hybrids obtained has a positive character.
6.C9.32. Study of new
early-season and mid-early-season maize hybrids. /M. Tusiashvili,
L.Kirikashvili, A. Mumladze, T. Kodua, T. Tavadze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of
presents the results of developing and testing of early-season and
mid-early-season high-yielding hybrids with positive economic properties. The experimental
hybrids have been developed based on new self-pollinated lines from the hybrids
forms of haricot bean chosen from collection nurseries. /T. Kodua,
L. Kirikashvili, Z. Saralidze,
bean is widely spread in
deals with lentil as a high-protein legume crop, its food and agrotechnical
significance. The work on the selection of lentil has been in progress at Mtskheta
breeding station of the Georgian Farming Institute since 1998 based on the
selection material received from the
6.C9.35. Hybrid maize
seed breeding and improvement in
To obtain high yield and quality seed per hectare, the following maize hybrids have been developed: Ulevi, Kvirila, Modinakhe and Mtskheta-2004. As the maternal forms were used the high-yielding single-cross hybrids Enguri - (B73XMo17), Tserovani 1 - (B73XMo17-2426), Tserovani 2 - (B73-1161XMo17-2426). The paternal forms were Abashuri Kviteli, Geguturi Kviteli and Kartuli Krugi. All the four hybrids are high yielders, producing 8-10 ton/ha. It is possible to receive 5-6 tons of F1 seeds per 1 hectare.
production of bulb onion “Pink
The sampling technique and seed production of a new bulb onion variety “Pink-32” are considered and its biological and economic traits are studied.
6.C9.37. Virus-free potato
seed production and obtaining of stress resistant forms. /F.
Bakradze, A. Zubiashvili, R.
Microclonal propagation of potato plants in vitro has shown that stress conditions, when the day length reduces by 50% and light intensity - by 33.4%, provoke accelerated transfer of clones to the formation of micro-tubers without vegetation. In spite of the restricting factors, the resistant forms managed to completely reconstruct plants and started forming micro-tubers in test-tubes. This method enables to find the stress-resistant forms in a short period of time.
conservation, documentation and use of genetic resources of grain (dry) and
green common bean. /N. Kakabadze/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of
bean species being cultivated in
conservation, documentation and utilization of plant genetic resources. /A. Gulbani, M. Chokheli, T. Akhaladze, A. Devidze, T. Koshadze/. Scientific Works of
I. Lomouri Farming Institute of
6.C9.40. Grain yield
and gluten content in wheat forms selected from international nurseries. /.G.
Chkhutiashvili, M. Barisashvili, B. Tsereteli/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of
The work deals with the wheat accessions from international nurseries distinguished by the content of gluten and grain yield.
6.C9.41. Wet gluten
and yield indices of winter wheat. /M. Barisashvili, B.
Tsereteli/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of
The winter wheat gluten and yield indices are given in the article. According to the study data, the studied wheat varieties do not differ much by these indices.
study of new wheat endemic varieties. /N. Sulamanidze, G.
Chkutiashvili, M. Chokheli/. Scientific Works of
I. Lomouri Farming Institute of
The Georgian endemic wheat varieties are noted for high immunity to the diseases widely spread in the country. The immunity of endemic varieties is conditioned by their content of disease-resistant genes, which enables their active inclusion into the existing breeding programs.
study of eggplant selection material. /N. Sulamanidze, E.
Motiashvili, Z. Liparteliani, N. Modzgvrishvili, M. Girsiashvili/. Scientific Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of
During the last (2007-2008) years, the following eggplant diseases have been widely spread: Phomopsis blight, Alternaria blight, Werticillium wilt, etc. The conducted immunologic studied have shown that the accessions 31 and 37 from the eggplant collection nursery are resistant to the above-mentioned bacterial diseases. The accessions GarX18 and OiX30 from the variety trial on a farm scale are characterized by both high productivity and resistance to bacterial diseases.
research carried out in
study of new inbred maize lines. /N. Zhvania, L. Kirikashvili, K.
Niauri, T. Tavadze, M. Berishvili/. Scientific
Works of I. Lomouri Farming Institute of
The immunologic study of new inbred maize lines conducted in 2007-2008 revealed prevalence of such fungal diseases as helmintosporiosis and corn smut. The corn borer (Pyrausta nubilalis) is one of the greatest potential insect enemies of the maize crop. As a result of the study, the lines with high and medium resistance to the above diseases and pests and susceptible genotypes have been revealed. The promising lines will be used in the breeding of new high-yielding resistant hybrids.
evaluation of maize lines developed from the local variety “Abashuri Kviteli”. /N.
Zhvania, K. Niauri, T. Kodua, L. Kirikashvili,
Resistance to the deceases and pests is one of the most important qualities of plants. The immunologic evaluation carried out in 2007-2008 revealed some promising maize lines with complex resistance to diseases and pests.
proved that for enhancement of yield capacity of agricultural crops and
stock–breeding products the main reserve is the stopping of wind erosion and
decrement of draught effects by means of agro-reclamation methods. A diversity
of natural–economic characteristics of
6.C9.48. The changeability of teaflavines and
tearubigines in the production of Georgian black tea. /R.
Melkadze, R. Melkadze-Jurchadze,
The accumulation and changeability character of black tea “pigments” – teaflavines and tearubigines are studied during the fermentation process. The primary dependence of relative teaflavines/tearubigines on the manufactured black tea semiproduct has been established, making 1:(8,38-8,87) for the first-roll fraction 1:(7,90-8,04) for the third-roll fraction. This can be recommended as a supplement to organoleptic methods of black tea tasting.
6.C9.49. The effect of planting sweet bay
planting stock on the permanent place on its growth and development under
conditions of Imeteri (
The bay laurel cultivation is one of the oldest fields of Georgian agriculture. The planting of bay planting stock is carried out according to several methods: rootball planting; bare-root slush planting. All these processes affect the growth and development and of bay laurel.
The article deals
with the rehabilitation of bay plantations that tend to be thin under conditions
The article deals
with the socio-economic aspects in connection with the infrastructure
rehabilitation of land-reclamation systems in
In case a water-pipe fails, water supply to consumers can be secured through the arrangement of switchovers between water-supply lines. The switchover effect will be different depending on the water supply duty (under constant or live pressure). The article informs how to estimate the given effect depending on necessary costs and the number of switchovers upon the water-pipe fault.
6.C11.1. Economic and mathematical model of the sustainable use of a landscape as of a tourist recreational resource. /B. Barkalaia/.Transactions of Technical University of Georgia. - 2009. - #1(471). – pp. 101-103. – geo.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.
The economic and mathematical model of the sustainable use of a landscape as of a tourist recreational resource is considered, where the main emphasis is made on long-term use of this resource under conditions of stable economic gain.
Local climatic conditions should be taken into account
when planning a number of economic branches. Especially important is to study climatic
factors for the sectors susceptible to climate change, such, for example, as
tourism and ecology. The work considers the principal climatic factors, in
particular the air temperature and precipitation in the
6.C11.3. Proposals on regulation of the export-import regime and free trade between Georgia and EU. /G. Doghonadze/. Agrarian-economic Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #3. - pp. 26-30. – geo.; res.: eng.
The development of
Tourism is the priority branch of the national economy development. Based on the above, the following tourist products can be offered: a package of adventure tours; cultural tours, religious and pilgrimage tours; winter sport tours; hunting and fishing tours. As to the sale of a tourist product, travel companies can do it themselves or through tourist agencies or trade networks. To introduce a new product on the market and to revive demand therefore, various motivation tools are applied. These tools can be directed to the company personnel, trade agents and clients. The motivation will condition increased sales and, therefore, increased revenues of travel companies.
6.C11.5. A perspective design of a recreational
complex "Dolphin" for population and tourists. /A.
Prangishvili, Z. Tsikhelashvili, T. Batsikadze, T.
A perspective design
of a recreational complex "Dolphin" for population and tourists is
proposed. It is to be constructed on floating coast-protecting structures. The design
is recommended for application in the corresponding innovation projects both in
The main attention in the work is given to horizontal vibrations acting on the driver’s seat. Also given are the transfer ratios from the truck frame to the cabin and the spectral distribution of accelerations on the driver’s seat. Over-the-road tests evidenced that the horizontal loads are less dependent upon speed fluctuations (constituting approximately 3–5%) and make 60–80% of the vertical fluctuations. The rate of loads in the longitudinal direction is 20–25% less for the experimental suspension compared with the commercially made one, and the transfer ratio is improved by 18–23%. The vertical load acting on the driver’s seat is especially disturbing in the 1,5–2,5 Hz frequency span. The rate of spectral distribution in the longitudinal direction is 16–20% less for the experimental embodiment as compared with the commercially made one in the 1,5–2,5 Hz frequency span, and makes 26-50% in the 4-6 Hz frequency span. In the high frequency span, the difference is insignificant.
The work presents a test-bench design for determining the pneumatic tire-ground interaction and the bench testing methods. The test-bench design enables investigation of the roadability parameters of the oscillating and non-oscillating tires upon rolling in the dirty road track in both the driving and driven modes. For this purpose, an inertia vibrator of rotations is used in the wheel fixing device of the test-bench, which ensures the wheel’s sinusoidal vibration of different frequency and amplitude during its rolling on the ground surface. To assess the impact of vertical vibrations of different frequency and amplitude on the coefficient of resistance to the wheel rolling, the so-called relative characteristic is introduced. It represents a ratio of rolling resistance coefficients being determined for the cases of switched-on and switched-off vibrators under identical test conditions.
6.C12.3. Geostrategic factors of combined service development. /P. Kenkadze, L. Lomsadze, Z. Goletiani, G. Gogmechadze, V. Beraia/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.67-69. geo., res.: eng., rus.
The conditions of functioning of modern combined
services against traditional traffic are discussed. The significance of geostrategic
factors for combined service in transport networks of
The current state of the Georgian railway network is analyzed and the necessity of its further development is justified. The basic directions of the Georgian Railway’s perspective development and the ways and methods of perfection of the transportation process on the Georgian Railway are proposed.
6.C12.5. Specifics of hydraulic calculation of hydraulic deposition tailing pond and dam distribution pipeline. /V. Silagadze, M. Jangidze/. Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #7-9. – pp.86-90. geo., res.: eng., rus.
The article concerns the issue of hydraulic calculation of hydraulic deposition (distribution) pipeline; the necessity of considering specification of movement in silting regime during determination of hydrodynamic parameters is proven; the methodological sequence of hydraulic calculation (distribution) of hydraulic deposition pipeline is presented.
The combustion process intensification in diesel engines with the chamber in the piston is connected first of all with the generation of an air charge at the inlet. Another modern trend is increasing a share of volumetric fuel mixing until full suppression of a film component. Comparative researches of various ways of the mix preparation process with air charge regulation made it possible to obtain full information on the possibilities of each combination of the applied compression chambers and fueling equipment.
6.C13.1. Our experience of surgical treatment of the abdominal wall obturator hernia. /V. Tedoradze, D. Menabde, A. Beridze, K. Kashibadze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #4. – pp. 62-64. - rus.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.
The treatment results of 378 patients with the obturator abdominal wall hernia of different localization are analyzed. Methods of alloplasty with the application of synthetic polypropylene mesh with the rational selection of anesthesiology, antibiotic therapy, adequate drainage, the degree of disease and the selection of patient according to concomitant diseases are characterized by the minimal number of postoperative complications. During operations with traditional methods, relapses occurred in seven cases (2.3%) and were not recorded in plasty with polypropylene mesh. Specific complications during plasty of local tissues occurred in 21 cases (6.5%), during alloplasty - in 4 cases (4.9%). Non-specific complications during autoplasty occurred in 9 cases (3.1%) cases, during alloplasty - in 2 cases (2.7%). The fatal outcome during traditional treatment was observed in 4 cases (1%) and was not recorded during alloplasty.
6.C13.2. The structural and functional organization of the somatosensory impulses’ travel from the superior limbs to brain structures. /R. Sakandelidze, A. Shalamberidze, T. Lomsianidze/. Georgian Scientific News. – 2009. - #2. – pp. 21-23. - rus.;res.: geo.,eng., rus.,
The work comes out with the suggestion about the functional importance of contralateral and ipsilateral somatosensory afferent projections of the superior limb and of the character of the participation of these projections in the compensatory-restoratory reorganization of the central nervous system upon injury of the musculocutaneous analyzer. The work results significantly supplement theoretical conceptions of the structural and functional organization of the somatosensory inpulses’ travel towards the central nervous system in general, and from the superior limb to the brain structures, in particular
6.C13.3. Endotheliocytes of
placenta at primary hypothyreosis and its subclinical form. /N. Lomitashvili/.
The placental endothelium at primary hypothyreosis has been studied by the method of light and electron microscopy, 10 cases in total. It was revealed that endothelial cells were mostly broken. Their forms are often changed, slots between cells, through which fibrocytes penetrate into deeper layers of placenta, appear; the forms of erythrocytes are changed, forming “sharp angles” in them; the structure of endotheliocytes changes, haemorrhage nuclei grow, mitochondria are mostly broken, and the capillary endoplasmic reticulum dominates.
health care industry in the
On the basis of tealeaf catechin complex and antocyanides of bilberry fruit, a natural antioxidant complex – adaptogenic vegetable preparation has been developed. The preparation, as a biologically active additive, is capable of improving the functional state of visual organs, of complex prophylaxis of eye diseases and twilight vision. Due to its antioxidant qualities, the preparation is highly effective in treating asthenopia, especially during regular work with computers.
The article deals with the role of iron in the human body functioning, provides the information about the iron-containing animal and plant products, describes the peculiarities of iron absorpation and transport, considers the role of iron activators and inhibitors in iron absorption efficiency.
The retraction thread/cord is widely used in dentistry for rapid and effective retraction of gums. The available knitting and woven threads may be impregnated with styptic mater. The untwisted yarn is formed at pasting of separate fibers as a result of interaction of binding substance with fibers.The structure of the untwisted yarn enable to apply them as the retraction thread. As researches have shown, fibers on all length are extended in parallel of the yarn axis to be located close to the product axis. Investigation of water adsorption and capillarity of untwisted yarn has shown that epinephrine absorption speed in the untwisted yarn is higher by 40% than in standard Gingi-Pak retraction threads.
6.C13.8. The role of fluorine in the development and prevention of caries in childhood. /I. Kldiashvili, T. Kutateladze, O. Asatiani/. Novation. – 2009. – #5 – pp. 144-147. – geo., res.: geo., rus., eng.
The factor for the
development of caries is a scarcity of fluoride ions. The human organism
obtains them through the drinking water. The standard is within 0,8-1,2
mg/l. The amount of fluoride ions in the drinking water in
A new generation of pesticides enables their safe use. However, some pesticide residua may affect the human health. Their existence in the organism is greatly dependent on the metabolic processes taking place in the environment. Most substances that create hydrophilic particles during metabolism are incapable of accumulation in the in human organism.
Dual inhibition of cholesterol synthesis and absorption by statins and
ezetimibe: a new approach to dyslipidemia treatment. /N.
Kipshidze, K. Nadaraia/. Bulletin of
In clinical practice, clinicians may not increase statin dose levels out of concern for potential adverse events or because titration of statin doses provides only limited additional effectiveness. Ezetimibe, a novel agent inhibiting cholesterol absorption, can be effectively and safely co-administered with any dose of any statin and, compared with the single inhibition of cholesterol production, afforded by statins alone, provides consistently greater reductions in LDL-C through dual inhibition of both cholesterol production and absorption. The aim of our study was to evaluate the additional effectiveness and safety of Ezetimibe in high risk patients with documented coronary heart disease who were not at goal with starting doses of a statin. The including criteria of 127 patients, enrolled in the study were the presence of established CHD plus type 2 diabetes of at least 3 months duration and/or other major risk factors, LDL-C > 100 mg/dl and < 250 mg/dl, high triglycerides (TG) ≥200 mg/dl and <400 mg/dl. Patients had to have been receiving therapy with a stable dose of baseline statin, either simvastatin 20 mg or atorvastatin 10 mg, for at least 4 weeks. At randomization, patients were assigned to switch to ezetimibe/atorvastatin 10mg/10mg (Gr. 1) or to continue baseline statin at double the dose: simvastatin 40mg or atorvastatin 20 mg (Gr. 2). After 12 week follow up analysis of the study showed that 72.6% of patients (45 from 62) in Gr. 1 achieved LDL-C < 100 mg/dl vs 27.7% of patients (18 from 65) in Gr. 2 (P<0.001). 29.0% of patients (18 from 62) from Gr. 1 reached More lower LDL-C goal of below 70 mg/dl vs 4.6% (3 from 65) of patients in Gr. 2 (P<0.01). Patients from Gr. 1 experienced an additional mean LDL-C reduction of 29.2% after 12 weeks vs 12.3% in Gr. 2 (P<0.001). No statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 treatment groups with respect to musculoskeletal or overall adverse experiences. Conclusions. According to our study we conclude that for high risk patients with CHD who did not achieve LDL-C goal on their starting dose of statin therapy, ezetimibe/atorvastatin combination provided superior lipid-lowering efficacy vs doubling the dose of the baseline statin after 12 weeks of study. Therapy with ezetimibe/atorvastatin was generally well tolerated. Dual inhibition of hepatic cholesterol synthesis and intestinal cholesterol absorption may be a new and practical approach to today’s treatment for dyslipidemia.
The dictionary reflects both the vocabulary of medical thought as well as the diversity of the contemporary scientific or practical subjects. Together with the medical issues, the dictionary describes the definitions and terms of molecular biology, genetics, medical parasitology, and main diseases of the bacterial, viral and other etiology. It explains up to 5,400 widespread notions, word combinations and terms, their etymology, providing, in some cases, their synonyms. In addition, the dictionary pays a special attention to biological peculiarities of some infectious agents.
of natural zeolites for medicinal purposes. /T. Andronikashvili,
K. Paghava, T. Kurashvili, L. Eprikashvili/. Bulletin of the
This paper discusses the effects of natural zeolites (particularly clinoptilolite-containing tuffs from various deposits) on the living organism, both animal and human. It is shown that natural zeolites are harmless, possess the metabolism-normalizing, bactericidal, immunostimulatory and antioxidative properties. They diminish mortality and morbidity with regard to many diseases and disorders affecting cattle, sheep and goats, swine and poultry. Hence, it is rational to utilize zeolites in animal husbandry. They are used successfully in the treatment of different human diseases. The zeolite efficacy in gastroenterology merits particular attention. It is established that zeolites can be used both in human and veterinary medicine as biologically active food additives (dietic additives), drugs, drug carriers, adjuvants in anticancer therapy and antimicrobial agents as well. The data fully substantiate the expediency of further research in terms of studying natural zeolites and their biological and medicinal effects.
cell protective manifestations in the organism interrelated with the nervous and immune systems /N. Khvitia,
E. Khvedelidze, Z. Topuria, S. Zurabashvili, B. Kochlamazashvili/. Bulletin of
Heterogeneous interest of blood corpuscles taking place in protective manifestations points to the existence of the immune centre in the cortex, the function of which is broken at the moment. The clinical material demonstrates that the protection of the immune system during oncological diseases takes place improperly, which conditions the patient’s state deterioration. Concurrently, the authors state that in any case cells can be found where the proper direction is seen. However, the number of such cells is insignificant. Hence, it may be concluded that the linkage of the immune and nervous systems is broken.
Aging and salt sensitivity. /G. Simonia,
Salt sensitivity was assessed in normotensive 48 young and 62 elderly males. Salt sensitivity was assessed by the difference of mean arterial pressure (MAP) on high (200 µmol Na/day) vs. low (40 µmol Na/day) sodium diet. Plasma rennin activity (PRA) was assessed during both diets. High salt diet led to significant increase in systolic blood pressure and MAP only in salt-sensitive subjects with peak levels in the elderly. Only salt-resistant subjects responded adequately during high salt diet by decrease in PRA which was significantly lower compared to basal levels. In salt-sensitive groups, especially in the elderly, PRA decreased to a lesser extent. Final clarification of mechanisms of salt-sensitivity in normotensive elderly calls for further investigations.
Based on an analysis of the experience of cooperatives of the developed countries in the world, the article discusses advantages and profitability of agricultural cooperatives. On the basis of individual examples, the co-op members’ obligations and responsibilities are established; the risk to be allocated among the co-op members in the course of their economic activity is analyzed; the technique of product purchase pricing in the process of calculation of the co-op members’ revenue is given by specific examples; a method of selection of the desirable option is analyzed and its advantages are substantiated.
A completely new mechanism (system) for agricultural risk appreciation and management has been worked out for the first time. It is based on specific risk factors and puts in order the entire risk setting, criteria selection, assessment and management process. The selected indicators help prove the reasonability of risking in the taking of any economic- organizational or technological measure, in the realization or any direction or activity in order to ensure a better economic effect.
The science-based handling of the set problem should contribute to the development of Georgian agriculture, specialization of agroproduction, effective use of the economic and technological environment and proper determination of scopes of farming activities, agricultural inputs and revenues. This is the current and future strategic task to be coped by the state. Given that a model ensuring the optimization and sustainable development of agricultural production based on the conservation of the industrial-resource potential and its implementation mechanism in the form of economic-organizational recommendations has not been worked out in Georgia, it is evident that studies in the matter are rather urgent and of great practical significance.
The article analyzes the role of organizational culture in the strategic management of an organization is considered. Definitions of corporate and organizational culture are given; an analysis of the organizational culture of enterprises from the former USSR up to now is done; a number of major functions implementable in respect of the organization of culture is determined, as well as components of the organizational culture.. The article considers the major elements of the modern conception of management, shows that the development of the strategic objectives of a company is necessary in order to be competitive and provides ways of their fulfillment.
6.D1.5 Entrepreneurial (economic) risk evaluation and management in farms. /O. Keshelashvili, J. Bazhunaishvili/. Agrarian-economic Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #4. - pp. 20-41. – geo.; res.: eng.
The entrepreneurial risk management should be carried out on a stage-by-stage basis. The following stages are of importance: risk analysis, risk control, risk management, and risk financing; The entire spectrum of risk (individual and social) importance is divided, according to the so-called “traffic light” principle, into three areas: the unacceptable risk area – “red” area; the acceptable risk area – “yellow” area; and the ignorable risk area – “green” area. Based on the conducted research and generalization of the data on farms, it may be concluded that the risk management mechanism in Georgian farms should be of a clear-cut hierarchic character in order to reduce the negative risk impact and where necessary to adjust it as a result of the implementation of the set activities.
One of the main tasks of the game theory is the determination of conflict situations and the type and degree of a conflict for the purpose of its further regulation and control. Based on this theory, one can investigate the decision-making process under conditions of interaction of the interests of the conflicting parties. The game theory is the most complex and promising applied science for studying the decision-making process and analyzing the economic behavior. The game theory has brought to the forefront new approaches, implying that the decision-making is directly connected the risk taking and management. It should be clearly stated that any decision should be made only on the basis of determination of the risk (economic risk) reasonability and profitability levels. Otherwise the decision-making will be unjustified and unprofitable.
6.D1.8. Risk management as a prerequisite of the sustainable development of the agrarian sector and its strategic programs. /O. Keshelashvili, J. Bazhunaishvili, E .Dzagania, M.Mechurchlishvili/. Agrarian-economic Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #3. - pp. 13-19. – geo.; res.: eng.
In managing risk in the agrarian sector, the subject can apply different tools. Depending on the application purposes and conditions, the following the three main groups of such tools can be distinguished: managerial decisions; private sector service/instruments; and state programs. These instruments can be used separately as well as in combination. To reduce risks in the management of agricultural enterprises, it is necessary that a correct, managerial decision is taken on the basis of the following factors: cost-benefit analysis, risk assessment, production marketing strategies (specialization, diversification, integration, stock management, making production and marketing contracts, development of the infrastructure, product quality/safety management, observing legal norms, etc.) It is underlined that the main instrument in the risk management and distribution is the ensuring by the state of an adequate degree of competition in any link of the “production, processing, distribution and consumption” chain.
6.D1.9. Simulation of the optimal and sustainable development of agriculture to ensure food safety/.O. Keshelashvili, M. Nikoleishvili/.Agrarian-economic Science and Technologies. – 2009. - #3. - pp. 20-25. – geo.; res.: eng.
The optimal and sustainable management of agriculture development processes requires that the agricultural production, the functionally associated with it food processing industry, the market demands, and export-imports issues be considered in the aggregate. The problem may be set as follows: the optimal reconstruction of the national agricultural production, coordination and specialization of its branches with account for the outlet markets and export-import volume, the population’s demands for safe farm produce and securing maximum revenues. The economic-mathematical model includes the criterion function and restrictions. The restrictions reflect the current economic conditions and possibilities in agriculture, while the maximum, profit, maximum output, maximum commodities, minimum expenses, etc. can be taken as the criterion.
Target marketing helps companies in more efficient running of business and better satisfaction of their customers’ demands for products they prefer. However, there are cases when potentially harmful products enter the undefended market segment.
6.D1.11. Organization of marketing activity of
a hauler on the transport service market. /T. Kochadze,
A market is a polysemantic concept comprising in addition to its economic content also the political, social and ethical issues. In other words, market is a method of society’s economic interrelations, whose main components include the individual’s rights, obligations and freedoms. The transport service market consists of three main elements: free production, free demand, and free service price-forming on the transport market. Disregard of any of these elements will mean the absence of a real transport market. It should be mentioned that the principal driving force of a civilized transport service market is competition among haulers (transport service companies) that prevails in two forms: price competition; and new technology competition. In order to be competitive, transport service companies should have a well-organized marketing service.
Increasing ecological compatibility of motor vehcles by the use of waste oils
as the new oils base. /J. Iosebidze, G. Abramishvili, T. Apakidze,
L. Zurabishvili, A. Chkheidze/. Transactions of
so-called waste oils of M-8B1 and M-8Ã2Ê brand are used as a base for new
automotive transmission oils, the utilization of which in
effect of knock characteristics of gasoline on ecological compatibility of an
automobile. /J. Iosebidze, G. Abramishvili, T. Apakidze, L.
Zurabishvili, A. Chkheidze/. Transactions of
The effect of the factors acting on the knock properties of gasoline (octane number, carbon monoxide formation, aromatic hydrocarbons, soluble gums, sulfur content, breakdown time, etc.) on the toxicity of waste gases of an automobile engine is analyzed; a conceptual dependence between these indicators and ecological safety of automobiles is established; it is proved that out of the indicators determining the anti-knock properties of gasoline, the octane number and the content of soluble gums and aromatic hydrocarbons signi